धर्म, जीवन व तत्त्वज्ञान

LIBERAL CHRISTIANITY IN EUROPE

Christianity and even Judaism were themselves in origin religious reform movements; and, like all such movements, were essentially liberal in the beginning. Moses was a Unitarian and so was Jesus and his nearest disciples. “During the first two centuries of the Christian era, the religious teachings of Jesus came into contact with the speculative thought of Alexandria and Greece, gradually a systematic dogma coiled itself round the primitive faith of Christians and an elaborate ritual fastened itself on the observances of public worship. The Trinitarian doctrine suggested by Tertallian (150-230) developed by Apollinaris (d390) and Augustine (354-430) became an established ecclesiastical creed by the edict of the council of Nicasa (325)”. Michael Servetus, born at Villanueva in Spain in 1511 was the first to emancipate religious thought from the crust of Christology thus accumulated through twelve centuries. His important work was a Book “Restoration of Christianity”. For this great service to humanity he had the great man’s reward, slow death on the pile of burning greed wood at Geneva on the 27th of October, 1563-Fausto Sazxing born at Siena, Tuscany, Italy, 5 December, 1539 followed Servitus in this great service and died in seclusion at Luclawise 3 March, 1604.
Hungary
The honour of developing the liberal faith or organized life belongs however to Hungary, where Francis David conducted the first Unitarian service in the open air from a large stone in the streets of Thorda. Curiously enough Fansto Sozzini helped in (The theistic Directory by V. R. Shinde published in 1912 pages 90 to 99) persecuting David who died in prison in 1579; but his church survived. “It had the good fortune through the influence of Prince Sigismund who adopted Unitarian view, to aid in the establishment, in Transylvania, of religious liberties unknown to any other country at this early period. An ordinance was passed that every one might embrace, without restraint, that religion which he preferred to hold… and that the members must not intermeddle either openly or secretly in things tending to the oppression of another religion. This fact is the explanation of the perpetuity of the Unitarian Church in Transylvania from 1546 to the present time… Notwithstanding this law the Unitarians have been subjected to the rulers of Austria who have held dominion over Transylvania. At one time the Unitarians were in possession of no less than 400 Church buildings, eleven colleges and three Universities. They were deprived of two-thirds of these from time to time by the Jesuit-ridden Govt. of  the Country. In 1721 the school buildings were violently taken from them. Not until the close of the last century were they permitted to print for themselves their own list-books for the instruction of their students in Theology. In 1791 Joseph Prince of Transylvania once more confirmed the equality of their rights.
By the intrigues of the Pope, the Austrian Government renewed its attack in 1857 on the liberties of this Church whose ranks were thinned. Austria in Hungary should be handed over to the Catholic Church. But for the help given in England and America to raise funds and the indignation excited against the unjust exaction of that period, 1857 the Unitarians in Hungary would have suffered a serious loss. Mr. J. Fretwell rightly compliments “The position of these poor churches among the Transylvanian hills is of supreme importance to the cause of peace, of morality, of all that we call Christianity, at a time when all Eastern Europe is inflamed by the conflict between the Mohameddans and a people who calling themselves Christians, are if possible, more inhuman than the Turks”.

Since the last Austrian attack, there has been a gradually closer intercommunication between the Unitarians in Hungary and those in England and America. Unitarians in Hungary have not only sent their young men to be educated in England but have translated into their own language the works of Channing and other Unitarians. A traveler in Hungary observes “I attended a religious services of the Unitarians. The Church, was small, perfectly plain, painted white and evidently several centuries old. The peasant women occupied one side and the men the other. They all sang in common. The prayers were extempore : The serman was without notes. I resided subsequently among villages of the Unitarians. The populations are all remarkable for their intelligence and morality. As a general thing they are redicals in Politics. I also learned from my companions that there was not a Unitarian child through the whole region who could not read or write. This was remarkable in a country where 75 percent of the total population can neither read nor write. Then I asked how as to criminal offences, drunkenness, immorality of the sexes, theft and the like. He answered “Oh! They are almost unknown; we have no illegitimate children the people are very sober and hard working.”
The above account of an eye-witness is doubly interesting as it indicates that a liberal living religion in neither confined to the intellectual aristocracy nor to the other upper classes residing in towns and other crowded centres of modern civilized life. Secondly, it shows that a religions belief and life freed from the excesses of dogma and ritualism, is not merely one-sided intellectual growth, as some may suppose, but has its healthy moral as well as civic effects naturally arising from the intellectual emancipation and stimulus. In 1876 the situation in Hungary was described “at the present time in Hungary” there is a Unitarian population of about 60,000 who have among them about 120 churches. One of our friends informs as that in their schools, the children are taught very distinctly the way of both defining and sustaining their Unitarian position.
The progressive movements was crowned in 1896 by the Bill off Religions Freedom which secured freedom and tolerance for every religious sect and finally the Civil Marriage Law passed in 1897 dealt a serious blow to the Roman Catholic Church in Hungary.
Switzerland
The first Unitarian martyr who suffered at the hands of his Protestant brethren was a Swiss by name Hetzee who was executed at Zurich on the 4th February, 1529. Twenty-four years after, Servitus above-referred to, was caught and publicly burnt. Notwithstanding these sad events Switzerland soon became a kind of retreat for heretics from Itlay. The members and ministers of the Swiss Church, not being committed by any declaration to the belief in orthodox doctrines, the Pastors of Geneva and other places soon of honour, holding a loft the banner of liberalism since Dr. Strauss settled in that city in 1839.
In 1870 was founded “the Swiss Union of liberal Christianity” and has branches in Bale, Berne, Aargan, Sobure, Aphenzell, St. Gall Zurich and, Geneva; it is a great force of Protestant liberalism in Switzerland. “The General Society of Protestant Missions; whose present headquarters are at Berlin, but in whose foundations Swiss Liberal Protestantism played a prominent part, was created in 1884. This Society has striven to establish missionary enterprise on liberal lines, inculcating respect for the religions of non-Christian peoples, and spiritualizing the elements of truth which they contain. So far this society supports missionaries in China and Japan only.

Germany
The German people have had the honour of not only producing Luther but also of the earliest of the Unitarian Reformers. During the last 350 years the scholars and divines of this country have often lent their help towards the rationalization of Theology. Still there is as yet no distinctly named Unitarian Movement in Germany. However as early as 1861 there were 3,25,077 persons who called themselves Unitarians in the Government statistics. Dr. Julius Ruppa a very virtuous and learned man was dismissed by a judgement of the consistory for his preaching at Koenigsberg, the city of Kant, against the use of the old confession of faith. But his numerous friends and scholars stood faithfully by him and founded the first Free Religious Congregation in 1846 at Koenigsberg. “Soon afterwards Free Religions Congregations were founded in other cities of Germany, in Magdeburg by Uhlich in Halle, Nordhansen and others. Two years later there was a similar movement in the Roman Catholic Church of which Ronge and Czerski were the leaders. These communities were subsequently united with the free evangelical communities.”
Dr. C. Schieler, representative of the Free Religions Congregations in Germany said in his address before the International Council of Liberal Religion in London in1901.
“Dr. Ruppa, the first preacher of F. R. Congregations, was several times imprisoned because he was more obedient to his conscience than to the laws of the State. The religions services were watched by policemen and more than once dissolved, and even private assemblies were broken up.
In 1851 the Church was closed by the head of the Police at Koenigsberg. The position began to improve under the regency of the Prince of Prussia, afterwards the German Emperor William I. Now the congregation is at liberty to celebrate its divine service and festivals, but in defiance of the constitution”.
“We have no confession of faith and do not prescribe any dogmas for the acceptance of our members. Everybody is expected and urged to further refinement and to perfect his religious knowledge to order his moral life according to his religious convictions. We do not want to be free from religion but from the constraint in religions questions and life. We do not believe that religions is morality, only; but that the morality is the best fruit of religion. We esteem the Gospel highly because it contains the doctrines of the greatest teacher of mankind, Jesus Christ. But we also respect the results of modern criticism and those of other sciences as they concern religion”.
“We are not members of Church. We have no Pope, or Bishop or Priest : We are a free association. Our aim is to erect the Kingdom of God preached by Jesus, the free Kingdom of free children of God….. emphasizing the great Commandment : Love to God and Love to Man… And if there are some who want to have a Church I accept a word I have heard here : The only Church of the future is the Church of religious liberty of humanity”.
France
About the year 1875 it was estimated that there were about 20,00,000 of Protestants in France. The great majority of these belong to what is called the French Reformed Protestant Church nearly equally divided between what are called the Orthodox and the Liberals. There does not seem to have been any continuous Unitarian Movement. Stephen Dolet, born at Orleans in 1509, was burnt alive at Paris for his Unitarian opinions in 1546. The Methodist Movement in France has had the effect of making more orthodox the orthodox party, and the translation of Dr. Channing’s works in French has tended to liberalize and make more Unitarian the opposite party. The writings of Theo, Parkar, Renan and the rationalists of Germany have widened this breach. Mr. Guizol and his party called a general synod of the Reformed Church of France in1872 but it failed to bring the great parties to any common basis of belief. The English and the American Unitarians have long been in friendly relations and much fellowship with the Liberals.
Anyhow, we fail as yet, to discover any continuations and organized attempt at Church life as distinct from the ancient and medieval established churches of the Catholicism and Protestantism in France. Perhaps the specific French temper of mind may have been responsible for this lack of systematic attempt at some sort of a separate Liberal Religious Church in that country. We must therefore satisfy ourselves by quoting a few observations from the learned address delivered before the International Liberal Religious Council at London in 1901 by Rev. Ernest Fontances of Paris.
“The increasing attention given to social questions has produced among the younger orthodox Clergy, an expansion of view which neither past ecclesiastical conflicts, nor critical efforts, succeeded in achieving. Just as missionaries whose contact with non-civilized races has convinced of the necessity of stripping the Gospel of its dry dogmatic hust, discovering its powerlessness to feed the spiritual life, so those, who are desirous of reaching the multitudes, who wander like sheep without a shepherd, and to whom too long a stone has been offered, instead of bread, have been led inevitably, to relegate to the museum of antiquities many formulas and practices and to concentrate their efforts and their propaganda upon the inner moral nature of men. Then again the number of lapsed clergy goes on increasing and the motives of these lapses are highly praiseworthy….
We cannot report any conversion of the intellectual classes to Protestantism, nor even to Theism, but it is quite evident that the positivist systems with their exclusively determinist philosophy have lost their prestige and there audacity”.
The abstract Psychology of Ecclecticism stands condemned, but on the other hand no one imagines that a man can be entirely accounted for, in a chemical report…. MM. Renovier and Dillon, starting out from an agnosticism more or less vague, have ended by establishing in the name of moral consciousness personal Theism. It cannot be exactly said that they have created a following, but their neocriticism has rallied to them the sympathies of all those who are concerned, to uphold the dignity of human personality. It is allowable also to expect from the Peoples’ Universities our equivalent to the University Extension Movement in England, an expansion of thought and initiation into the moral problems which prepare the ground for the germination and fructification of the spiritual life and its asperations”.

धर्म, जीवन व तत्त्वज्ञान

  संपादकीय
  पुरस्कार
विभाग पहिला : प्रवासवर्णन
 - जलप्रवास
 - मार्सेय शहर
 - पॅरीस शहर
 - नॉटर डेम द ला गार्ड देऊळ व ते
     पाहून सुचलेले विचार
 - लंडन शहर
 - ब्रिटिश म्युझिअम
 - लंडन येथील बालहत्यानिवारक गृह
 - सोमयागाचे वर्णन वाचून वाटलेला
    विस्मय व विषाद
 - डेव्हनपोर्ट येथील गुड फ्रायडे
 - बोअर युद्धाचा शेवट व ऑक्सफर्ड
    येथील उल्हास
 - राष्ट्रीय निराशा
 - बर्टन खेड्यातील शाळा कशी दिसली?
 - विभूतीपूजा
 - मॅंचेस्टर कॉलेज
 - पृथ्वीच्या पोटात ४४० यार्डाखाली
 - जनातून वनात आणि परत
 - बंगलूरच्या रस्त्यातील एक फेरी
 - मंगळूर येथील काही विशेष गोष्टी
 - बंगालची सफर
 - शांतिनिकेतन
 - सह्याद्रीवरुन-१
 - सह्याद्रीवरुन-२
 विभाग दुसरा : धर्मपर लेख
 - युनिटेरियन समाज
 - इंग्लंडातील आधुनिक धर्मविषयक
   चळवळ आणि लिव्हरपूल
 - सुशिक्षित धर्मभगिनींस अनावृत पत्र
 - ब्राह्मसमाज व आर्यसमाज (ह्यातील
    हल्लीचे साम्य,भेद व पुढे ऐक्यार्थ यत्न)
 - धर्मजागृती
 - निवृत्ती व प्रवृत्ती आणि अवतारवाद व विकासवाद
 - ईश्वर आणि विश्वास
 - बौद्धधर्म जीर्णोद्धार
 - ब्राह्मधर्म व ब्राह्मसमाज
 - आत्म्याची यात्रा
 - आत्म्याची वसती
 -  हिंदुस्थानातील उदार धर्म
 - कौटुंबिक उपासनेच्यावेळी केलेला
    उपदेश देवाचा व आपला संबंध
 - आवड आणि प्रीती
 - स्तुती, निर्भत्सना व निंदा
 - विनोदाचे महत्त्व
 - प्रेमप्रकाश
 - संग व विषय
 - मरण म्हणजे काय?
 - धर्मप्रसारार्थ स्वानुभवाची आवश्यकता
 - ब्राह्म आणि प्रार्थनासमाजास एक विनंती
 - दास्यभक्तीची ध्वजा
 - प्रेमसंदेश
प्रो. ऑयकेन ह्यांची जीवनमीमांसा
 - धर्म-१
 - धर्म-२
 - नीती-१
 - नीती-२
 - नीती-३
 - शास्त्र आणि तत्वज्ञान-१
 - शास्त्र आणि तत्वज्ञान-२
 - सार्वजनिक नित्य व नैमित्तिक
    उपासनेच्यावेळी केलेले उपदेश
 - संतांचा धर्म आणि राष्ट्राचा उत्कर्ष
 - धर्म, समाज आणि परिषद
 - धर्मसंघाची आवश्यकता
 - विनययोग
 - शासनयोग
 - पितृशासन
 - गुरुशासन
 - राजशासन
 - धर्म आणि व्यवहार
 - प्रेरणा आणि प्रयत्न
 - मानवी आदर आणि दैवी श्रद्धा-१
 - मानवी स्नेह आणि ईश्वरभक्ती -२
 - मनुष्यसेवा आणि ईश्वरोपासना -३
 - मनाची प्रसन्नता आणि मोक्षप्राप्ती-४
 - परमार्थाची प्रापंचिक साधने-५
 - आधुनिक युग आणि ब्राह्मसमाज
 - धर्मसाधन
 - नैराश्यवाद
 - आनंदवाद
 - संसारसुखाची साधने
 - वृत्ती, विश्वास आणि मते
 - व्यक्तित्वविकास
 - स्त्री-दैवत
 - दान आणि ऋण
 - राज्यरोहण
 - नाममंत्राचे सामर्थ्य
 - मनुष्यजन्माची सार्थकता
 - आपुलिया बळे घालावी हे कास
 - कालियामर्दन
विभाग तिसरा : इतर लेख
 - आपला व खालील प्राण्यांचा संबंध
 -  स्वराज्य आणि स्वाराज्य
 - देशभक्ती आणि देवभक्ती
 - समाजसेवेची मूलतत्वे
 - निराश्रित साहाय्यकारी मंडळी व आक्षेपनिरसन
 - रा.गो.भांडारकर ह्यांचे धर्मपर लेख व व्याख्याने
 - प्रार्थनासमाज अप्रिय असल्यास तो का?
 - राजा राममोहन रॉय
 - मुरळी अथवा पश्चिम हिंदुस्थानातील हिंदू
    देवळांतील अनितिमूलक आणि बीभत्स प्रकार
 - श्रीशाहू छत्रपतींच्या मनाचा विकास
 - रावसाहेब थोरात ह्यांच्या "बोधमृत" ला प्रस्तावना
 - जमखिंडी येथील परशुरामभाऊ हायस्कूलचा
    सुवर्णमहोत्सव
 - थोरल्या शाहू महाराजांच्या कारकीर्दीचे मराठ्यांच्या
    इतिहासातील महत्त्व
 - डॉ. भांडारकरांस मानपत्र
 - मराठी भाषेद्वारा ब्राह्मधर्माचा प्रचार
 - राजा राममोहन व बुवाबाजी
 - प्रार्थनासमाजाचा एक नमुना
 - क्षात्रधर्म
 - स्वराज्य विरुद्ध जातिभेद
 - इतिहास, संशोधन व भाषाशास्त्र
 - गुन्हेगार जातीची सुधारणा
 - निराश्रित साह्यकारी मंडळी
 - वाई प्रार्थना संघ मंदिर प्रवेश
 - ब्रह्मानंद केशवचंद्र सेन
 - साधारण ब्राह्मसमाजाची पन्नास वर्षे
 - निराश्रित साहाय्य
 - मुंबई येथील मानपत्रास उत्तर
 - सत्यशोधकांना इशारा अथवा नव्या पिढीचे राजकारण
 - बंदिस्त बळीराजा
 - सही नाही; सहानुभूती!
 - टिळकांच्या मानपत्रास विरोध
 - A Scientific Catechism
 - Gleanings from Periodicals
 - The Arya Samaj of India
 - Liberal Religion in Japan
 - The New Light of Persia
 - Liberal Christianity in Europe
 - Unitarianism in England and America 
विभाग चौथा : परिशिष्टे
 - महर्षी शिंदे ह्यांचे पहिले कीर्तन
 - रामजी बसाप्पा शिंदे ह्यांचा मृत्यू
 - लाहोर येथील धर्मपरिषद

 - कोल्हापूर येथील धर्मविषयक चळवळ व

    प्रगतीपत्रातील अहवाल

 - विसावे व्याख्यान
 - आख्यान
 - महाराष्ट्र सुधारक आगळा
 - भगिनी जनाबाई ह्यांची स्मृतिचित्रे
 - परलोकवासी विठ्ठल रामजी शिंदे
 -  The Late Mr. V. R. Shinde
 - कै. अण्णासाहेब शिंदे, चरित्र व कार्य
 - प.वा. अण्णासाहेब शिंदे
 - व-हाड मध्यप्रांतीय सत्यशोधक हीरक महोत्सव
 - १९ मार्च १९३३-७१ वा वाढदिवस
 - श्री. महाराजांचे अस्पृश्योद्धारक कार्य-श्रीमंत
   सयाजीराव गायकवाड
 - दांभिक देशभक्तापेक्षा
 - धर्मरहस्य अथवा अंत्यजोद्धार
 - लाहोर येथील धर्म परिषद
 - आपुले स्वहित करावे पै आधी
 - सुखवाद व सुखाची साधने
 - लुटूपुटूची पार्लमेंट
 - बहाई समाजाचा ब्राह्मसमाजास संदेश
 - प्रेमाचा विकास
 - भोकरवाडी येथील आपत्ती
 - सुधारकांची जुनी परंपरा (स्फुट)
 - सुधारकच हिंदूधर्माचे खरे रक्षक
 - निष्ठा व नास्तिक्य
 - विठ्ठल रामजी शिंदे व श्री शाहू छत्रपती
 - विठ्ठल रामजी शिंदे व सयाजीराव गायकवाड
 - विठ्ठल रामजी शिंदे व महात्मा गांधी
 - वि.रा. शिंदे व राजाराम छत्रपती
 - विजापूर येथी धर्मकार्य, विजापूर
 - सोमवंशीय सन्मार्गदर्शक समाज
 - रोगनिवारक प्रयत्न-एक निकडीची विनंती
 - कवित्व आणि भरारी
 - मोफत व सक्तीचे शिक्षण नको !!
 - बहुजन पक्ष
 - डी.सी.मिशनचा १७ वा वाढदिवस
 - अहंकार नासाभेद
 - यश परिणामात नसून प्रयत्नात आहे.
 -  Maharashtra Provincial Social Conference
 - प्रांतिक सामाजिक परिषद-सातारा
 - शिवाजी की रामदास?
 - बडोदे-तत्वज्ञान व समाजशास्त्र विभागाचे अध्यक्ष
 - श्री. विठ्ठल रामजी शिंदे व सुबोध पत्रिका
 - कै. डॉ. संतूजी रामजी लाड
 - मागासलेले व अस्पृश्य
 -  Shree V. R. Shinde’s Work
 - पुण्यातील मानपत्रास उत्तर
-   Liberal Religion in India
- वाई ब्राह्मोसमाज-विश्वास लेख
 - गुरुवर्य शिंदे सूक्ती