महर्षी विठ्ठल रामजी शिंदे समग्र वाङमय

The Depressed Classes Mission society of india_२

DEPRESSED CLASSES MISSION SOCIETY OF INDIA

Karnatak Branch, Hubli
(Opened on the 10th of August 1912)

Mr. V. R. Shinde, General Secretary of this Society, on a preliminary tour in August and September 1911 visited Belgaum, Dharwar, Hubli and other places in the S. M. Country, explained to the public the aims and work of this Society by means of lectures and other meetings and organized several local committees. With the help of Mr. Krishnarao Walvekar, Mr. Narayanrao Sirur, Mr. K. Anandrao and others, Mr. Shinde was able to create some special sympathy for the cause in Hubli which is a commercial centre and has a large number of low caste population employed in various trades. The place was therefore selected for the opening of a branch of the Society for the Kanarese speaking people of the districts around, and the Society decided that I should reside permanently and work in this part.

Before actually opening however this Branch, Mr. Shinde and I went on a second tour in May 1912 in this part with a view to raise a part of the funds required for the first two years. We visited this time Kolhapur, Kurundvad, Belgaum, Shahapur, Dharwad, Hubli, Gudag-Betigiri, Kurtkoti, Hombal and Bijapur. Mr. Brown, Collector of Belgaum, Mr. Kabraji, Collector of Bijapur and Mr. Namjoshi, Deputy Collector of Gudag, presided at our meetings and several other Government officers, merchants and pleaders extended their sympathy so that we could collect during this tour Rs. 1,400 in cash. Mrs. Sayyad and myself came in August 1912 to Hubli, rented a house near the old Post Office and opened this Branch on the 10th of that month.

The Local Advisory Committee :
Mr. K. R. Valvekar, President
Mr. S. T. Kambli, B.A., L.L.B., Vice-President
Dr. S. R. Gore, L.M. and S.
Dr. C. H. Deshpande
Mr. R. G. Barpute, B.A.
Mr. V. P. Wagle, Secretary
Mr. T. T. Mudraddi, Secretary

The population of the Depressed Classes in the three districts, Belgaum, Dharwar and Bijapur numbers about 2,00,000. The spread of education and the consequent progress being comparatively very slow in Karnatak, the condition of the depressed classes is more miserable here than in Maharashtra. The vice of drinking, the practice of dedicating young girls to gods and goddesses, unclean living and unclean food, superstitious beliefs and dense ignorance are among the various causes that have kept these people at a very low stage of life. Government and Municipalities have opened several schools but they do not prosper for the lack of good teachers. The work of the various institutions started for their betterment, is as follows :—

1. D.C.M. Boarding House

This boarding house was opened on the 10th August 1912 in Garden Peth. During the five months under report there were 8 admissions and 4 withdrawals. The number of boarders on the roll on 31st December 1912 was 4.

The following is the classification of boarders according to (a) caste and (b) progress in studies.

(a) Classification according to caste :—
       Crtalwadi    2
       Madigar      2
    
  ____________
       Total         4

(b) Classification according to studies :—
        English Std.       I     3
        Canarese Std. VII     1
                            ________    
                              Total 4
                            -----------

Three students attend the New English School where they have been admitted free and one attends a municipal vernacular school. Special attention is paid to habits, manners and cleanliness of the boarders. They are given simple vegetarian food. In Karnatak there are very few boys who have completed the vernacular fourth standard. Those few also who join the boarding do not remain long owing to their home sickness. Very many difficulties are therefore felt in conducting this institution in this part.

The daily programme of the boarders is as under :-
A.M.
5.0      Rise regularly
5.30    Bhajan
6.0      Cleaning premises
6.30    School-lessons
9.0      Breakfast
9.30    Domestic Work
10.0    School-lessons
11.0    Bath and Washing

P.M.
12.0    Dayschool
2.0      Lunch
5.0      Exercise
7.0      Lessons or Night School
9.0      Supper
9.30    Retire

2. Yallapur Day School

There are two municipal separate schools for the boys of the depressed classes here. But there were no arrangements made for the education of the children of the Bhangees at Yallapur. As it was formed that it was not possible for the Municipality to make any immediate arrangement for their education, a Day School was opened in the temple of the Bhangees at Yallapur on 22nd August 1912. The school was removed to the premises of the boarding on the 15th December 1912. There were 37 admissions and 2 withdrawals (deaths). Thus the number of students on the roll on 21st December was 35.

(a) Classification according to caste :—

  Boys Girls Total
Bhangees 14 10 24
   Waddars        3 8 11
 

17

 

18 35

(b) Classification according to studies :—

 

  Boys Girls Total
Bhangees 14 10 24
   Waddars        3 8 11
 

17

18 35

The Bhangee children are very regular and punctual in the school. Intellectually also they are not in any way inferior to other depressed classes. A cripple young Bhangee man is employed as a teacher in the school. He himself learns in the Night School. It is hoped that the number of children in this school will be increased shortly.

3. Garden Peth Night School

This Night School for workmen was started in the Boarding House on 21st August 1912. During the period under report the school worked satisfactorily. Arrangements are made to teach both English and Canarese. During five months under report 64 admissions were made. The number of students on the roll on 31st December 1912 was 36.

(a) Classification according to castes :—

Bhangee 18 Samgar 3
madigar 2 2 Dhor 4
Chalwadi 1 Mahomedan 2
Waddar 6 Total 36
(b) Classification According to study : -
English Std. I 2 Canarese Std. III 3
english Std. Infant 8 Canarese Std. II 2
    Canarese Std. I 2
    Canarese Std. Infant 29
Total 10 Total 36

4. Sunday Classes

These classes have been started in the Boarding House and the Yallapur school with the object of giving moral and religious instructions to students. About 60 boys in municipal schools and the Society's school attend these classes. Messrs. V. P. Wagle, Umajee Ghodke and Basappa Hirebendigiri conducted the classes during the period under report. Moral instruction was given with the help of "Neeti Manjari" and “Someshwar- Shataka."

5. Spiritual Work

There are 2 Bhajan Samajas — one in old Hubli and the other in New Hubli. They are organised by the depressed classes themselves under the auspices of the Branch. Every Sunday and Monday Night Bhajan is performed and sermons are given. Members of these Samajas have given up drinking. They have also stopped the use of liquor on occasions of marriage, funeral etc. Meetings are held in their own localities. Private quarrels among the people are settled amicably by these Samajas. If any one from the members of their Samajas is found drunk he is fined 5 annas and 4 pies by the committee of the Samajas.

6. D.C.M. Reading Room

This Reading Room was opened in the month of November. The proprietors of Subodh Patrika, Dnyan Prakash, Kshem Samachar and Karnatak Vritta have given their papers free. Mr. T.T. Mudraddi gives a copy of Vakkalgar Patrika free to the Reading Room. Students of the Night School and other depressed class people avail themselves of the Reading Room.

7. General Work

Tours : Workers of the Mission visited Dharwar, Halial, Alnavar, Laxmeshwar, Annigeri, Ron, Halkeri, Sudi &c. They arranged meetings in the above place and explained to the public the object of the Mission. 18 men's meetings and 7 women's meetings were held in different places. In connection with the 6th anniversary of the parent society a public special meeting was held in the Nipanikar's theatre at Hubli under the presidentship of Mr. S. S. Phadnis, Sub-Judge of Hubli. The theatre was densely crowded both by the high class and depressed class people. Messrs. K. R. Walvekar, Subrao Behatti, T. T. Mudraddi and V. P. Wagle spoke on the problem of the depressed classes.

Medical help : Ordinary family medicines were given to poor patients of the depressed classes. In serious cases the patients were sent to Dr. Kumbhakonam and Dr. Deshpande who were kind enough to treat the patients free. Plague having broken out in the localities of the depressed classes the Branch got 414 persons inoculated by Dr. Kumbhakonam in the Boarding House. There was not a single attack of plague among the persons inoculated even in the most dirty locality of the depressed classes.

Temperance Work : As the result of the temperance work many people have lessened drinking. Some of them have given it up altogether. Attempts have been made to stop the use of liquor on the occasions of marriage, funeral and holidays.

Other Work : Ten private quarrels among the depressed classes were settled amicably. These quarrels would have caused at least Rs. 500/- had the parties been to the court.

At the request of the Chairman of the Hubli Municipal School Board the two Municipal Dhed Schools were supervised by the agent of the Mission. Necessary and important suggestions were made to the Chairman of the School Board, who paid immediate attention to them. The boys in these 2 schools are improving in cleanliness, descipline and daily attendance in the schools. Scholarships were given to two students, one learning in the English 1st Standard at Bagalkot and the other learning in the 4th Standard in the Lamington High School, Hubli.

The Branch is thankful to Messrs. K. R. Walvekar, T. T. Mudraddi, V. P. Wagh, R. S. Sali, Dr. Kumbhakonam, Dr. Deshpande, Head Master of the New English School, and the local committee of the D. C. Mission for their most valuable help in the work of the Branch. It is also thankful to all the subscribers and donors on whose generous support the Branch is dependant.

8. Appeal

The Branch is spending hundred rupees a year for the rent of the house occupied for the work of the Mission. Even at such high rent the present house is not suitable for the work of the Branch. It is the most urgent need felt by the Branch to have a building of its own near the old Dispensary which is the central place for all the localities of the depressed classes at Hubli. It is hoped that the Hubli Municipality will help the Branch by giving a plot for building free.

Names of Subscribers and Annual Subscription - (To see the table no. 1)

Table 1

D. C. Mission Karnatak Branch Cash accounts for the year 1912 (To see the table no. 2)
D.C.M. Karnatak Branch (To see the table no. 2)
D.C.M. Karnatak Branch (To see the table no. 2)
Table 2

THE DEPRESSED CLASSES MISSION, MANGALORE
(Affiliated to the D.C.M. Society of India in 1907)

REPORT FOR THE YEAR ENDING 31st DECEMBER 1912

The Managing Committee
The following gentlemen constituted the managing committee during the year Messrs. U. Raghunathaya, Pensioner and Landholder, President; A. Shrinivas Pai, B.A., B.L., High Court Vakil. Shesha Bhat Bhide, B.A., B.L. Pleader, A. Balakrishna Shetty, Landholder, Dr. M.S. Rao, L.R.C.P. and S., L.F.P. and S. and L.M.; M. Narasappa Rai Sahib, M. Gopal Rao, B.A., B.L. Pensioner, U. Narsinga Rao, B.A., Head Clerk, District Court Mangalore; G. Krishna Rao, B.A., L.L.B. Pleader, Treasurer, and K. Ranga Rao, Secretary. Rai Saheb M. Gopal Rao and Mr. U. Narsinga Rao were added as members of the Committee during the year under report.

The Mission maintains the following institutions :—
I. A Day School under the name of the Court Hill Panchama School.
II. A Boarding House for Panchama Students.
III. An Industrial Institute.
IV. A colony of Panchma families.

The Court Hill Panchama School
The year commenced with 78 pupils on the roll. There were 41 new admissions and 26 dismissals during the year. The year thus closes with 93 on the roll - 86 boys and 7 girls. The School is manned by three teachers, of whom one is a Panchama, and it is divided into 5 classes. The strength of the classes at the end of the year is as follows :—

Class Pupils
  1912 1911
Infant Standard 59 44
I  Standard 13 14
II Standard 8 8
III Standard 7 8
IV Standard 6 4
Total  Pupils 93 78

The IV Standard presented 4 boys for the Primary Examination and 3 passed. The large number of pupils attending the infant class and the extremely small number in the higher classes will undoubtedly attract notice. This undesirable state of things is only explained by the fact of the extreme poverty of the parents who are compelled to withdraw their children when they have grown up sufficiently to help them in their household work or to send them to the Coffee and Rubber plantations.

Four of the old students of the School have become stipendiary students in the Local Government Training School and are undergoing training for the profession of teachers.

The School was visited by Mr. C. Ransford, Inspector of Schools, Rai Bahadur M. Raghunath Rao, Assistant Inspector, and Mr. N. Krishna Rao, B.A., Sub-Assistant Inspector.

The Inspector recorded the following remarks :— "Class IV write decently, III are slow in mental arithmetic. The II class should read with more attention to stories but they can answer questions on the subject matter. All the children in I class got both their sums right.

A stick-laying chart is required for the Infants. There are proper articles for the beginning of Kindergarten.

The Verandha is hot and crowded but the new building should prove quite suitable. A Government grant has been promised for slates and books which are badly needed. A small hostel also being erected. None of the teachers is trained but one is now under training.

The School fulfils a very urgent requirement."

(Sd.) C. Ransford, (I.S.)
7-9-1912

The Annual Inspection was made by the Sub-Assistant inspector, who made the following remarks :-

"The instruction imparted in this School is generally efficient Weights, measures, coins and simple geometrical forms prescribed in a circular must be taught in the Infant Class also. They should not be neglected in this lowest class, which on the other hand should be well drilled in them. More attention should be paid to the meanings of school mottos. On the whole however, useful work is done here on behalf of a most backward class of people and I shall be glad to propose as much grant as possible."

(Sd.) N. Krishna Rao
(Sub-Assistant Inspector of School)
30-11-1912

The Inspector's remark about the veranda refers to the old building where the school is at present held. A commodious new building is being built now. Government grant for this building as well as for a building for hostel or boarding house has been applied for.

The committee is thankful for the grant of Rs. 185 sanctioned by the Director of Public Instruction for a moiety of the value of furniture, books, slates &c., required for the school.

The instruction in the school is free and the pupils being the children of the miserables are supplied with books, slates and stationery as well as dress and umbrellas free of cost. As the children come from distant places a daily midday meal  is given them in the school premises.

The school was awarded a grant of Rs. 140 from the Municipal Funds. The total Cash expenditure of the school amounted to Rs. 644-13-5 as shown in the annexed statement of cash account. This item does not include the value of cloth supplied to the pupils and of rice collected weekly from donors both of which may be approximately fixed at Rs. 117-8-3. The total quantity of rice consumed was 36 mooras and seers of which 9 mooras and 39 seers came from the weekly donors and 26 mooras and 35 seers were purchased.

The Committee gratefully acknowledges the kind help rendered to the school by Rao Bahadur Hem Raj of the Meteorological Department, Simla, Mr. M. Bhavani Shanker Rao, Land Holder Manjeshwar, Mr. Pandit Ananda Rao of Bolar Tile Factory, Khan Bahadur Sayed Rustom Ali Saheb, Judge, Aden, the Hon'ble Rao Bahadur P. Somasundaram Chettiar of Calicut, Dr. L. P. Fernandez of St. Mary's Pharmacy, Mangalore, who gives gratitious medical help to our school children and staff, Mr. K. Shrinivas Shanbogue, Merchant, Mangalore, and the Students of the Sri Ramakrishna Hostel of Mangalore — all of whom contributed for dinner to the School Children. Mr. K. B. Thimmappa Shetty besides giving a sumptuous dinner distributed cloth to all the school children and the boarders. Mr. U. C. Krishna Bhat, High Court Vakil, Mangalore, supplied a load of plantains for distribution to these children. The Coorg Students of the Kodialbail Lodge supplied some clothes. An anonymous donor sent 11 yds. of check and Re. 1-8 in cash, Mr. M. Janardhan, Mangalore, made a present of five benches for the Infant Class and Messrs. Kavi and Sons presented 6 Umbrellas and 12 slates. The Students of the Sri Rama Krishna Hostel besides contributing for a dinner supplied the local weekly Swadeshabhimani free of charges to the boarders.

It is needless on our part to say that the Panchamas of our District are one of the most miserable classes in our Presidency. A reference to the Government Administration Report for the year ending 31st March 1910, pages 90 and 91 proves that in point of Panchama education, South canara is deplorably behind the other Districts in the Presidency. The Government observe, "The percentage of male pupils under instruction to the male population of school age was the largest viz. 91-5 in Tinnevelly, and Madras comes next with 68 p.c. while the South Canara held the last place with 1-5 p.c. thus maintaining the place they held last year." The general average of the Presidency it must be observed is 11-12.

In consideration of the deplorable condition of the Panchama Classes in this District, the committee at a meeting held on 26th September 1912 passed a resolution, that branch institutions should be started in as many villages as possible and small monthly or annual subscriptions should be collected from sympathising Canara gentlemen in the District as well as abroad. An appeal was accordingly published in the Swadeshabhimani, a local vernacular weekly soliciting monthly subscriptions ranging from a Rupee down to four annas or an annual subscription of a Rupee or two. 5000 copies of the appeal were printed for wide distribution in the District and amongst our Canara brethren abroad. Several gentlemen responded to our request but a great many have yet to do so. How far we shall succeed in extending our work to the outstations in the District depends upon the amount of co-operation we get.

We cannot refrain from chronicling here some touching instances of sympathy shown to the cause of our miserables by some gentlemen who are themselves poor in the possession of the worlds' goods. A sickly young man unable to pay any monthly contribution from the pittance of his pay sent Rs. 1-4 which he had set apart for purchasing shoes and made a vow that he would walk bare footed for a year. Another, a school-master in the Udipi Taluka on a pay of Rs. 12 a month offered us Rs. 2-15-5, the accumulated sale proceeds of the baskets and other products of the industry of the pupils of his school and fines levied from the children of well-to-do parents. One young man has kept a charity box in his shop for collection of aid from his constituents. The four old students of our school (Panchamas) who get a stipend of Rs. 8 each from the Government Training School, proposed each to pay monthly a pie in the Rupee of their income and are dropping the same regularly into the charity box kept in our premises. Five gentlemen sent small donations for treats to School children on the occasion of the death anniversary of their parents and other relations. A few Canara gentlemen residing in distant places have become our subscribers despite their own hardships. These pious contributions have touched us deeply and encourage us considerably in our up hill struggle.

The Boarding House

This institution which was started in 1908 admits select grown up students who are maintained free of charge until their course of training is finished. They are not allowed to go home, without permission. Out of school hours they receive training in some industry such as weaving, eri-silk culture and gardening and serve as watchmen in the premises at night. Special attention is also paid for their moral and spiritual culture and for instruction in good manners and habits of sobriety and cleanliness. This institution was started in the hope, that these youths after their discharge and return home might exercise a leavening influence amidst their community. We are glad that the experiment has achieved a success. This institution had ten inmates in the year including 5 of the previous year. Five out of these were discharged. The total number hitherto admitted and maintained in the institution was 34 of whom 21 were discharged and 8 were dismissed for misconduct. The year thus closes with 5.

The Industrial Institute
The Institute manufactured 2760 yards of cloth and sold 30941/4 yards against 27331/2 yards made and 3051 yards sold in the previous year. The total receipts and expenditure in the year were Rs. 853-8-7 and Rs. 876-13-10 respectively. Outstanding to the extent of Rs. 210-0-8 were struck off by the committee. Exclusive of this amount the outstandings in favour of the institute on 31st Decembor last was Rs. 698-9-5.

Weaving was done with fly shuttle handlooms. This work as well as the reeling was done mostly by Panchama boys under the supervision of a native Christian expert. The cloth manufactured is generally of good quality and our checks and bedsheets won merit certificates and money prizes from the Mysore and Lahore Exhibitions. Owing, however to the competition of power looms whose products though of much less durability sell comparatively cheaper, the hand loom industry, so far as our experience goes, does not seem to be encouraging. We are further handicapped for want of funds to extend this industry on a more extensive scale and make it yield any appreciable profit.

The Eri-Silk Culture - As stated in our last year's report, our experiments in rearing Eri-Silk worms having proved successful and expert opinions obtained about the suitability of the climate of this district for the purpose having been all favourable the local District Board had been moved (or a money grant to popula’rize this industry. The District Board generously paid a sum of Rs. 500 the previous year and a portion of this amount was utilized for sending a man to the Government Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa, who returned during the year under report after finishing his course of training and obtaining a diploma of efficiency from the authorities of that institution. This gentleman was an employee of the Basel German Mission and his services had been kindly lent for the purpose by that Mission. On his return from Pusa, the Basel German Mission proposed to do the needful themselves to popularize the Industry in the District and have opened a farm near the Pallikere Railway Station in the Kasargod Taluka.

We also maintain a small farm for the instruction of the school children. Looms have been already secured and other necessary machines for cocoon reversing and spinning have been brought from Calcutta. The manufacture of Eri-Silk Cloth will be attempted in the current year and a good quantity of cocoons have been already collected for the purpose. A more extensive farm will be opened and maintained in our colony lands in the current year for production of cocoons.

The Panchama Colony
The progress in this department of work was rather slow and was retarded for nearly 3 months during the important working season owing to want of funds. Seven homeless families were provided with temporary dwellings and one well is being sunk in the Azizuddin garden — one of the biggest blocks named after our former Collector, Khan Bahadur M. Azizuddin Saheb Bahadur whose sympathy for the Panchamas helped the progress of their cause very much in previous years. The occupants of this block at present use the well constructed by the district board close to it. Two wells were sunk in the Hubli Block, so named to commemorate the charity of our Hubli friends and 8 houses of a permanent nature are being built on the same block which we hope will be completed during the present working season. No appreciable work was done either on the block set apart for dedication to Mrs. Annie Besant or on other blocks for want of funds. The two wells one named after Rai Bahadur N. Sadasiva Pillay of Port Blair, one of the benefactors of our movement and another named after our late lamented trenef actor Mr. Amembal Subba Rao have been half constructed with laterite. We hope the admirers of the late Mr. Subba Rao will help us with contributions to enable us to complete the well, named after him. A large size oil painting of the said Mr. Subba Rao, has been ordered, and will be hung up in the main hall of our school building. There are at present 22 families consisting of 105 souls, men, women and children all told who live in our colony lands. Out of these 33 live in the Urmila Gardens the first block consecrated for our colony scheme and named after Shrimati Urmila Devi, a saintly lady of the Bombay Presidency. The big well, known as the Andaman well, so named to commemorate the sympathy of our Indian brethren in Port Blair and its' suburbs who sent us large money help in the previous years lies in this block. This block is capable of further improvement. 34 persons live in the Azizuddin gardens and 22 on the Hubli Block and the rest live scattered on other blocks. All these, it must be observed, were houseless and helpless people without the protection of any landlords for them. Every new family coming to dwell on our lands is supplied not only with a dwelling but also with hoes and pickaxes and occasional cash presents for other implements to enable them to their living.

Sirdar Kripal Singh, B. A. of Beluchistan and another gentleman of the Bombay Presidency under the name of "a brother of the miserables" contributed Rs. 36 and Rs. 50 respectively for two homesteads. Mr. Glatfelder of the Basel Mission Jeppu Tile Works gave us 3000 good roofing tiles. Rev. Mr. Shinde, General Secretary of the D. C. M. Society of India besides making a money gift of Rs. 100 on behalf of the Hubli Donors and advancing a loan of Rs. 200 when the Mission was badly in need of funds, sent a present of 20 copies of Prof. Dharmananda Kosambi’s Buddha Dharma with instructions to apply the sale proceeds for the Mission purposes. Mr. C. V. Murthi Iyengar gave a Musical entertainment in aid of the Mission in the local Government College kindly lent for the purpose by the Principal. This entertainment brought us Rs. 165-12-0, one-third of which as desired by Mr. Iyengar was sent to the Honourable Mr. Gokhale for the Guzarat Famine Relief fund. Mr. Shesha Bhat Bhide of Mangalore presented three good windows. Mr. C. Sankara Menon of the Loco Office, Insein, Burma sent us Rs. 20 as a donation from himself and his friends in that station. Mr. Saint Nihal Singh, the well known traveller and journalist popularized our movement by noticing it in his writings. The late Dr. R. S. Karnad, Chief Medical Officer of Baroda who belonged to Mangalore left by his will a legacy of Rs. 5700-0-0 which will benefit the cause of the Panchamas considerably. To all these gentlemen as well as to those ladies and gentlemen who gave us money help in the shape of donations and subscriptions and weekly doles of rice as shown in the appendix and to all who otherwise rendered help to us we tender our hearty thanks.

The cause of the local Panchamas suffered much by the lamented death of Mr. B. M. Malabari the eminent journalist and philanthrophist of Bombay and the Hon’ble Mr. V. Krishna "Swamy Iyer member of the Madras Executive Council, both of whom were helpers of our Mission. It suffered also by the transfer of Mr. R. A. Graham, I. C. S. and Mr. B. Krishna Rao, B. A. B. L. both of whom left the district, the former as the British Resident at Travancore and the latter as Sub-Judge at Nellore.

The total receipts and disbursements during the year amounted to Rs. 3543-11-6 and Rs. 2881-14-1 respectively thus leaving a balance of Rs. 661-13-5 for the current year. The expenditure of Rs. 214-12-4 shown in the annexed statement of the Auditor under the head Miscellaneous includes the sum of Rs. 55-4-0 sent to the Hon’ble Mr. Gokhale as stated above, Rs. 30 paid to the vendor of a portion of the colony land as interest on Rs. 500, the unpaid portion of the price, Rs. 22-3-0 spent for photoes and Rs. 13-4-4 for assessment and the balance includes the expenditure incurred for occasional entertainments, for the reception of distinguished visitors and for other minor expenses of the Mission.

The Mission has outstandings of the value of Rs. 698-9-5 and debts to the extent of Rs. 1100-0-0 being 500 unpaid portion of the price of the land purchased as aforesaid, Rs. 200 borrowed during the year and the balance borrowed on previous occasions as shown in the report for 1910.

During the year under report the Hon’ble Mr. P. S. Sivswamy Iyer, member of the Executive Council, Madras, Mr. Tahil Ram Gangaram, Zamindar of Dera Ismail Khan, Prof. Rama Murthy of the athletic fame, Rao Bahadur Hem Raj of Simla were some of the distinguished visitors who honoured our institutions with their visits.
10th February 1913.
K. RANGA RAO
(Secretary)

Statement of Cash Account of the Depressed Classes Mission,(See in the Table No. 1)
Mangalore (For the year ending 31st December 1912) 

THE DEPRESSED CLASSES MISSION MANGALORE (See in the Table No. 1)
(List of Donations and Subscriptions, received in 1912)
Table No. 1
To,
The Members of The Committee of The Depressed Classes Mission, Mangalore

Gentlemen,
I examined the accounts of the Depressed Classes Mission, Mangalore kept for the year ending 31st December 1912. The total cash receipts are Rs. 3543-11-6 including Rs. 826-14-5 a balance of the year 1911 and the total expenditure is Rs. 2881-14-1 as particularized in my statement appended hereto leaving a balance of Rs. 661-13-5 for the current year.

The institute made 2760 yards of cloth and sold 3094 1/4 yards from the stock which includes cloth made in the previous year. Outstandings to the extent of Rs. 210-0-8 were struck off by the committee in their meeting held on 31st December last. The value of the outstandings exclusive of the said Rs. 210-0-8 in favour of the Mission up to 31st December 1912 is Rs. 698-9-5.

I beg to remain,
Gentlemen,
Yours sincerely, (Sd.)
M. MADHAVA RAO (Auditor)
Mangalore,
10th Feb. 1912.

The Depressed Classes Mission, Bhavnagar
(Affiliated to the D. C. M. Society of India)

Second Annual Report
(For the year ending on 31st December 1912)

(1) One day-school is kept here for the children of the Depressed Classes. The new building into which this School has been removed lately was specially built for the purpose during the last famine relief work. It is now situated on a fine site having quarters for one teacher. There is one central hall with a big varandah on all sides which is closed with hoop-iron work, where classes are held. It has got a spacious compound in front for drill etc.

(2) The School has one teacher and 44 pupils on the roll. The average attendance is 30. Instruction is imparted upto two Gujarati Standards only. Of the 44 pupils, 40 belong to the Dhed Community and 4 are Dhors or tanners by trade. 42 are below 14 years of age and only two are above. This only proves how these Communities are backward in the taste for education.

(3) Three meetings were held during the year :—
(a) In the 1st meeting it was resolved that the new building for the School should be opened at the hands of the acting Dewansaheb. Accordingly it was declared open by him on the 14th of August 1912. There were present a number of Nagar gentlemen and the members of the managing committee. The occasion was solemnised by performing “Harikirtan". At the request of the Dewan Saheb, Mr. Gulabrai Desai addressed the Depressed Classes showing them the necessity of such an institution and his full sympathy for them in this movement.

In connection with School a small dispensary has been opened.

(b) A wealthy gentleman of this place gave a hearty dinner to the children of the Depressed Classes in the School Compound when several gentlemen were present to witness the occasion.

This being the Dasra Holiday the School was gaily decorated. At the main entrance an arch of Ashok leaves was erected in the centre of which was beautifully exhibited the Maharaja Saheb’s portrait garlanded with a wreath of flowers. When the Maharaja Saheb passed by the School for Shami Poojan to the Raoopari Temple he was highly pleased to see the mottos of “welcome” and “long live the Maharaja Saheb".

(c) The third meeting was held by the managing committee to pass the expenditure of the year under report and also the expenditure of the new building.

(4) At first the School was situated in the locality where these people live. It was thought advisable to remove it to a better place so that it might attract the attention of the public. At the suggestion of the General Secretary of D. C. M. a proposal was laid before the ex-Dewan Saheb the Hon. Mr. Pattani that the sum of Rs. 200 would be placed at our disposal which was the balance left with the Theistic Conference from the last Famine Fund, on condition that the sum would be utilised for the building in the form of relief work. The proposal was accepted. The State sanctioned Rs. 950 towards the expenditure of the building and gave us a plot of ground free of charge. The public also came forth with handsome donations. This shows that there is a growing tendency among the citizens of this place for the welfare of this backward community. This is a very healthy sign of the times. Two prominent persons visited the School during the year. Mr. M. A. Tarkhad and Mrs. Jamnabai Sakkai, who were much pleased with the progress made by the children.

The scarcity of water which was the long felt want of these people has been removed by a good supply of water in the well for which the State spent about Rs. 250. The Mission is very thankful to His Highness for the provision of water and other needs of these people.

The List of Annual Subscribers - (To see the Table No. 1)

Statement of Account - (To see the Table No. 1)

Table No. 1

THE DEPRESSED CLASSES MISSION,

Amraoti
(Affiliated to the D. C. M. Society of India)

Report of the year 1912
At the beginning of the year under Report there were two Night Schools, one was for the Kunbis at Rajapeth a suburban place of Amraoti. This was abolished on the 1st of August 1912, on account of there being no learners in the School. The other school at Mahajanpura, another suburban place of the town of Amraoti is principally attended by Dhor boys. There are 31 boys on the roll. Their number according to castes is as follows :—
Dhors or tauners of leather 14 Kunbi             1
Mahars            2
Maratha           1    
Mangs              2    
Musalman         1
Kalal                1    
Khatiks             4
Dhangar           1    
Teli                  1    
Mali                 3
            _________
                    31

The average attendance 15.56. Mr. Bapuna Dhor generously continues to give the use of his small house for the use of the School without charging any rent for it.

In the province of Berar, boys of all castes high or low are admitted in Government School as well as in schools conducted by private individuals. So it is clear that there does not exist any very urgent necessity for schools for special classes. What is greatly needed is the establishment of boarding houses for school going children. The depressed class children need also monetary help for payment of school fees. The Educational Department under the orders of the Government has withdrawn rules for exempting these classes from the payment of fees. The poor amongst them were formerly exempted from payment of fees. This is a very great hardship on the children of the depressed classes.

The establishment of a scholarship fund is also a desideratum in the educational advancement of the depressed classes.

At Thugaon a village at the distance of 20 miles from Amraoti the Mahar youths there have collected about Rs. 150 (one hundred and fifty) for building a prayer house for themselves based on the principles of Theistic Religion. This sum is not enough for the completion of the building and friends of the Depressed Classes should help them in this charitable work.

In November 1912, Sister Janabai Shinde had come to Berar, and she visited some places in Berar and spoke to the women of the Mahars on various social and religious subjects. Like her brother, she is an earnest worker in the cause of the depressed classes.

List of Subscriptions for the year 1912  - (To see the table No. 1)

Table No. 1
THE DEPRESSED CLASSES MISSION Akola
(Affiliated to the D. C. M. Society of India)

Report for the year 1912

Introduction :
The constitution of the Committee remains unchanged excepting the following additions :—
R. H. Deodhar, Esqr. B.A., L.L.B. Pleader    Secretary.
N. B. Katti, Esqr. Asstt. Master, High School, Akola    .Member.
P. S. Kelkar, Esqr. Weaving Master, S. R. Mills    Member.

Institutions:
This Mission has under its supervision the following institutions :-

(1) The Akola Mahar Wada Night School - This institution has been stopped towards the end of the year under report, owing to very low-attendance. The scholars, who are most of them mill-hands find it very difficult to attend school as the mills are being worked late hours.

(2) The Janoji Free Boarding House for Mahar Students - This is satisfactorily financed by Mrs. Bendrabai at an annual cost of about Rs. 500/- Out of 13 boarders entertained, 3 attend the High School and the rest the Middle School.

(3) The Paras Night School was closed towards the end of the year 1911, and since then has not been revived. The young men who were in want of such a school there have taken that advantage of it which they could and there cannot be new young men so soon found to take their place.

(4) The Akot File Night School has similarly been closed in the beginning of the year under report, as the boys — most of whom were mill-hands-could not attend it, owing to the late working of the mills.

Meetings :
There was held only one business meeting of the committee during the year, when one secretary and two members were added to the workers. Weekly prayer-meetings were held at the Janoji Free Boarding house on all Sundays, except during the vacation. Prayers and hymns were generally recited and Manache-Shlokas by Shree Ramdas were explained. The boys were taught to sing bhajans by Mr. P. S. Kelkar.

Progress and needs :
The Night Schools in a place like Akola must progress well; but the attendance goes very low owing to the system of late-work at the mills, where young men of the low-castes are generally employed. The Boarding House is a necessity and is going on satisfactorily. However it must be in a position to provide for more boarders than now and more direct supervision and guidance to the boys on a tutorial basis, are urgently required.

Accounts :
Income and Expenditure for the year 1912 - (To see the Table No. 1)

Table No. 1

Visits :—
Out of 18 visitors to the Janoji Boarding House, who have all been pleased to record their satisfaction, mention must be made of Dr. Miss Nagutai Joshi of Amraoti; Mrs. Bayabai Thakur, of Bombay Seva Sadan; Mr. Spence, Ag. Director of Public Instruction, Central Provinces; Mr. Kilroe, Inspector of Schools, Berar Circle; Mr. Sathe of Amraoti; Mr. Deshpande of Yeotmal; R. B. Khaserao Jadhav; Prof. Arte, Mr. Sardesai and Mr. Ghanekar of Baroda; and Mr. Laxman Shastri Lele of Poona. The distinguished visitors of Baroda have expressed their satisfaction regarding the Mahar-Wada Night School.
Y. G. Agarkar
(Secretary, D. C. M. Berar Branch, Akola, 10th January)

THE DEPRESSED CLASSES MISSION, Dapoli
(Affiliated to the D. C. M. Society of India)

The Third Annual Report
(For the year ending 31st December 1913)

History :
Dapoli Taluka includes a considerable number of people belonging to the so-called low castes. Amongst them are some Mahars and Chamars who have served as commissioned officers in the army and have followed other occupations in the different parts of India and now live in Dapoli on the pensions and other means earned by them.

The authorities have lately directed that these low caste boys should be admitted to Government schools without any charge for tuition. The Government have also reserved as many as 10 scholarships for the boys of these classes exclusively by way of direct encouragement to them.

I am sorry however that a considerable portion of these communities have not realised the importance of these concessions and have not yet availed themselves of these facilities of providing education to their children.

Mr. H. B. Clayton, Collector of Ratnagiri gave Rs. 10 as donation to this society.

Students : This year two boys have passed in the 3rd standard examination in the English High School and are promoted to the 4th standard. Another boy aided by the Committee studying in the English High School, Dapoli felt discouraged by his failure in the 6th Standard, but the Assistant Collector of salt appointed him a clerk in the Salt Department, Manranji.
The number of students is as below :—

English 6 Standard 1                      

English  4 Standard 2    = 3


Marathi 7                     Standard  1        

Marathi 6                     Standard  1

Marathi  2                    Standard  3

Marathi  2                    Standard  5

Marathi  1                    Standard  6

Infant                         Standard  8
Techical  School           Standard  1

                                  Total  25


I am glad to note that Rev. A. Gadney has opened a separate class for Depressed Classes girls and 14 girls are in the class now.

One boy has passed in 2nd grade drawing this year.

Receipt and Expenditure statements - (To see the statement Table  no. 1)

Table No. 1
THE DEPRESSED CLASSES MISSION, Malwan
(Affiliated to the D. C. M. Society of India)

Report for 1912
In the year two meetings were held. First on 15th September 1912 for sending delegates from the low castes to attend the D. C. M. Maharashtra Conference, at Poona and for discussion as to the building of a hall at Malwan for the low caste people, and the second on 22nd December 1912 for considering the request of three more students wishing to be helped.

Some members of the Society hereof visited the Malwan Government Low caste School 5 times in all. Each time the students of the School were inspected and advised as to cleanliness. The number of students is increased this year. The distribution of rice 14 sheer per present day per poor student by the Society has much contributed this year to the increase of average attendance over that of the last. Now the gentlemen of our Centre who were indifferent before are evincing a respectful tendency towards the Society and its cause. A great want is felt for a hall to be built at Malwan for the low caste people, spacious enough to accommodate at least 200 people of both the low as well as high caste for the social and spiritual uplift of the former. A meeting was held on the 15th September 1912 for the purpose in which it was resolved that the subscription should be raised and a committee was appointed of 5 persons viz., 1. Mr. Krishnarao Sitaram Desai, 2. Mr. Baburao Gopal Waradakar, B. A., 1st Asst. Master, Anant Shiwaji Desai High School, Malwan, 3. Mr. Shivram Vithoji Gaokar retired Nazir, 4. Mr. Rayaji Dattatraya Pai, Inamdar and 5. Mr. Sitaram Gundoba Keni. The Committee intends to undertake the work in the near future.

There are four more Government Marathi Low Caste Schools in the Malwan Centre viz. at Dhamapore, Achara, Masura and Hadi villages.

Income and Expenditure Account of the year ending 31st December 1912 - (To see the  Account  Table No. 1)

Table No. 1
THE DEPRESSED CLASSES MISSION, Satara
(Affiliated to the D. C. M. Society of India)
Report of The Year 1912
There are two schools for the Depressed Classes in Satara both teaching up to the 5th standard (Vernacular). The day school was originally started by the Local Prarthana Samaj in 1902 but has since been taken up by the town Municipality. The number of boys in the Day School was 48. The other in the night school solely managed by the Prarthana Samaj. The number of boys in this was 38 as against 28 of the year before.

This school is maintained on private subscriptions and a grant-in- aid given by Governments. The progress of the schools was satisfactory during the year under report as will be seen from the following remarks in the visit book. "The (day) School was closed for some months on account of plague. I inspected it in all the subjects that were taught and found its progress to be in a pretty good state."
14-8-12.    Sd. MAHAMAD
        (Assist. Dy. Ed. Inspector)

“The night school was thoroughly inspected and found to progress well.”
26-8-12    G. A. JADHAV
        (Assist. Dy. Ed. Inspector, Satara)

2. The Bhajan Samaj meets every Sunday in the evening in the school premises and occasional divine services are held.

3. The following is the Statement of income and expenditure during the year :— (To see the statement Table No. 1)
Table No. 1

The Trustees of D.C.M. Society remitted to this Committee Rs. 15-8-0 as the interest on Mrs. Rukminibai Tilak Fund for the year 1911. The amount was spent as below :—
  Rs.    A.     P.
  10     6      0     Text-Books to Night School boys.
  2      10     0     Books to Master Subhaji S. Kamble.
  2       8      0    Books to Master Pandurang P. Bhosle.
_____________
 15      8      0

4. That the low caste communities have begun to understand the value of self reliance and self-help is obvious from the fact that several numbers attended the Depressed Classes Conference lately held in Poona. The imputs given by what they saw in Poona on that occassion has induced them to organize a District Conference for this District in the ensuing hot season and Mr. Mahadeo Nanaji Savant, the Head-Master has already started on a tour through the District for the purpose of awakening public opinion and creating interest among the numbers of the Depressed Classes by means of lecturing at meetings in various places. The committee hopes that the ensuing conference will be a success.

5. In the Shimaga holidays sports and other healthy entertainments were arranged to divert the people from indulging in obscene songs and filthy games. It is to be noted that a large number of people belonging to the Depressed Classes abstained from the usual loose and obscene practices and what is still more note-worthy, abstained from drinking, swearing which they would abandon it for ever.

6. There are some Co-operative Credit Societies formed by members of the low castes. The Bhangis Co-operative Society, which was organised some 3 or 4 years ago and whose work has already been reported in previous years reports after having been able to wipe off all their old debts and have been able to lay by a good deal. Out of the savings they are now building houses and are making other improvements. They have given up drinking as the members of the Society are able to exercise a check upon one another and this has had a very healthy effect upon their daily life. The Chambhars and Dhors are prospering in their trade and some of the Mangs have turned out excellent tailors and by their joint capital are enabled to buy cloth and make into fine clothes ready for sale.
R. R. Kale
(Hon., Secretary)
Satara, Feb. 1913.

THE DEPRESSED CLASSES MISSION, Thana
(Affiliated to the D.C.M. Society of India)
Report for the year 1912
1. The only one low caste Municipal school which was located in a rented house, has now been removed in a portion of the school building, which is used by the children of touchable classes. This has given to the D.C. boys more opportunity of observing the manners of the boys of superior classes.

2. Five Meetings were held during the year.

3. The system of awarding Scholarships has been continued by the Municipality. The question of Night School is still under consideration, and most probably will be settled favourably shortly. The Chokha Mella Bhajans are held in the temporary shed erected on a piece of land granted and approved by the special officer of the Revenue Department. During the year under report ready-made new clothes sent by Mrs. Advani from Surat were twice distributed to the boys and girls and sweet-meats distributed twice. The last distribution of clothes took place on the 12th December 1912, the coronation day in presence of the Members of the Mission Committee and Members of the School Board Committee of the Thana Municipality, in the School; and the poor children from the Free Church of Scottish Mission were also given clothes.

4. The population of the Depressed Classes in the vicinity of Thana is on the increase, as more Bone-Mills are springing up in the District. The prospects of the labourers in the Bone-Mills are more prosperous. There is also a great demand of the low class labour in the Railway Department, as the Railway line from Kalyan and Bombay is being quadrupled. In the Bone Mills boys above 8 years age earn fair wages, therefore the parents do not send their grown up children to school. The vice of liquor drinking among the low class population on the whole is on the increase.

5. The Bombay Centre will be good enough to send their missionaries frequently to inculcate the advantages of education, and disadvantages of the habits of liquor drinking, and observing cleanly habits, &c. It is our firm conviction that the status of the low caste people will not be improved, until and unless religious training is given to them. The step in this direction is that the Prarthana Samaj should establish its branch at Thana.

SANTOOJI RAMJI LAD
(Hon. Secretary)
Bombay Road,
Thana, Feb. 1913.

महर्षी विठ्ठल रामजी शिंदे समग्र वाड्मय

   संपादकीय
   महर्षी विठ्ठल रामजी शिंदे यांचा जीवनपट
   प्रस्तावना
   विभाग पहिला - प्रबंध
 -    सामान्य आलोचन 
 -    पुरातन अस्पृश्यतेचे निरुपदर्शन
 -   बौद्ध कालांतील अस्पृश्यता
-    मनुस्मृतिकालीन अस्पृश्यता   
 -   उत्तरयुगीन अथवा अर्वाचीन अस्पृश्यता
-    ब्रह्मदेशांतील बहिष्कृतवर्ग
-    संख्या आणि लक्षणें
-    नांवांची व्युत्पत्ति व इतिहास
-    धर्म 
-    सामाजिक स्थिती
-    राजकारण
   विभाग दुसरा - लेख व व्याख्याने
 -   Elevation of the Depressed Classes
 -   A Mission for the Depressed
     Classes : A Plea
 -   The Depressed Classes Mission Society
      of India
 -   बहिष्कृत भारत
 -   निराश्रित साहाय्यक मंडळी
 -   भारतीय निराश्रित साहाय्यकारी मंडळीची संस्थापना
 -   डिप्रेस्ड क्लासेस मिशनची चवथी जयंती
 -   एकनाथ व अस्पृश्य जाती
 -   अस्पृश्यवर्गाची उन्नती
 -   डी.सी. मिशनचा १७वा वाढदिवस
 -   अस्पृश्यतानिवारणाचा आधुनिक इतिहास
 -   अस्पृश्यता व हिंदूचा संकोच
 -   पूर्व बंगाल्यातील अस्पृश्यवर्गाच्या उच्च शिक्षणाची प्रगती
 -   अस्पृश्यांचे शेतकी परिषद
 -   अस्पृश्यांचे राजकारण
   विभाग तिसरा - परिशिष्टे
 -   १८९८ सालचा रोजनिशीतील उतारा
 -   अस्पृश्यांचा गैरसमज
 -   स्वाशय निवेदन
 -   हेच आमचे उत्तर
 -   अस्पृश्योद्धाराच्या मार्गातील धोंड
 -   अस्पृश्यता घालविण्याचा बिनतोड उपाय
 -   अस्पृश्यतेचा प्रश्न
 -   सांप्रदायिक अस्पृश्यता
 -   महर्षी शिंदे व महात्मा गांधी यांच्यातील पत्रव्यवहार 
   साउथबरो कमिशनपुढील साक्षी
     o    महर्षी विठ्ठल रामजी शिंदे
     o    ॉ. बाबासाहेब आंबेडकर
     o   श्री भास्करराव जाधव
     o    श्री गणेश आकाजी गव
 -   Brahm Samaj The Depressed Classes
     & Untouchability &  V. R. Shinde's work
 -   V. R. Shinde : Thakkar Bapa
   विभाग चौथा - अहवाल
 -   The Mission for the Depressed Classes
     (1906-1912) 
 -   The Depressed classes Mission society
     of  India
 -   The Second annual Report (Depressed
     Classes Mission Society of India
 -   APPENDIX A TO -
 -  The Fourth Annual Report Depressed       
    Classes Mission Society of India

-   List of Donors Subscribers  
 -   APPENDIX A TO -
-   The Fifth Annual Report
 -   List of Subscribers
-   The Sixth Annual Report
-   The Fourth Annual Report-Poona Branch
The Depressed Classes Mission
    society of india
The Depressed Classes Scholarships
 -   भारतीय निराश्रित साहाय्यकारी मंडळींची
     महाराष्ट्र परिषद सन १९९२                
 -   भारतीय निराश्रित साहाय्यकारी मंडळींची
     महाराष्ट्र परिषद पहिला
दिवस        
 -   भारतीय निराश्रित साहाय्यकारी मंडळींची
     महाराष्ट्र परिषद दुसरा दिवस
 -   भारतीय निराश्रित साहाय्यकारी मंडळींची
     महाराष्ट्र परिषद तिसरा दिवस
 -   परिषद फंडाकरिता मदत देणा-यांची नावे
 -   पुण्यातील मेहेतर लोकांच्या अडचणी   
 -   भारतीय निराश्रित साह्यकारी व साह्यकारक मंडळी