Brahm Samaj The Depressed Classes & Untouchability & V. R. Shinde's work

*11. BRAHMO SAMAJ, THE DEPRESSED CLASSES, UNTOUCHABILITY AND Shre V. R. Shinde's Work

1. Introduction

The lofty ideal that inspired Rammohun Roy, the first and foremost thinker of modern India, in founding the Brahmo Samaj, was the great vision of a united, free, and theistic India. But while seeking his inspiration from the philosophical and religious works of ancient India, particularly the Vedanta, he was never obsessed by the Vedantic doctrines of Maya (illusion) and Karma (effect of deeds on future birth). Deeply versed in the ancient traditions, he rose above the prevailing pessimistic view of life, and deprecated the callousness with which social inequalities were viewed by his contemporaries. One of the pet sayings of Rammohun was, "Beradar (brother), Beradar (brother), the service of Man is the service of God." Almost echoing Jesus Christ, the great lover of humanity, he used to say, "If you cannot love and serve man, whom you see, how can you love and serve God, whom you do not see? As a consequence, all men who came under the influence of the Samaj took up social service as a part of their religious devotion. Every domain of social reform, whether it be the abolition of caste, or the uplift of the depressed classes, or the education and emancipation of women, or the discontinuance of child marriages, or the introduction of widow remarriages, came within the scope and formed a necessary part of the programme of the Brahmo Samaj.
Ever since its foundation, the Brahmo Samaj has kept before itself the ideal of brotherhood of man. The Brahmos are not satisfied with the mere removal of untouchability, nor even with the uplift of the backward classes, which is a much more important and arduous task;  but they have from the beginning directed their energy towards exterminating the root of the evil, viz. the caste system, which has brought about this unnatural degradation of a large number of people. Untouchability is more or less the manifestation of this greater evil, the caste notion, — the attitude of mind that looks upon. Man as not one but many, born high or low as the result of Karma in another life, and destined through life to remain as such. Setting its face against this inhuman mental attitude, the motto that the Brahmo Samaj has always followed is, Ek Dharma (one religion), Ek Jati (one caste) and Ek Bhagavan (one God). The traditional Hindu attitude towards the lower classes is well expressed by a Sanskrit verse, — Papayonayah striyo vaisya statha sudrah, — (these are of sinful origin, women, vaisyas and sudras). The great Keshub Chunder Sen, the third apostle of the Brahmo Samaj, while leading a choral procession through the streets of Calcutta in the year 1868, proclaimed in no uncertain voice the basic equality of man in a Bengali Hymn which is now regarded as the embodiment of an essential truth of the Brahmo belief :-
"Nara nari sadharaner saman adhikar,
Jar achhe Bhaktl pabe mukti, nahi jat-bichar."

(All men and women, without exception, have equal rights. One who has bhakti, i.e. devotion to God, will attain salvation. There is no distinction of caste.)

The hereditary caste System in India has been productive of many social evils. It has given undue pre-eminence to the priestly class, leading to all the evils of unrestrained sacerdotalism; it has degraded the lower ranks of society; it has divided and subdivided the Hindus of the country, till all feeling of the unity of race is almost dead.

We learn from Pandit Sivanath Sastri, the greatest leader and minister of the Sadharan Brahmo Samaj, that from an early period of the history of the Brahmo Church, i.e. from 1860, there have been vigorous efforts to break the tyranny of caste. From that time the younger generation of Brahmos under the leadership of Keshub Chunder Sen openly and scrupulously discarded everything associated with caste. The Brahmans among them abjured the caste notion by burning their sacred thread, others by contracting marriages with women of different castes. Not only were anuloma forms of inter-caste marriage (i.e. those in which the bride was of a lower caste) celebrated, but these early reformers did not hesitate to perform numerous pratiloma marriages (i.e. those in which the bridegroom was of a lower caste.) Some of these marriages were between parties that could not ordinarily even touch each other for fear of ceremonial pollution. Though bitterly persecuted, the Brahmo Samaj never abated its zeal in this direction in its history of a century. To the Brahmos, therefore, social equality is not merely a policy adopted under the stress of circumstances, but a creed, an essential part of their religious practice.

The Brahmo Samaj has been maligned by those whose vested interests have been subverted by its rigorous anti-caste propaganda. Sometimes, alas, it has been misunderstood even by those whose amelioration and uplift have been so much its concern. For untold generations our unfortunate countrymen of the backward classes have been so contemptuously treated by the upper classes, that when the work of social uplift was inaugurated amongst them by the sons and daughters of those who had hitherto kept them under their heel, they could not for a time appreciate their noble attempts, and looked upon them with suspicion.

On the other hand, some detractors of the Brahmo Samaj used to say that its work was confined among the educated classes only. For a time, indeed, Brahmos were repeatedly baffled in their efforts to reach the unenlightened masses. But during the three decades and more of the twentieth century, God has blessed their perseverance with an amount of success, for which they have ample reasons to be thankful. We propose to give our readers an account of both their unsuccessful and successful attempts.

As the sufferings of the depressed classes are most intense in Southern India, and as untouchability is prevalent there in its most severe form, we propose to deal first with Mr. V. R. Shinde's work in those parts.

Shree V. R. Shinde's Work
The Depressed Classes Mission Society of India

During the early years of the first decade of this century, the attention of Mr. V. R. Shinde, who was then a Missionary of the Bombay Prarthana Samaj, was drawn by certain efforts at advancement put forth by a few members of a depressed class, who had happened to come under his influence as a missionary. He then set himself to a special study of the problem of the uplift of such communities, and came to the conclusion that what was needed was not mere machinery of education, but an organisation in which the personal element would enliven the whole, and which would at once develop and reform the traditions and the religious and social life of those people.

In October 1906 the late Mr. D. G. Sukhadwala, Vice-President of the Bombay Prarthana Samaj, gave one thousand rupees as an initial contribution towards the funds of such a Mission, and forthwith Sir Narayan Chandavarkar, President of the Samaj, was invited to inaugurate the Mission by opening its first school at Parel on the 18th of that month.

In September, 1908, the Mission received from H. E. Sir George Clarke, then Governor of Bombay, Rs. 3467-13-6 as the proceeds of a concert given in aid of the Mission by Miss Clarke. In 1912 the Trustees ot the estates of the late Mr. N. M. Wadia gave an annual grant of Rs. 6000 for three years ending in December 1914, which enabled the Mission to develop its Free Boarding Institutions and Technical Schools. A princely gift in 1913 of Rs. 20,000 from H. H. Maharaja Sir Tukoji Rao Holkar of Indore resulted in a scheme of a Home at Poona.

The Society is now an independent body seeking to promote the interests of the Depressed classes in the whole of India as far as opportunity and finances allow.

The Society had, till 1924, several incorporated branches under it, and a large number of affiliated centres throughout the country, with over 70 educational institutions. The total annual expenditure of the Society was then considerably over Rs. 30,000. Besides the headquarters in the city of Bombay, there were the following incorporated branches :— Poona (Maharashtra Branch), Nagpur (Central Provinces Branch), Hubli (Karnatak Branch), Bangalore (Tamil Branch). Since then the Hubli Branch has been closed.

The largest Centre of the Mission is at Poona with the following institutions — (1) The Central Primary and English Boys’ School, (2) The Debate and Sports Club, (3) The Bhajan Samaj and Sunday Classes, (4) V. R. Shinde Free Reading Room, (5) Tailoring, Carpentry and Painting Classes, (6) Bhangi Hatti Feeder School, (7) The Students' Hostel, (8) The Ahalyashram Girls’ School, (9) The Ahalyashram Night School, (10) Dr. Khedkar Free Medical Dispensary, (11) The 9th Poona City Shahu B. S. Troop, (12) The Weekly Sangat Sabha.

Besides these institutions, the offices of the Deccan Adi-Hindu Social Club, The Adi Hindu newspaper, and the Anti-untouchability Conferences are located in the Ashram of the Mission.

The Report of the Poona Branch for the three years ending on 31st March 1926 had the following para about its origin :-

“Without initial funds, with scanty promises of pecuniary help, many of which were not fulfilled, but with strong faith that God would help, a Day School was opened in a rented upper story of a Marwari’s house, in the Centre Street of Poona Camp on 22nd June 1908. If we look back to the last seventy years we can find that in the early sixties of last century a band of men charitably disposed towards the Depressed classes, with the late Mr. Jotirao Phule, the founder of the Satya-Shodhak Samaj, and its most active members, had started a school for the Depressed classes of Poona. So far as we could find out after much careful investigation, it can be stated that this was perhaps the first school of its kind in India, the seed as it were, of our present Society. Out of the area of about 10 acres, now in our possession, 7 acres originally belonged to this School."

New Buildings opened in 1924 —The following new buildings were opened by His Excellency the Right Honourable Sir Leslie Wilson, Governor of Bombay, on the 28th October, 1924, the foundation having been laid in 1921 by H. H. Sir Shri Kantirava Narasimharaj Wadiar Bahadur, G.C.I.E., Yuvaraja of Mysore.
Table 1 (To see the table click here.)

The total Government grant received on account of these buildings was Rs. 87,118, the Mission having spent Rs. 25,197-8-0 from its own funds.

The Progress attained by the Depressed classes — The following is an extract from the Annual Report of the Poona Branch, submitted on the 5th September, 1921 by Rev. V. R. Shinde, the General Secretary, and adopted by the Committee — "Perhaps the Mission will reach a stage much sooner than supposed in these days of rapid development, when it may cease as a Mission, and continue as an Association of the Depressed classes for self-amelioration.”

It is a happy sign that the local Depressed classes workers, especially of the Adi-Hindu Mahar Community, are trying to help the Mission by their own humble personal services as well as resources.

The first D. C. M. Graduate — The first graduate of this Mission is Mr. Maruti Kalugi Jadhav, who passed his B. A. Examination with second class Honours in Sanskrit in 1925 through the New Poona College. Mr. Jadhav had been a Hostel student of the Mission at Bombay and Poona for a number of years. Side by side with his studies for the M.A. Examination, he took up part-time teaching work in the Poona Mission Central School on a very moderate salary.

 

Spiritual and Social Activities — Under the guidance of its president, Rev. V. R. Shinde, the Spiritual Work Committee of the Mission tries to serve the Depressed classes spiritually. Daily Prayers, Thursday Night Sangat Sabha, Gita classes, Sunday Divine Services, and Women's weekly meetings are regularly held. Anniversary Days of Buddhadeva, Raja Rammohun Ray, Mahatma Jotirao Phule, Akbar, Shivaji and Shahu Maharaj, Devi Ahalyabai, Sant Chokha Mela, Namdeo and others are observed.

All India Anti-untouchability Conferences

Since the very beginning of the Mission, along with its educational and other constructive work, the founder Mr. V. R. Shinde trained up a band of wholly devoted workers as well as part-time volunteers for the sacred cause of the removal of untouchability, and with their help organised a vigorous propaganda. He attended nearly every session of the Indian National Congress throughout India with a view to promoting the Anti-untouchability movement. The following are the sessions of the All India Anti-untouchability Conferences, which were organized by him with great success :—
Table 2 (To see the table click here.)

The following are the sessions of the Bombay Provincial Anti-untouchability Conferences which were organised by the Society :-

1912 Poona Dr. Sir R. G. Bhandarkar
1918 Bijapore Hon'ble Mr. B. S. Kamat
1919 Sholapur Hon'ble D. V. Belvi
1923 Poona Khan Bahadur D. B. Cooper
1926 Poona Mr. K.G. Bagade
1931 Ratnagiri Mr. vinayakrao savarkar, Bar at Law

All India Anti-untouchability League

Being encouraged with the success achieved in the experiment of the Anti-untouchability movement, Mr. Shinde was emboldened in founding the All India Anti-untouchability League in Poona, and for the first time in the history of the Indian Social Reform movement, the following resolution was passed unanimously in the All India Anti-untouchability Conference held in Bombay in 1918 under the Presidentship of H. H. Sir Shri Sayajirao Gaikwad, Maharaja of Baroda :-

 

“This Conference is of opinion that the condition of untouchability imposed upon the depressed classes in India ought forthwith to be abolished, and for this purpose calls upon influential and representative leaders of thought and action in every province to issue a manifesto abolishing such untouchability and enabling these classes to have free and unrestricted access to public institutions, such as schools, dispensaries, courts of justice, &c., conducted for the public benefit and at public expense, and also to public places such as wells, springs, reservoirs, municipal stand-pipes, burning and bathing ghats, places of amusement, business, and worship, &c. &c."

Proposed by Mr. M. R. Jayakar, Bar-at-Law, Bombay.
Seconded by Mr. Lakshmidas R. Tairsee of Bombay.
Supported by Pandit Balkrishna Sharma of Baroda and Prof. G. C. Bhate of Poona.

All India Anti-untouchability Manifesto With a view to giv'n9 practical effect to the above resolution, an All India Anti-untouchability Manifesto signed by thousands of influential people from all provinces of India was issued through the efforts of Mr. Shinde.

Congress and Untouchability

After strenuous endeavours for ten years, Mr. Shinde eventually succeeded in getting the Indian National Congress in its session a Calcutta in December 1917 under the sympathetic presidentship of Mrs. Beasant, to pass, for the first time, the following important resolution :-

"This Congress urges upon the people of India the necessity, justice, and righteousness of removing all disabilities imposed upon the Depressed dasses, the disabilities being of a most vexatious and oppressive character, subjecting these people to considerable hardship and inconvenience."
Proposed by Mr. G. A. Natesan of Madras.
Seconded by Mr. S. R. Bomanji of Calcutta.

Supported by Mr. S. K. Damle of Poona, and Mr. Rama Ayyar of Calicut.

Carried unanimously
Mr. Shinde further succeeded in drawing the attention of Mahatma Gandhi to this problem in the session of the Congress held at Nagpur in 1920, and in the very next session at Ahmedabad, Mahatmaji incorporated the issue of removing untouchability as an essential plank of the Congress propaganda.

Elevation of the Depressed Classes

Elevation of the depressed classes*
(By Mr. V. R. Shinde, B.A.)
Although the elevation off the so-called last-born classed in India is one of the avowed items of the Social Reform propaganda and the problem receives an honourable mention on the radical platforms — at times even stirring harangues, yet in the name of Truth it must be confessed that it is one which has so long received the least or no real effort. Even the sincerest Social Reformer has not yet done more than bestow a few precious tears of sympathy on these forlorn human communities. The Christian Missionaries — God bless them — have done and are doing a stupendous and noble work in this respect. The British Government, for reasons best known to themselves, have till now stolidly adhered to their once settled attitude of easy neutrality or benign passivity which alas, of late is degenerating into less commendable forms. Apart from these two foreign sources of salvation for these unfortunate classes, I know only two native agencies struggling for their good. If there is any one individual who has done most for these people it is, in my opinion.

HIS HIGHNESS SAYAJIRAO GAIKAWAD
Nearly two years ago, when I visited Baroda and paid my respects the Maharaja, His Highness desired me to inspect specially the low caste day-schools in the City. I readily visited four boys' schools and one girls' school. I was thoroughly satisfied with the work of the schools so far as it went. I dare say in no other city of equal size and population, in this presidency or in this country for that matter, are there so many day-schools so well attended and so well supported. But here too and more than any where else, I witnessed the limitations of doing good to these people. No sooner the pupils finished their Marathi fifth and English second or third standard they would quietly cease to attend the school, since apparently they had no prospects for their hard earned acquirements, unless they could be admitted into the body of Hindu Society and offered equal chance of employments which was impossible. Unlimited philanthropy in this respect was incompatible with strict Hinduism and thus with all the unbounded charity and royal power of   His Highness the schools could not rise above the mere primary standards. I actually saw some Mahar youths that had passed their sixth Marathi standard loafing about in the streets for want of suitable employments. If the new-fangled blessings of education had done any change in these lads, it was that they had cultivated a distaste for their old unenviable work and had preferred a temporary though honourable idleness. In a place like Bombay the situation might be different, but there it is simply pathetic; and as His highness condescended to ask my opinion I had to observe that unless some prospects were opened for such boys not only the growth but even the continuance of the schools would be a matter of doubt. A few months after, I read in the papers of the generous offer by his Highness of handsome scholarships for the low-caste boys in the higher standards as well as in the colleges. The next agency that is making for the amelioration of these classes, although in a very humble way is
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(*Subodhpatrika, 17. 24 and 31 December 1905.)
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THE PRARTHANA SAMAJ
Of the seven night schools conducted by the Bombay Samaj two are mainly for the depressed classes. A generous donor has offered to help them to open two more. The limitations that are hampering the progress of the good work in Baroda are no longer obstacles in the way of the Samaj, but their finances of course are not as unlimited. In this respect the names of Mr. S. Y. Javere and Mr. B. R. Kale, b.a .ll.b. of the Satara Prarthana Samaj are worthy of special mention. They not only tried hard and got the local Municipality to open a day-school for the low caste boys but are conducting under the auspices of the local Samaj a night- school for the adult working people of the same classes, and are also actually elevating to the membership of the Samaj fit persons from among these out-castes, thus finally restoring them to their rightful place from which they were mysteriously dislodged in the loom of the dark ages. In Poona, by the sturdy efforts by the late Mr. Jotiba Fule, two day-schools were started for the low caste boys which have since been owned by the Municipality. The Poona Prarthana Samaj has since last April started two night-schools one of which is for the low castes. The Ahmednagar Prarthana Samaj too about the same time has opened a night-school for the low castes and another for other working people.

SELF-HELP AMONG THE DEPRESSED CLASSES
Such are the very weak and incomplete efforts by the so-called higher classes for the raising of the depressed ones. With all their deliberations and emotions, the actual efforts put forth are egregiously disproportionate to the real vastness of the work. The resources, the energy and the dogged faith of the Christian missionaries alone has had any perceptible results in this field. Nor even the direct achievements of the Christian missions, however mighty they be in themselves, are ever in their distant possibility likely to completely counteract this time old process of depression of such a large portion of humanity. But, be it confessed by all sensible people, the indirect effects of the missionary work can be detected in the faint spirit of self-help that is now gradually emerging out of the long death­like torpor of these down-trodden races. Of the so-called last-born classes the Mahars seem to be an intelligent and honest race. They populate mostly on the Central Maharashtra between Ahmednagar and Nagpur. The work of the Christian mission again is concentrated in this part. Ahmednagar might be considered as their head quarters. Nearly one-fifth of the population of that city is Christians and no doubt nine-tenths of these converts originally came from the depressed classes in the district. Yet there are vast numbers of these classes still holding out bravely against the irresistible allurements of the missionaries, calmly bearing the innumerable insults of the earth below and the adversities of the heavens above. A Mahar teacher in the night-school of Ahmadnagar Prarthana Samaj told us that a big Mahomedan official once asked him wonderingly why it was that his caste people were so foolish to refuse to embrace Christianity which ever so much would better their condition. On my asking what reply he made, he said, "Sir, if I follow after the neighboring ramoshi you will see me bedecked with gold and gems." The man's logic might be far from perfect, but nothing can be more perfect than his loyalty to his lot, his self-respect and self-dependence. This same man takes a leading part in the Social Reform Association of his community recently formed in Ahmednagar. Although Hinduism does not at all deserve the sturdy loyalty of these people, yet the material betterment of their so many brothers, who are now converts to Christianity but were only a while ago their very kith and kin cannot but react on these non-converts and incite them to self-help which is after all the only efficient means of the salvation of a people. Consequently, in several places there are very encouraging instances of effort being made by the depressed classes for this self-elevation.
The Mohapa Low-Caste Association, is I think the first of the reform movements amongst these people inspired with the spirit of self-help. The society according to the information received from the Secretary was started about two years ago in the village of Mohapa, near Nagpore, at the initiative of a Maratha gentleman, and is since silently doing the work of self-improvement by means of lectures and discussions as well as fortnightly meetings for the purpose of religious reading and singing. At present it consists of about 25 avowed members, is propagating its cause by distributing broadcast the printed copies of its object and rules, sending appeals to the several centres of that community in the province. Personal and social morality individual and domestic cleanliness, forbearance from drink and flesh of dead animals and from such other practices that are repulsive to the higher castes, attendance at the religious meetings, interdining among the sub-castes are among the several injunctions. The Secretary, Mr. Kisan Fagu, is a Marathi educated hard-working young man and he also works as a voluntary missionary of the society. Having entered into correspondence with the Postal Mission of the Bombay Prarthana Samaj, he was deputed by the society to attend the last Anniversary of the Samaj with a view to study that movement and was very favourably impressed on the occasion. The hopeful spirit of self-help is steadily spread among these people. I witnessed similar movement on a larger scale in Ahmednagar.

The Somawanshiya Hitachintak Mandali was first started at the village Bhingar in the vicinity of Ahmednagar, on the 10th June last. While on mission tour in that city, I had the pleasure of being invited to address the second monthly meeting of the Association. The meeting assembled in a humble yet neat-looking courtyard in the outskirts of the village at about mid-night; for that was the only suitable time as almost all the members had to work hard till late in the evening for an honest livelihood. And yet to my great astonishment I was ushered into a very orderly and attentive audience of about two hundred souls, including some women, not one of whom betrayed any sign or complaint against the age-long depression they had been victims to. Before I began my address on the message of Brahmoism to the depressed ones, I was requested to read out and explain to the audience the printed rules and appeal of the Mohapa Association. Throughout the occasion I felt a weird never-to-be-forgotten interest for the unaided, unnoticed and altogether pathetic aspirations of this struggling fraternity.

In my last visit to the Association a month ago, I marked a rapid and distinct progress. The monthly meetings had been changed into fortnightly ones and instead of confining them to one place were held in turns in the different quarters so as to comprise the whole neighborhoods. Among other rules that had been unanimously framed before and were then read out to the meeting, one that specially touched me was a strict injunction that a member should never indulge in the censure of or useless complaints against the treatment by the higher castes. There was also a rule as to sending children to school as far as possible. The local Municipality had been repeatedly applied to for a special school for the neighborhoods and they hoped to get one soon. A small library and reading room for the Association was proposed. This time I had the pleasure of addressing at this late hour about 300 people including about 70 women. I cannot help mentioning here two very hopeful features of this reform movement, viz., the old and very orthodox- looking section of the community has seen heartily co-operating with the new fashioned younger generation, that betrayed in their dress and manners the unmistakable marks of contact with the Christian missionaries, Anglo Indian masters, as well as of the scanty modern education that had fallen to their share. Secondly, the movement was gaining strength by being successfully connected with old religious association as far as it is consistent with new aspirations. I counted myself seven grey haired sires of the Mahar community who were patels in the neighboring villages and were devout Warkaris of Pandharpur, as enthusiastically partaking in the Bhajan as in the organization and administration of the Association. I could not help feeling the force of contrast of these features to those in the familiar movement of the so-called higher castes. There is another similar Association of Mahars in the city of Nagar itself. The next midnight, I had to address another meeting of about 200 people organized by this Association. The movement is spreading to Poona and Satara. What a field for the Social Reformer and the Brahmo missionary!

Thus I have tried to review briefly from what little I know, the result of both philanthropy and self-help in this great work of elevation of the depressed classes. If each of these will operate in conscious or unconscious isolation from the other, as it has been the case so long, both will perhaps cease to work out of mere exhaustion. It is for the Social Reform Association and the Prarthana Samaj to devise means to bring both these new forces into a happy and efficient co-operation. These movements of self-help, with all their promise, are yet very new. It is very likely that they may flag away when the flush of novelty wears down. And then it would be too late for any Association or Samaj to enter on the field.

List of Donors Subscribers

LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS/LIST OF DONORS
Table 1 (To see the list click here)
Affiliated Centres

 3. Akola (Berar)    Opened 22nd June 1907
Committee
V. M. Mahajani, Esqr. M.A. (President)
R. B. Deorao Vinayak (Vice-President)
S. C. Hosali, Esqr. B.A., Bar-at-Law (Secretary)
V. D. Bhat, Esqr, B.A., LL.B. (Secretary)
N. W. Harkare, Esqr. (Secretary)
R. V. Mahajani, Esqr., B.A., LL.B. (Treasurer)

Members
V. K. Rajwade, Esqr. B.A., LL.B.
S. D. Cama, Esqr. B.A., LL.B.
N. L. Samel, Esqr. B.A., LL.B.
A. V. Khare, Esqr. B.A., LL.B.
H. B. Parchure, Esqr. B.A. (Asst. Master, High School)
N. B.    Vengurlekar, Esqr. (Drawing Teacher A. V. Schools)

The following volunteers from the Depressed Classes are selected lo promote the movement :-

Mr. Nanduji Shivaji
Mr. Keruji
Mr. Sambhu Ansu
Mr. Luxman Shankar
(All of Akola)

 It was resolved by the Committee that this branch should correspond with the parent Mission as well as with other branches of the same.

The weekly prayer meetings are held at three centres in succession (1) The Maharwada Night School, (2) The Janooji Free Boarding House and (3) Mr. Hosali’s house, on every Sunday morning. At these meetings in addition to reciting hymns and prayers, sermons on religious subjects and lectures on other useful topics are given.

 Events of the Years :-

 Five meetings were held during the year. Two of these were convened by the Committee suggested by the Social Reform Association, Bombay, one in each year when short reports of the annual work were read. The meetings were largely attended by the Mahar community and members of other Hindu castes were present; the Parsi and Mahommedan communities were also represented. The meeting of the second year was kindly presided over by the Commissioner of the Province; the Deputy Commissioner of the Akola District, and the District and Sessions Judge of the West Berar Division, Mr. Kelkar had graced it by their presence. Speakers from all communities took part in the proceedings. The Committee is thankful to Mr. Bashiruddin, liquor contractor of Akola, who in this meeting made a generous donation of Rs. 300 for the work of the mission in response to the appeal made by Mr. V. M. Mahajani for help. In this meeting Mr. Hosali, Bar at-law, declared his intention to distribute clothes worth Rs. 10 to the inmates of the Janooji Free Boarding House. Prizes were distributed by the President in the form of books given by Mr. V. M. Mahajani to the boys of the Maharwada Night School. One prize announced in December 1909 by Mr. H. B. Parchure to be awarded to a family that would be found always keeping their house and surroundings clean in the Akola Maharwada was won by Bhivsen. The prize consisting of clothes worth Rs. 6-6-0 was also given at this meeting to the man and his wife. Similarly prizes in books were given to those of the inmates of the Janooji Free Boarding House who showed good work in Sunday lessons.

 The depressed classes themselves held in the two years under report, three meetings, one at Paras and two at Akola. These were of the nature of 'Bhandara,’ when all caste people joined at a dinner and Bhajan party. Taking advantage of the occasion the leaders of the caste invited their sympathisers from other castes to speak on some useful topics. At the Paras meeting, besides some ten gentlemen that specially went from Akola, there were present two ladies Mrs. Yashodabai Agarkar (widow of Principal Agarkar) and Mrs. Vaidya (widow of Ganpatrao Vaidya of the Edl. Department).

 A handloom purchased by the Committee chiefly with the help of Mrs. Bendrabai (Janooji’s widow) was set up at the time of the annual meeting in 1909 as a beginning of an industrial class for the inmates of the Janooji Boarding House. The Committee is trying to secure a teacher for want of whom the class has been closed.

 Institutions under Supervision

 Akola Maharwada Night Class : The class continues to work satisfactorily. The highest standard now reached is the third of the Primary schools. Its present strength is forty. Messrs. Mahajanis as usual defray the expenses with the help of Dr. Kolhatkar and Messrs. Rajwade and Samel, Pleaders. We beg to quote a portion of the remarks of Mr. Rustomji, Offg. Commissioner, who visited the school in September last : “Religious and moral lectures are given on Sundays. One given by Mr. V. M. Mahajani was listened to with great interest. It is to the credit of the Akola town that the gentlemen who have interested themselves in the cause of the Depressed Classes are Brahmins and judging from what I saw the results are most encouraging.”

2. Janooji Free Boarding House :— Mrs. Bendrabai maintains this institution for Mahar students who at present number about a dozen. When the Commissioner visited it in September last he observed, “The institution costs the late Janoo’s widow about Rs. 600 a year. The boarders were in excellent condition and well clothed and evidently Mrs. Janoo takes a personal interest in the boys. The institution does credit to this lady.”

3. Paras Night Class :- The class shows again at present average attendance of 25 which had gone much low during some months past. There are two standards taught. The class is recommended for a grant by the Inspector of Schools.

Other Activities
A night class is conducted by a Mahar gentleman named Poonaji Pairu with the assistance of his caste people at Wadegaon in the Balapur Taluka of the Akola District.

Mr. N. W. Harkare has been helping this centre by his visits to different towns. He has secured for this cause the sympathy of many of the people as well as that of Government officers.

It is sometimes said that the Mahars in this province are well off and that the word “depressed” is wrongly applied to them. We need only say in this matter that these people are generally depressed both socially and religiously, though some families can be found lucky enough to maintain themselves well by handicrafts and contracts. Elevation of these classes, therefore, requires strenuous efforts from all sympathisers to raise funds and find workers devoting themselves to the cause.

 RECEIPTS/ EXPENDITURE 
Table (To see the Statement click here)

 4. AMRAOTI — Berar       Opened 11th Jan. 1909

 History
If ever the question of the Depressed Classes was discussed in this city (Amraoti) it was for the first time in May 1907 when Mr. V. R. Shinde, the General Secretary of the D. C. M. Society of India, visited this city and delivered a lecture on the elevation of the Depressed Classes, in the City Library under the presidency of Mr. Pridaux, the then District Judge of this place. The lecture had a very good effect on the audience. Mr. Shinde then sent in November 1908 Mr. Bhalekar as a Missionary of the Society to work in Berar, who for two months prepared the minds of the people of the various Depressed Classes by lectures, conversations and personal contact. The result was that the well-known leader of the Reform cause in Berar Mr. M. V. Joshi came forward with an offer of Rs. 10 per month which with the assistance of other prominent persons, Mr. Mudholkar, Dr. Bhat &c., led to the opening of the first Night School at Patipura on the 11th of January 1909.

Work

(1) A Night School was opened in Patipura, a suburb of Amraoti on the 11th  January 1909. This locality is occupied by Mahars. On the opening day about 20 Mahar boys were present. This school continued in existence for nearly 12 months.

On account of the cotton season boys ceased to attend the school. Ultimately it was found that the boys and men of this locality did not care even to receive the rudiments of education and so the managers thought it best to close the Night School altogether. The Managing Committee was ready to carry on this school but the people did not like to avail themselves of the benefits of instructions so freely offered.

(2) The Mahajanpura School was opened on the 19th February 1910. It has been in existence now. This school had on its roll on the 31st Dec. 1910, 37 boys. In 1910 average number of learners on the roll is 37.5.

In 1909 the average number of learners was 22.5.

In this school the castes of the learners are as follows :-
Kunbi                        1
Butcher                     3
Mahars                      4
Shepherd                   1
Musalman                  2
Dhor —Tanners of Leather   25
Chambhar — Shoe-maker    1
                            ______
            Total            37

People in the locality are mostly leather tanners. Some of them own fields also. Most of them are day labourers and live by earning daily wages. People are poor. These people are desirous of learning. Mr. Bapuna Dhor & pretty big landholder has given part of his house for the use of school which is held at night from 7 p.m. to 9 p.m. He has also given a clock for the use of the school and a chair.

Mr. Balappa Wani has given a table and a chair for the use of the school. The rest of the materials required for school are purchased with the subscriptions collected.

(3) A night class was opened on 1-10-1909 at Rajapeth. The class is held in the Municipal school. 15 boys on the roll. Daily average attendance 8.4. On the 31st Dec. 1909 there was a daily average attendance 8.4.

On the 31st December 1910 there were 18 boys on roll.

Castes of the learners are as follows :
Marathi Teli            2
Gujar                    7    
Mali                      1
Kunbi                   4    
Gondhali               1            
Kangar                 1
Kumbhar(Potter)   1
Rajput                  1
                   ______
        Total            18

The classes are held from 7 p.m. to 9 p.m.

All the 18 learners in this school are day labourers and earn their living by wages. The people are poor. There is no scope for other class or school in this locality.

The following extract is taken from the Government Education Report published in the C.P. Gazette :-

The education of the Mahars, Mangs, Chamars and others of the lowest castes advances slowly. There is considerable difference of opinion as to how far this is to be ascribed to opposition of the higher castes and how far to the apathy of the lower castes themselves. No doubt the backwardness of these classes is to be referred to both causes; but there are unmistakeable signs of a change especially in the South of the provinces. The more sophisticated of the Mahars and other low castes have acquired new ambitions and a wider outlook; in one town there are Mahar Municipal members, in another a Mahar newspaper has been established. This activity on the side of the low castes finds its compliment on the other side in the schools for low castes which were established by Brahman gentlemen in Berar. (The Italics are ours.) In spite of these evidences of progress, it is still reported from Berar that although wherever there are Government or Board School buildings, Mahars are allowed to study inside the buildings, the Masters frequently neglect them in favour of boys of better castes : while in schools held in private buildings, members of the untouchable castes are relegated to the verandahs.

The following are the names of gentlemen who subscribe towards the expenditure of these two schools.
Table  (To see the name chart clik here)

Monthly income from subcriptions from the above named gentlemen is Rs. 19. Monthly expenses on these schools amount to Rs. 19.

G. N. KANE
N. S. BHANGALE
(Hon. Secretaries)
Amraoti, 15-1-11

5. DAPOLI    Opened

Second Annual Report of
THE D. C. M. SOCIETY, DAPOLI
(For the two years ending 31st December 1910)

Committee
Mr. Sayad Abdul Rahman Kadri (Pensioner) [President]
Mr. Sadashiv Laxman Salvi.
„ Sakharam Laxman (Pensioner) [Subhedar]
„ Sadoba Sakharam.    ,,        ,,
„ Nagoo Balooji (Pensioner)
„ Mahadev Raghoji Chinchwadkar.
„ Shivram Ramji Talsurkar.
„ Laxman Pamji Khopkar [Assistant Secretary]

(Dr. Waman Ambaji Warti, Secretary and Treasurer, having been transferred from Dapoli, the President has the additional charge of these offices from the year 1911.)

History
Dapoli Taluka includes a considerable number of people belonging to the so-called low castes. Amongst them are some Mahars and Chamars who have served as Commissioned Officers in the Army and have followed other occupations in different parts of India and now live in Dapoli on the pensions and other means earned by them; but age is helping the cruel hand of death in snatching away some of them every year, and as the doors of the Military Department have lately been closed against these communities, as being the undesirable castes, it has become impossible to see amongst them new pensioners and others earning a decent living. Some of them have a record of meritorious services in the army, and if some public-spirited gentleman could come forward to take up their cause and induce the benign Government to re-open the doors of the Military Dept, to them, he would certainly earn for himself the ever-lasting gratitude of these humble people.

On their own part, some of the members of these communities have in the past tried the means at their disposal, and I am glad to observe that their efforts have met with some measure of success. Their boys had no access to the local vernacular school before 1894. Unable to put up with this degrading position, they moved the Government authorities concerned in the matter and the authorities were gracious enough to order that their boys should be admitted to that school just as boys belonging to other castes.

The authorities have lately gone a step further by directing that these boys should be admitted to the said school without any charge for tuition. The Government have also reserved as many as 10 Scholarships for the boys of these classes exclusively, by way of direct encouragement to them.

I am sorry, however, that a considerable portion of these communities have not realised the importance of these concessions and have not yet availed themselves of these facilities of providing education to their children. I have already stated above that the social status of these people living in this town is becoming worse every day. Under such circumstances, some of the leading members of these communities and a few sympathisers, on hearing of the work of the Depressed Classes Mission Society of India acquainted themselves with it. Being advised and encouraged by the general Secretary of that Society, they convened a meeting of the residents of this place and the adjoining villages, in the maidan on the 16th November 1908 under the Presidency of Mr. Sayad Abdul Rahman Kadri, a leading Mahomedan pensioner residing in the town. The meeting was attended by several prominent members of the untouchable classes and their sympathisers from other castes. It was resolved that organised efforts should be made to rescue the depressed classes from their present undesirable condition and to induce the younger members of these communities to take advantage of the educational facilities which exist in Dapoli. His Excellency Sir George Clarke, Governor of Bombay, and his late lamented daughter, Miss Clarke, were warmly eulogised for the interest taken by them in the depressed classes. A committee was formed to collect donations and subscriptions and to arrange the necessary details in connection with that work.

WORK
Attempts were made to enlist the sympathy and co-operation of the prominent residents of the Taluka and appeals for help have been responded to not only by the more intelligent and well-to-do members of the depressed classes but also by leading members of other communities. Some members of the committee personally waited on.

Mr. Gibb, Commissioner, Southern Dn.
„ Maconochie, the then Collector of Ratnagiri.
„ Khareghat,    District Judge                „
„ Phadnis,        „    „            „
„ Dixit,            Asst. Collector                „
„ Divatia,        „    „            „
„ Garrett        „    „            „
Captain Irani, Civil Surgeon                  „

and explained to them the aims and objects of the Society and succeeded in securing their aid in a tangible form. Mr. G. C. Whitworth, I. C. S., formerly a Judge of this District, was pleased to send us a cheque for Rs. 30 from England, unsolicited. Miss F. Chistell gave some donation to this Society. Further, I am very happy to note that Rao Saheb V. H. Barve, the leading Banker and Inamdar of this place has promised this Society Rs. 150 in 5 annual instalments of Rs. 30 each. Our best thanks are due to such kind-hearted gentlemen for their sympathy and support.

Students — This year two boys were sent to the High School. They have passed their first standard examination and have been transferred to the 2nd standard.

The Society looks to the wants of these and other students and provides them with scholarships, clothing, books, stationery, soap, and in fact, everything that is necessary for a student.

Particular attention is paid to their cleanliness and the pupils are provided with soap every Saturday. They wash their clothes on Sunday and present themselves in a neat, tidy dress on Monday. The necessity of a daily bath is also pointed out to them with success.

The number of students is as below :—

English 5th      Standard    1
    „      2nd             "        3
Marathi 5th             "        2
   „       4th             "        3

Marathi 3rd              Standard    1
   „       2nd                      ”        8
   „       1st                       „        6
   „       Infant Class                    6

30 boys and 5 girls. Total 35.*  One boy is in the Technical School.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

* (Including 2 at Vakavli)

 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

I am glad to say that one boy has passed in the 3rd grade and 4 boys in the 1st grade Drawing Examination.

By way of encouragement to the School-going children of these classes, it has been decided to award prizes to them on the day on which the annual meeting is held.

Local Facilities

With regard to the education of these classes this place enjoys some special advantages that are denied to other localities. The first and foremost of them is that this place possesses a Mission High School of a long standing under European Management. The Principal of the Institution, the Rev. Mr. Gadney, admits these boys without any charge and shows a keen interest in their education and welfare. As already mentioned above, these boys are also admitted into the Marathi Schools free of tution fees. There are two Technical Schools in the Taluka, one at this place and the other at Vakavli — a village some 5 miles off.  They owe their existence to the late Dr. Vishram Ramji Ghole’s splendid beneficence and provide instruction in Drawing and Carpentry free of charge. The Committee has decided to help 4 boys studying in the School at Vakavli. The Rev. Mr. Gadney has also made similar provision for girls of these classes in his Girls' School. A few scholarships have, as mentioned above, also been reserved at the Vernacular and Technical Schools solely for the boys of these classes. In short, unlike other places, which have to maintain a separate school for low castes, with a separate building and staff of teachers, this place provides every facility for the education of these low caste boys. But the resources of the society at present are limited and unless the public make sympathetic response to our appeals, we can never hope to make provision for a considerable number of boys who are anxious to join the schools.

Supporters

I am glad to note that Dr. Nair of Messrs. N. Powell & Co. has been giving a monthly scholarship to a boy studying in the English 5th Standard, and Mr. S. P. Khopkar, in memory of his grand-father, the late Pensioner, S. M. Khopkar, gives 2 Scholarships to the first two boys studying in the English school. Our sincere thanks are due to all these gentlemen for their sympathetic assistance.

The Bombay Depressed Classes Mission sent a number of clothes to our girls with Mr. Sayad Abdul Kadir, as part of the gift from Miss. Krishnabai Thakur of the Swadeshi Vastu Bhandar of Bandra and she deserves our hearty thanks. I must also acknowledge the kindness of the “Rohidas Hitavardhak Mandali” of Bombay in sending a compass box as a reward to one of our students.
Table (To see the statement of Income and Expenditure click here)

6. INDORE                            Opened 24th April 1910

One day-school has been conducted for 15 months and a night class for about 4 months since the submission of the last report. The average attendance of pupils during that period was 6.

Meetings of the Managing Committee were twice called but the members could not meet. Out of six members only three are present in Indore and even they could not meet together. Once, when I wanted the opinions of the members on a proposal, I had to circulate it and could obtain the opinions of only two members.

Some of the donors and subscribers have not paid up till now though they were reminded many times.

Those Chamar boys who attended the Day School for a time were, on reaching the age of about 10 years, withdrawn from school by their parents who got them employed for 3 or 4 Rs. a month. This way the number of boys decreased gradually.

Then we tried to secure an increased attendance by paying something monthly to the boys who studied well and also to those who induced other boys to join the school. But this did not continue long, as the boys not being satisfied with what we paid, left in search of other employment. This is all due to the parents not caring for the education of their children.

Anyhow the school was conducted as long as money could get collected, enough to pay the teachers and other expenses. When funds ran short, Mr. K. S. Kelkar left teaching in the school. Only two boys who liked to study (one studied the 4th Marathi Standard and 1 st English Reader and the other 3rd Marathi Standard and English Primer) continued their studies privately under Mr. K. S. Kelkar for sometime and then under Mr. R. K. Nagarkar and now there being plague in the city, they have gone out.

One of these Chamar boys is desirous of going to Bombay to learn but his brother is not willing to send him and wants to engage him in the Chamar work.

Following is the list of Donors and Subscribers with their donations and  subscriptions noted against them from the beginning, i.e., May 1907.
Table 1 (To see the list of Donors and Subscribers click Table 1)

(To see the Statement of Accounts click Table 1)

7. MADRAS                            Opened January 1909

Committee    
Hon'ble Mr. Justice C. Sankaran Nair, C.I.E. - President
Mr. S. Kasturiranga Aiyengar, B.A., B.L. - Vice-President
Mr. V. Govindan, B.A., F.Z.S. (Lond.) - Secretary
Mr. H. Balkrishna Rao, B.A., B.L. - Treasurer

Members
Mr. V. Radhakrishniah, B.A., B.L.
Mr. S. Somasudaram Pillai, B.A., B.L.
Mr. Ratnavelu Mudaliar, B.A.
Mr. M. A. Jayaram Pillai
Swami Brahmananda
Mr. E. Subbukrishnaiya (Asst. Secretary)

Bankers
The Bank of Madras

Office
97, Anna Pillai Street, G. T. Madras

Origin
Early in January 1909, Mr. V. R. Shinde, B.A., General Secretary of the Depressed Classes Mission Society of India, convened a meeting of gentlemen interested in the work to consider measures to be taken for starting work in this Presidency for elevating the condition of the depressed classes in these parts. As a result a temporary committee with power to add to their number, was formed to establish and manage a centre for work in Madras, on the lines of the Depressed Classes Mission Society of India, which has for its objects the elevation of the Depressed Classes by means of (1) promoting education, (2) providing work, (3) remedying their social disabilities (4) preaching to them the ideals of Religion, Morality, personal character and good citizenship.

Our Work
As a humble beginning a day school was opened in the Vyaserpaudy Paracheri with a qualified teacher but as there was no accommodation available, the school had to be held under the shade of a tamarind tree for several months till a piece of land was leased and a tiled shed constructed thereon, for the purpose at a cost of about Rs. 160. This school has grown beyond all expectations, and has at present on its rolls 55 pupils with two qualified teachers. This school has been recognised by the Education Department as a Grant-in-aid Institution and at the examination held a few months ago the Sub-Assistant Inspector of Schools has expressed his satisfaction with the work done during the period under review. As work was progressing in this locality application was received from the Chucklers of Perambore to open a school in their neighbourhood for the benefit of their children and a day school was accordingly started with a teacher in the Bhajan Covil (temple) belonging to these people at Perambore. This school has also been recognised for Grant-in-aid and has a strength of 25 pupils. Later on, as it was found that there was a large number of youths in these two localities, who being day labourers were not able to attend the day schools and as they were very desirous of learning to read and write English and Vernacular, two Night Schools were also opened for their benefit which have a strength of about 50 pupils at present.

Workers
In addition to the paid staff of teachers attached to the four schools, the Committee have secured the services of two special workers who visit the different localities inhabited by the Depressed Classes in and about the city and speak to them on various topics connected with their improvement, foremost of which being the subject of temperance and cleanliness. The Committee think that a good deal of their depressed condition is due to their intemperate habits and all outside efforts will prove futile unless the drink habit is eradicated from them. A large number of these people in these two localities earn decent wages but owing to their intemperate habits they are hopelessly indebted to the money-lenders, who advance them money at exhorbitant rates of interest. The committee however hope that with persistent preaching it is possible to create, gradually a little sense of self-respect in them, and with this view meetings for the elders are held on Sundays and other holidays at which the workers and sympathisers interested in these people speak to them on subjects such as the evils of drink, the importance of cleanliness, the value of co-operation, the education of their children and allied subjects.

Visitors
Our schools were visited during the period under review by several leading Hindu gentlemen amongst them being, Babus Hem Chandra Sircar, M.A., and Sudhir Chandra Banerji of Calcutta, and Mr. K. N. Dewal of Rangoon, who very kindly collected a decent sum of money for our work from Burma. A number of students of the local colleges also visited these localities in company of the workers and from time to time gave treats to these school children.

Moffussil Visits
In addition to the work carried on in Madras our Workers visited Trichinopoly, Madura, Tinnevelly, Salem, Kurnul, Guntur, Masulipatam and Cowtharam for enlisting the sympathy of the public in those places.

Other Means Adopted
The Committee have also published several tracts, popularising the movement and opened a Reading Room at Perambore which has been supplied with newspapers and other publications by several gentlemen and publishers of the vernacular literature, to all of whom the Committee would express their thanks. A few public meetings were also held under the auspices of the Society in connection with their work.

Finance
The Committee started work without any funds in their hands but they are glad to state that their appeal was readily responded to by the generous public in and out of Madras, donations having been sent even from distant places like Rangoon and Insein. They are greatly indebted to all who have thus readily helped them and among others the Committee cannot but mention the names of Mr. S. Ratnavelu Chetty, Dubash, Messrs. Best and Co., who had promised Rs. 1,000, out of which he had already paid Rs. 500 towards the formation of a permanent fund, and Messrs. V. Radhakrishnaiya and M. Venkatasubba Rao who have been contributing a monthly subscription of Rs. 10, since the very beginning of our work, which liberal support went a good deal to overcome the initial difficulties which are incidental to such new efforts. The total receipts during the period amounted to Rs. 1860-1-4, and the disbursements to Rs. 1,194-1-5, leaving a balance of Rs. 665-15-11, out of which Rs. 600 has been placed in fixed deposit with the Bankers.

Constitution
After carrying on the work for over one year the Committee have come to the conclusion that nothing but a thoroughly organised society could cope with the magnitude of the work for which there is such a vast field in this Province, where the condition of the Depressed Classes is much worse than elsewhere in India. With this view the Committee have framed rules for giving a constitution to the Society and have thrown open the Membership to all who are interested in the well-being of these poor classes of our fellow-beings who form nearly a fifth of the total population of India.

Conclusion
Considering the vastness of the work to be done in this direction and the limited resources at their disposal the Committee cannot hope to attain any appreciable degree of success without the hearty co­operation of the public, who, they have no doubt, will fully sympathise with their efforts and that their appeal will not be in vain for pecuniary and other help which will be extended to them by those who have any idea of the work they are doing, and who are in a position to render the same.

Statement of Accounts of the Depressed Classes Mission Society, Madras, from the 19th February 1909 to the end of 30th November 1910
Table (To see the Statement click here)

Table (To See the  List of Donors and Subscribers click here)
8. MAHABLESHWAR                 Opened November 1910

Mr. V. R. Shinde during his visit to this station in May 1909 organized a Drawing Room Meeting at the Government House under the auspices of Lady Muir Mackenzie. Among those present were the Lord Bishop of Bombay, the Chiefs of Miraj and Aundh, Dr. Mackichan, Dr. Abbot, Mr. Damodardas Gowardhandas, Mr. H. A. Wadia, Major Jameson, the Superintendent of the Station, presided over the meeting. A branch of the Depressed Classes Mission was started with Mrs. C. E. Jameson as the Hon. Secretary and Treasurer. A fund which had been previously collected, about Rs. 900, for a similar purpose, was handed over to the Local Committee. About the end of the year, Mrs. Jameson published in the Times of India of December 22, 1909, a report of the work. It was as under :—

"Sir, — I should like, through the medium of your paper, to bring to the notice of the subscribers of the above Branch, the work that has been successfully started here at Mahableshwar. An Industrial School for the very poor men, women and children living on the hill was opened in the middle of November. There are altogether forty seven workers, a far greater number than was anticipated. Three teachers have been kindly sent to us from the American Mission at Sirur, and they are teaching tape weaving and rope making, both very simple industries, but this is necessary owing to the age of the people, the majority of them being too old and maimed for other work. These people seem very grateful to be able to earn a small livelihood, and I wish to thank again all those who have subscribed to the fund. I am sorry to have to say that the amount collected is in no way sufficient to carry on the work of such a large school. There are a great many expenses connected with the starting of a work of this kind, and I had hoped some of those who are so interested in it would have presented the school with the looms and other necessaries."

"Mr. Damodar Gowardhandas gave a handsome present of cotton yarn and hemp. Being so far from the railway, the cartage of material alone is expensive. Visitors to this hill complain greatly of the beggars and are desirous for work to be provided for them. I am very sanguine that the work which has been so successfully begun will eventually succeed in not only removing the begging nuisance, but establish a useful industry for the old and decrepit of these hills. For the first year at least it must necessarily be an expense with very little profit financially, and I trust that many of those who visit Mahableshwar will help to carry on the work by subscribing to it. Any subscriptions will be gratefully received and acknowledged by the Hon. Secretary and Treasurer (Mrs. Jameson).

The following is a list of subscriptions received this year up to date :- The Hon. Mr. Nowrojee Vakil Rs. 200; Mr. H. A. Wadia Rs. 100; Messrs. D. M. and N. M. Goculdas, Rs. 100; Mr. Cassamally J. Peerbhoy, Rs. 51; Mr. Sorabji Dadabhoy Dubash and Mr. Kawasji Dadabhoy Dubash, Rs. 51; The Lady Ali Shah, Rs. 50; Sir Vithaldas Thackersey, Rs. 50; Mr. Dhanjibhoy (Rawal Pindi), Rs. 50; Dr. J. Batliwalla, Rs. 50; Mr. and Mrs. J. Modi, Rs. 30; previously collected in 1905, Rs. 845.

The monthly expenditure at present is Rs. 200 roughly which will soon eat up the small existing capital. Of course the present large expenditure is only temporary until the work has been learnt by some of the local people, and then it is expected that the industry, after say a year, will be nearly self-supporting. Until then, I hope, I shall not appeal in vain to those who are possessed of this world’s riches, to help their fellow creatures to be of some use instead of an annoyance in the world."

Mrs. Jameson further reported in February 1910 :-

“I take in only deserving cases—very old and decrepit men, women, and a few widows and orphans. They all seem happy and grateful. The grown people receive 2 as a day and the girls and boys 1 anna 6 pies. They work from 8 to 11 and 2 to 5.”

Mrs. Jameson reported to the General Secretary in February, 1911, as follows :—

“I am glad to be able to report that the work at the above school is progressing favourably. There are now 34 regular attendants, and except for 8 orphan children, they are all old men and women, for whom the school was originally started. The chief industry is the making of ropes, for which there is a fair sale, and in a short time, I hope to monopolise the local rope trade. Before last rains an aloe plantation was started near Mahableshwar, but it will be another two years before we can use these plants for retracting fibre, and until then the expenses must be heavy.

Mrs. H. A. Wadia has very kindly promised a new building for the school, in memory of Lady Muir Mackenzie. It is hoped that it will be finished before the rains, as the rent of the present house occupied by the school, being Rs. 200 per annum, is too heavy for our small Industrial School."
C. E. Jameson, (Honorary Secretary)

9. MANGALORE                            Opened 1898
The Mission maintains the following Institutions :—
1. The Day School.
2. The Boarding House.
3. The Industrial Institute.
4. A Colony of Panchama Families.

The Day School — The school is one of the Primary Grade teaching up to the Fourth Standard which completes primary education, and is manned by three teachers two of whom are Panchamas. The pupils were divided into 5 classes viz. the Infant, I, II, III and IV. There were 50 boys and 12 girls on the roll in 1909 and 57 boys and 12 girls in 1910. The Sub-Assistant Inspector of Schools who examined the school, recorded the following remarks about the general condition of the school and The progress made by the pupils.

Annual Inspection 4-12-09

"The school is provided with a good building and is well equipped. The staff consists of two teachers one of whom is trained and the other has passed the 4th standard examination. The progress is satisfactory on the whole. More attention may be paid to writing. Kolattum and drill are taught well. In the lower classes seed placing, stick laying and paper folding and clay modelling are taught and some of the pupils of the higher classes take part in weaving. The singing and drawing of the boys are particularly satisfactory, all the pupils without any exception being Panchamas. The geography of the locality may be introduced in the 3rd and 4th classes under general knowledge and some games also in lower classes. Story telling and dramatising may be done in all the classes in future as explained now. The general condition of the school is very satisfactory and reflects much credit upon the management. I would recommend 25 p. c. more in the grant.”
(Sd.) N. KRISHNA RAO, B.A.
(Sub-Assistant Inspector of Schools)

Annual Inspection 3-12-10

“The accommodation and equipment of the school are sufficient. The teaching is on the whole satisfactory. Singing, occupations viz. clay modelling, paper cutting, seed placing and weaving and physical exercises such as native gymnastics may be pronounced to be good - Arithmetic, however, requires more attention in the 3rd and 4th classes. Considering that the school is attended by Panchamas only, I may say that very useful work is done here to elevate this backward and down­trodden class. The grant according to the scale comes to Rs. 110-10; but the manager who spends a lot of money upon the school and some of his energy in improving this community deserves something more.”
(Sd.) N. KRISHNA RAO (Sub-Assistant Inspector of Schools)

All pupils receive free education and are supplied also with books, stationery, dress and umbrellas. As the parents are extremely poor and the children come from different directions and from distant places, a mid-day meal is provided to the children in the school. Training in weaving, gardening and other manual labour is also given to the pupils. Moral and religious instruction of an undenominational character is given to the pupils by three gentlemen who do the work out of love for it. Exercises in singing and drill and lessons in hygiene are given by the class teachers themselves.

The Panchamas of this district who are a most degraded people bear very ugly names such as Pig, Cat, Rat, Thorny Fish, Flat Fish, Wild Dog, Barking Dog, Earth Worm, Centipode, &c. About 13 years ago, some time after our school was started in a Village near Mangalore, a change was introduced in the names of the Panchama children by giving them better names when they were admitted into our school. This reform seems to have had good effect on the community.

Our Daily Rice Fund — This fund was started by Mr. V. R. Shinde, B. A., General Secretary of the Depressed Classes Mission Society of India, at the time of his first visit to this station in 1907. 70 families — Hindu, Mahomedan and Christian were supplied with bags in which doles of rice were put by the ladies of the house twice a day. 19 young men undertook to visit these families once a week on Sundays to collect the rice and take it to the depot of the Mission. The number of bag-holding families as well as that of the rice collecting friends has since decreased. Four young men continue to do the work of collection as a pious duty. The total rice collected was 77 mooras and 13 seers. Over and above this quantity of rice, a cash expenditure of Rs. 367-2-5 was incurred for giving meals to the school children and the boarders.

The total cash expenditure incurred on account of the school and the boarders was Rs. 862-6-9 out of which Rs. 90 only was a grant from the Municipal Funds for the year 1909. The Grant for the year 1910 is expected to be paid to us in the course of the next month.  The aforesaid expenditure does not include the value of the rice collected from bag-holding families and other presents in kind as well as occasional dinners given by donors.

The Boarding House — This is an institution intended for grown up Panchama youths. The boarders live permanently in the school premises and are not allowed to go home without permission. They are forbidden liquor and smoking. Special attention is paid to give them training in habits of cleanliness and good manners. Moral and spiritual instruction is also given to them. This institution is maintained in the hope that these youths when discharged from it and permitted to return home might exercise a leavening influence amidst their community. We are glad to state that our experiment has been a success. The maximum number of youths admitted at one time is 8. Seventeen youths were admitted in the course of last two years of whom 9 were discharged. These youths work in the Industrial Department during their spare hours and serve as watchmen at night, in the premises.

The Industrial Institute — Weaving formed the main industry in the institute during the last two years. It is under the supervision of an expert Christian weaver. Out of 6 looms (fly shuttle), five are worked by Panchama youths who do gardening and other manual labour also. The Mysore Exhibition granted us Merit Certificates for our checks and bedsheets and the Secretary of the Lahore Exhibition informed us that a Merit Certificate for our stripped cloth has been granted to us. The total income was Rs. 3141-11-7 and expenditure Rs. 3579-4-6 respectively. At the end of the year 1909 there was cloth of the value of Rs. 1495-6-5 in stock. The cloth in stock at the end of 1910 has yet to be examined by the auditor.

Owing to the competition of the power looms of Manchester and Italy, there is not enough of encouragement to this industry. We could not therefore increase the number of looms. The six looms are maintained for the benefit of the Panchamas specially and the cloth is sold to them for cost price. Other industries will be started in due course as funds become available.

Eri Silk Culture—An Experiment was made in December last in Eri silk culture. A friend supplied us with some Eri silk worms got from the Government Agricultural Research Institute of Pusa. The experiment has been successful. The climate of this district seems to be suited for rearing the silk worms of this species and the castor plants the leaves of which are food for these insects which grow abundantly here. An advertisement has been set up in the local vernacular papers to popularise this industry and make it a cottage industry in this district if possible. The worms and the cocoons are kept in the premises of the institute for exhibition.

The Panchama Colony—The Panchamas of this district are, as class, day labourers living on other people's land in scattered miserable squat huts called Kels. They do not live as a compact body as their brethren do in Paracheries on the East Coast. Our Panchamas are an extremely miserable people who have become slaves to the passion of toddy drinking. Any slight attempt on their part to improve such as the wearing of a clean cloth or the holding of a cloth umbrella is construed by the other classes as impudence and invites bodily injury. The work of amelioration of these classes in our district has thus become very hard. Our fourteen years' experience has brought home to our minds that mere elementary education and even training in industries cannot go a great way to improve the condition of these people. We therefore divised the Colony scheme as the best means of improving their condition.

We have come to possess 26 acres of land which we are going to parcel out among the Panchama families on Mulageni  which is a kind of permanent tenure obtaining in this district whereby the tenant acquires a perpetual and hereditary right in the land that cannot be defeated by the land-lord at his will and pleasure. This scheme is calculated to bring together a large number of houseless Panchamas and to give them the strength of union and a consciousness that they have property of their own to love. It might also render easier our work of giving them education and training them in habits of economy, temperance and cleanliness or otherwise ameliorating their condition. The rent payable by these occupants will be a source of income to the Mission and will therefore go to benefit themselves. We have to build 60 homesteads and 15 wells, a school and a hospital, and a Home for the blind, the crippled and the infirm, who on account of their untouchability and extreme poverty are quite helpless and cannot freely resort to the philanthropic institutions started by the higher classes or by the Government.

 A generous hearted gentleman of the Bombay Presidency, on coming to know of our scheme made an anonimous grant of Rs.600, which gift came to us as a godsend. We purchased 7 1/2 acres of waste ground for Rs. 1,000 and the Government at the recommendation of our Collector, was pleased to give us about 18 acreas of land for the Purpose. The Collector also assigned 100 palmayra trees as charity on behalf of the Government. The District Board sanctioned a pucca well to be built at their cost for the use of the occupants. 26 houseless families have already come forward to occupy the land and 18 of them executed leases, 4 wells have been already completed. The scheme would have made progress had not the storm of May 1909 which was a general calamity on this coast, demolished three houses, blocked up one well and damaged the building of the school and the Industrial Institute.

The land has been at present divided into 6 blocks. It is proposed to dedicate one of them to Mrs. Annie Besant whose remarkable public utterances here on the importance of our humble work, during her visit to our institution importance early in 1909 and the testimony she bore our it in the Theosophist of February 1909 gave an impetus to the cause of the depressed. Another block will be dedicated to Khan Bahadur M. Azizuddin Saheb, our former Collector whose sympathy for our work brought us amongst other benefits, a benevolent gift of land by the Government. One of the biggest wells will be dedicated to Rao Saheb N. Sadashiva Pillay of Port Blair whose active sympathy with our depressed fellow beings popularised our movement in the Andamans and brought us large money help. Enormous money is required to push on the colony work and we confidently hope that it will come to us.

The total expenditure incurred on account of this scheme in the course of the last two years is Rs. 898-10-0.

The total income of the Mission during the said period from all sources is Rs. 5,314-15-6 and the expenditure Rs. 5,280-5-3.

Our accounts are being audited now. Fuller particulars of the working of the Mission as well as the list of donation received by us, will appear in our report which we hope to be able to issue shortly.

Dr. L. P. Fernandes of St. Mary's Pharmacy, Mangalore, not only gave us pecuniary help but also medicine to our children and staff, and paid them visits free of charge. The Committee is deeply grateful to him and other friends of the Mission.
K. RANGA RAO
(Secretary)
Court Hill, Mangalore,    
6th February 1911

10. MANMAD                        Opened 11th May 1907

Pupils — There is now at this centre a Day School with about 30 pupils — the daily average attendance being 20, and a Night School with 12 working youths, the daily average attendance being 5. There are two teachers for the Day School and one for the Night School. On every Sunday morning the boys meet for Bhajan and the Sunday Class.

The School Hut — A plot of ground 130 ft. by 100 ft. on the bank of the river was rented from Sardar Balasaheb Vinchurkar, who is the President of this centre, and a karvi  hut was erected in 1909, sufficiently large to accommodate 30 pupils, with a tiled roof. A well has been sunk in the north-eastern corner of this plot which has now fresh water. All this was done with the help of the school children out of their school hours.

Temperance and Cleanliness — The work of the Temperance League is going on well and the teachers continue as before to take all their pupils on every Wednesday and Sunday to the local river where the latter bathe, wash and swim.

Visits and Inspection — The Deputy Edl. Inspector of the District and also the Deputy Collector, R. S. Khopkar, visited this school last year and have recorded their satisfaction. Mr. V. R. Shinde, the General Secretary, visited this centre twice and sent Mr. L. Aidale who worked at this centre for more than a month, and Mr. G. A. Gawai who worked in this District of Nasik for about 6 months. I had to be absent in Belgaum nearly the whole of the last year and could leave behind no one to look after the work. But for the above help from the Head Quarters in Bombay, this centre would have been closed. I am very thankful for this help.

The Anniversary — The Third Anniversary of this centre was celebrated in May 1910, for three days, with great enthusiasm. A Pendal was erected for the purpose and was decorated with pictures and foliage. Every day Bhajan in the morning was followed by refreshments, games and amusements. Mr. Gawai, agent of the D. C. M. took part in these celebrations.

RECEIPTS/EXPENDITURE : 1909 and 1910
Table 1 (To see the statement click here)

11. SATARA                           Opened 1904
I have the honour to submit the following report giving a short history of the movement in Satara for the elevation of the depressed classes during the last decade and a brief account of the work done during the last two years. In the year 1898 certain Mahar military pensioners used to attend the weekly meetings held for divine service by the Satara Prarthana Samaj and their number was about 20. Gradually other Mahar brethren joined the Samaj. These latter were quite illiterate and it was therefore thought desirable to start a small institution and provide for the spread of primary education among them. This was accordingly done in 1902 and a small school was started and maintained by private subscriptions. Sometime after, through the efforts of Mr. R. R. Kale, Vice- President and Chairman of the School Committee of the Satara Municipality that body was induced to take charge of the school in the year 1904. From that year the municipality has maintained a Day School for the Depressed Classes. Most of the boys are Mahars and Mangs and the following figures will show the progress made by that school:—
Year     No. of boys   Year    No. of boys
1904       28                1908      41
1905       41                1909      51
1906       35                1910      57
1907       42
After the Day School was taken over by the Municipality a Night School was started for the grown up working class members of the Depressed Classes who could not attend the day-school owing to their being engaged in their daily occupations. The school was managed by the Satara Prarthana Samaj and Mr. S. Y. Javere, the Secretary of the Samaj succeeded in securing for it a Grant-in-aid four years ago. This school is maintained by private subscriptions and a Government grant. It must be noted here that the subscribers are very few including one or two Europeans. The progress of this night-school can be gathered from the following figures. Most of the boys are Mahars and Mangs.
Year    No. of boys    Year    No. of boys
1905        09              1908            18
1906        13              1909            21
1907        15              1910            27
This night-school was started under the auspices of the Local Prarthana Samaj and is called the Satara Prarthana Samaj Night-School. After the retirement of Mr. Javere who was the life and soul of this institution the school is managed by Mr. R. R. Kale who has all along taken an active and sympathetic interest in the institution and in the cause of the reform of the depressed classes generally. Last year and this year meetings were held in the Local Arthur Hall simultaneously with the meetings in Bombay, posters being published all over the town. They were fairly well attended all sitting together without any distinction of the untouchables, the last meeting being addressed in particular by Mr. G. K. Devadhar of the Servants of the India Society. In April 1910 a large gathering of the boys was assembled in the Arthur Hall when Mr. C. E. Palmer gave away books and clothes to the boys in the presence of a respectable audience. In November 1909 His Excellency the Governor was kind enough to visit the school when he expressed himself satisfied with the progress of the institution and was graciously pleased to give a handsome donation of Rs. 200 to be applied towards the distribution of clothes and books to the boys. In April 1910 the Hon. Mr. Morrison who was then Commissioner of the Central Division was kind enough to pay a visit to the school and he gave a liberal donation of Rs. 30. Mr. G. C. Whitworth, formerly Sessions Judge, Satara, who is now in England has also sent a cheque for Rs. 50.

In May last Mr. Naik of Bombay came here with a view to have these schools affiliated to the D.C.M. Society of India when he gave a discourse to the boys of the two schools and Mr. R. R. Kale distributed sweetmeats to the boys in connection with the Thread Ceremony of his son.

The most noteworthy event during the past year was an educational conference planned and arranged by members of the low caste community themselves. This meeting was held on the 16th January 1911, the death anniversary of
Mr. Justice Ranade and was presided over by Mr. R. R. Kale, Government Pleader. That the low caste community has begun to understand the value of self-reliance and self- help is clear from the fact that donations to the extent of Rs. 25 and monthly subscriptions of Rs. 6-6 were subscribed by the members of the community, on the spot. This meeting was addressed by Rao Bahadur Pathak, Mr. Ghanekar, pleader and Mr. Devadhar of the local N. E. School and three representatives of the low caste community viz. Mr. Shripati Chandati, Mr. Dhor Master and Mr. Krishnaji Hari of Karhad. The business of the conference came to a close by the appointment of a committee of ten representatives of the low caste community with a helpers committee from the high caste community to discuss and arrange the programme of the work of the conference and by the closing speech of the Chairman.

Another move in the direction of improving the condition of the depressed classes is the formation of a Co-operative Bank of the local sweepers on the 28th of September 1909 mainly by the praise worthy efforts of Mr. V. G. Chirmule, Pleader, the Chairman of the Local Municipality assisted by Mr. Kale, Dossabhoy Manekji and others. The Bhangees were in debt over head and shoulder so much so that every month ¾ of their pay nearly went to satisfy their creditors. These were no other than the Pathan Sowkars who charge very exorbitant interest
and who used to be present at pay time in the Municipal Office and seize the money as soon as it fell, into the hands of the Bhangees. This had reduced the Bhangees to beggary and hence it was that a few individuals came forward to advance money to settle their debts with the Pathan creditors and after the Society was formed they were able to pay off the debts of about 20 members of the Society amounting to more than Rs. 500 and they have today a balance of upwards of Rs. 200 in their Bank. The bank is managed by a Committee of sweepers themselves with an advisary board and their condition is gradually being improved, one notable feature of the improvement being the abstinence Irom intoxicating liquors among a large majority of the sweeper community of Satara.
Such in brief is the nature of the work that is being done in Satara and it is hoped that the work will spread in course of times when funds are collected.
R. R. KALE
(Hon. Secretary)

12. THANA    Opened 17th October 1909

Report of the Branch of the Depressed Classes Mission Society at Thana, from its establishment up to the end of December 1910
(REPORT FOR THE YEAR 1909)

The Branch of the Depressed Classes Mission Society was opened with the object of improving the Moral and Social status of the low-castes living in the town of Thana.

An inaugural meeting was held on the 17th Oct. 1909 in the Maidan opposite to the District Court, Thana.

The meeting was graced by some of the leading Prabhu gentlemen, when all the classes mingled freely with each other. About 200 men from the low caste community were present on the occasion. The object of the Mission was explained to the low caste community by Mr. Padhye, B.A., LL. B., as to the advantage of education placed at their disposal by the local Municipality.

Among other speakers were Messrs. B. H. Shringarpure, Sule, Sindhkar, R. B. Gupte and Deshmukh.

To carry out the work of improving the condition of the Depressed Masses, the following Committee was appointed
Chairman

Mr. P. V. Gupte, Retired Judge of the Small Causes Court, Poona.

Secretaries and Treasurer
Mr. R. B. Gupte, B.A., LLB.
Mr. K. A. Padhye, B.A., LL.B.
Mr. Suntoji Ramji Lad, Secretary and Teasurer

Members
Mr. B. H. Shringarpure, B.A., LL.B.
Mr. R. A. Sule
Mr. Munshi Fazal Ali
Subhedar Janojee Bhagoji Dewalker Subhedar
Mr. Luxumanjee Havildar Balaram Dewalker

As there is a separate Low Caste School established by the Municipality in the town, the Working Committee decided in the first instance to visit the School. In 1909 the School was visited by the Mission Committee members 4 times. On the 1st visit to the School they found 8 boys on the Muster Roll, while only 3 were present in the School. The Committee on its first visit to the School found the teacher greatly unwilling to mix with his pupils on account of religious scruples. This matter was represented to the Municipal School Board Committee, who had to change two teachers. The last teacher was found to be willing, who took interest in his pupils’ education. The School teaches 3 Vernacular Standards in 1909 twice sweetmeats were distributed to the pupils and once clothing. Several times at leisure the members of the Committee visited the low caste locality and pursuaded the parents to send their children to School. Since then the attendance and number of pupils have been improving.

In December 1909, a letter was addressed to the Government for improving the condition of the low castes. Copy of the letter with its reply from the Government is hereto appended.
Statement of Income and Expenditure for 1909
Table  (For see the PDF click here)

REPORT FOR THE YEAR 1910
The School was visited 8 times by the Committee members during the year.

The number of pupils has increased from 8 to 32 during this year; in this number there are six girls attending the school.

The Municipality has been awarding scholarships from the month of July 1910 to the pupils attending the School regularly 15 days in a month at the following rates

3rd Standard pupils 4 annas a month.
2nd    do    3    do
1st     do    2    do

The Working Committee has sent in proposals to the Municipality for opening a Night School for labourers who cannot avail themselves to attend the School during the day; also permission has been asked by the Working Committee to impart moral instruction to the pupils in the School
building during recess hours.

During the year under report clothing was distributed to the pupils and also sweets were distributed.

The Working Committee has sent in through the Collector of Thana a letter of condolence to be forwarded to Mrs. Jackson in her sad bereavement, as the late Mr. Jackson was the President of the Depressed Classes Mission Society at Nasik.

The sudden death of the late King Emperor Edward VII the Peace Maker was a blow to the whole civilized world and the Committee of the Mission paid their humble tribute to the memory of His Majesty in another letter to Government

Statement of Receipts and Expenditure for 1910
Table  (To see the Statement of Receipts and Expenditure click here)
A meeting was convened by the Working Committee of the Mission on the 27th November 1910, in the Kreedabhuwan under the Presidentship of Mr. C. E. Palmer, I C. S., District Judge, who distributed prizes to the students in the shape of clothes, books and sweetmeats. In his presidential address, Mr. Palmer exhorted the Mission to see that even physical education of the students was not being neglected, and instanced the case of Satara, where the Mission Centre was doing useful work.
SUNTOJI RAMJI LAD

(Secretary and Treasure)
Bombay Road, Thana,
7th February 1911.
The Associated Body
13. KOLHAPUR         Open 14th February 1908

The Society for the Promotion of Education among the Depressed Classes, Kolhapur

Committee
Rao Bahadur Raghunath Venkaji Subnis (President)
Rao Saheb Bhaskarrao Jadhav (Chairman)
Prof. Mahadeo G. Dongre, B. Sc., L. C. E.
Prof. Annappa B. Latthe, M. A.
Mr. Yusuff Abdul Shekh. B. A.
Mr. Datto Damodar Sontakke, B. A., LL.B.
Mr. Yeshawant K. Dilwar.
Mr. Virbasav S. Shresti, B. A.
Mr. Anant Balkrishna Oalkar, B. A. (Secretary)
Mr. Ganpat Krishanji Kadam, Vakil (Secretary)
Mr. Vinayak Sadashiv Tengshe, M. D. (Auditor)

A meeting of the sympathisers of the Depressed Classes was held in the Jain Boarding House at Kolhapur on the 9th February 1908 in which it was resolved to start a Society of the above name. The 1st General Meeting of this Society met on the 14th of February 1908 in which the constitution of the Society was laid down. The number of members which was 57 in 1908 is now more than 75.

Miss Violet Clarke Hostel
In this city there are Hostels for the Maratha, Jain, Lingayat and Mahomedan students; and the Society thought it desirable to open one for the Depressed Classes students, which was badly needed. H. H. Shahu Chhatrapati most graciously granted the free use of a commodious building and a permanent grant of Rs. 25 per month, towards the Maintenance of this hostel which was named after the late Miss Violet Clarke, daughter of His Excellency Sir George Clarke, Governor of Bombay and a great sympathiser of the Depressed Classes. There are at present 15 boarders in this Hostel maintained at the cost of the Society and are all learning English. They attend the local English School and are looked after by a special teacher who coaches them up in a class held in the Hostel.

The Society was represented by. R. S. Bhaskarrao Jadhav, Prof. Dongre, Prof. Latthe and Mr. G. K. Kadam, in the conference held in Bombay in 1909 under the auspices of the D. C. M. Society of India in behalf of the Depressed Classes.

Public Meetings
A public meeting was held in honour of Sir John Muir Mackenzie and Dr. Harold H. Mann on 25th November 1909 and a Prize Distribution was held on the 7th of March 1910 when Major Wodehouse, the Political Agent, presided and gave away prizes to the students of the Society.

Work in the Moffussil
The Committee is glad to note that a new Society called “The Shahu Society for the Elevation of the Depressed Classes” has been started at Pattankudi in the Petta of Gadinglaza mainly by the efforts of Mr. Tatya Narangouda and Mr. Malhar Narayen Moozumdar. About 20 boys and girls are now attending the local school, with the encouragement afforded by this Society. Prizes were distributed to them by R. B. R. V. Khedkar, F. R. C. S., at a ceremony held on 21st December 1909.

G. K. KADAM,
(Hon. Secretary)
Rankal Ves, Kolhapur,cFeb. 1911.

List of Subscribers

Table 1 (See the List of Subscribers Click here)

Affiliated Centres
3. AKOLA –­­­ Berar      Opened 22nd June 1907
The weekly prayer meetings were held practically at one centre i.e. at Janooji Free Boarding House on every Sunday when in addition to recitation of hymns and prayers a few of Ramdas’ ‘Manache’ Shlokas were explained.

The Depressed Classes held three Bhandars (religious feasts) during the year, one at Thugaon (Amraoti District) another at Mana (Akola District) and the third at Akola, at different times. The movers taking advantage of the occasion invited sympathisers from higher castes with the cause who took part in the proceedings. With the assistance of the people some social and educational topics were discussed at these meetings and resolutions were passed, to guide the community. Besides these Bhandars, on the days of Shimga, Ramnavami, Janmashtami and the Coronation Durbar some members of the branch assembled Depressed Classes people at the Maharwada and Akot File Schools and addressed them on the importance of the day and on topics of cleanliness, abstention from intoxicating substances and on education. On the Coronation Durbar day sweets and medals were distributed'to the students and the school-house was illunimated. At the request of the President Dr. T. B. Bhanage, L. M. & S., Assistant Surgeon, Akola, who voluntarily used to give medical help to the inmates of the Janooji Free Boarding house explained in a meeting of the Mahar people at the Maharwada School the bad effects of drinking on body and mind and the advantages of plague inoculation with the help of Magic lantern.

The General Secretary Mr. V. R. Shinde paid a visit to Akola to collect funds for the Central Boarding in Bombay and to see the work of the Branch. He held a meeting in the Shriram Theatre and performed a Kirtan on the Arya Samaj ground. His Sister who accompanied him collected ladies of the Maharwada at the school and advised them on the duties of women.

Mrs. Ramabai Ranade during her visit to Akola at the end of November kindly saw the Maharwada School at work.
Mrs. Venubai Namjoshi of the Anath Balikashraro, Poona,
Shri Ramdasanudas of Hanuman Gada, Wardha, and Mr. N. A. Dravid of the Servants of India Society, were the principal visitors to the Mahar Wada Night School this year.

A new night school was opened in the beginning of the year in the locality called Akot File where one Mr. Bhikajipant Godbole voluntarily taught upto the end of October when the Committee resolved to make a monthly payment of Rs. 7. As fees in government schools were much increased during the year under report the Boarders were obliged to seek public help to a much larger extent than before and the following gentlemen kindly paid:
Table  (to see the Table Click here)
Mr. Deviram Kondaji, District Nazir, paid the expenses of a suit and Mr. Tipnis paid one Rupee for the clothing of the Mahar boys in the High School to enable them to join in the procession on the Coronation day.

Mrs. Bendrabai conducted the Janooji Free Boarding House, Akola, which cost her Rs. 410. There are three boys who are in High School Standard V and one in the V. School and the remaining eight are studying in the Anglo V. School.
Income and Expenditure for the year 1911

Table 1 (to see the Table Click here)
4. AMRAOTI – Berar        Opened 11th Jan. 1909

There are two Night Schools one in Rajpeth and the other in the Mahajanpura, both suburban places of the city of Amraoti. In the former there are 37 boys and the average attendance is 17. In the latter there are 15 boys and the average attendance 6.2. Mr. Bupana Dhor who has given his rooms for the Mahajanpura school bears the expense of lighting. Mr. Sly, the Commissioner of Berars presented 50 oranges for distribution among the boys.

Celebrations were duly held in honour of the Coronation in both the schools. Mr. Sharangpani addressed the gathering of Dhors assembled in the pavilion specially erected before the Mahajanpura school and distributed the Medals to the students; while Mr. R. V. Paranjpe, Bar-at-law, and Sub-judge distributed them at the Rajpeth School.

The Mahars at Thugaon have organized a Bhajan Samaj i.e. a Theistic Prayer Meeting consisting of about 20 members to promote religious and social reform. Services are held twice a week. They are having a small building of their own. In April 1911 they organized a large conference which was attended by about 2000 Mahars from nearly 80 villages and also by 20 ladies and gentlemen from the higher classes some of whom went specially from Bombay and Poona.

In all Government schools in Berars students of the Depressed Classes are admitted without distinction of castes.
Table  (to see the Table Click here)
5. BHAVNAGAR — Kathiawad    Opened May 1911
(1) An humble attempt is made to open here one school for the children of the depressed classes in Bhavnagar under the auspices of the D.C.M. Society of India. The place where the school is located is called New Dhedwada, which is nearly two miles away from the city, near Roovapuri. The situation of the school is in the heart of the place where these people live. The school is a small building in itself and is sufficient to accommodate the present number of boys and girls and is rented by the mission on a nominal payment.

There are 40 boys and 6 girls attending the school, out of which 28 are in the Infant Class and 12 have just commenced to read the Gujrathi Primer. The girls are in the Infant Class. At present only one teacher on Rs. 10 per mensem is employed, who is a Mahomedan having previous experience in this line and who has worked in a similar school at Amreli. The working time of the school is from 11 a. m. to 4 p. m.

The average attendance of the children is 29 which is rather low and is due to the fact that some of the boys have to go for work on daily wages.

The following are the statistics of the pupils accord to their castes:
Table2 (to see the Table Click here)
The Bhavanagar centre of the D. C. M. owes its existence to Mr. V. R. Shinde, General Secy, of the D. C. M. Society of India, who visited this place in his tour in Kathiawar during the first week of May 1911. He delivered an interesting lecture in the Samaldas College Hall on the 6th of May 1911 on the elevation of the Depressed Classes under the presidentship of Diwansaheb P. D. Pattani, C.I.E., who showed his full sympathy with this movement.

The boys and girls that take advantage of this school belong to the Dhed class. They are an intelligent class of people who have natural tact and capacity for weaving cloth used generally for wear and tear. They produce strong and durable cloth which is put up for sale in the market, proverbially known as Dhed Khadi. Many of them are wholesale dealers in this article. Their dealings are honest with their merchants. Some of them who have a liking for job work have joined the State Railway and have become good drivers and mechanics. Dheds, Mahars, and Bhangis in this Province do not mix with one another for any social function, not to speak of their untouchableness. When there is such a wide gulf between them, all efforts must be made to heal these differences by education.

The school that is opened here is taken advantage of by Dhed boys only. It is maintained by raising public funds and managed by a committee of the following gentlemen:—

Dr. P. Deb (President)
Seth Kuvarji Anandji (Vice President)
Mr. L. B. Vaidya (Secy, and Treasurer)

Members
Seth Mahomedally Abdulally
Mr. Gulabrai G. Desai  
Mr. Vithaldas G. Trivedi
Mr. M. R. Bhatt
Mr. B. G. Mody
Mr. Hiraji Zina
Mr. Ebrahim Jocsub

One of the grievances of the Dheds is the scarcity of water. There is only one well for the whole Dhedwada which is almost getting dried up. On one side the effects of famine are being keenly felt and on the other, scarcity of water. They are hemmed in from all sides with difficulties and untold miseries. This is a most pitiful condition requiring prompt attention from the city fathers. I have therefore addressed the Municipal Secretary and the President of the Corporation on this subject to remedy this evil and to provide the Dheds with pipewater, which work is already in progress.

As a protection from the effects of cold weather it was thought necessary to provide the boys with clothes and accordingly a circular was drawn and sent round to all the sympathisers and subscribers, who contributed their mite promptly to this fund called the Dress Fund for which the Mission is greatly thankful to them. These clothes are prepared out of khadi cloth nicely coloured in khakhi and they are comfortable and decent.

There are 135 houses in the new Dhedwada and the population thereof is 466. They belong to 33 different
sub-castes of Dheds.

The following is the list of the subscribers and Donors

Table 3  (to see the Table Click here)
Donors
1. Mancherji R. N. Ranina, Esq  (10)
2. Sheth Mahomedbhai Osman (05)
3. Sheth Noormahomed Vazir   (05)
4. Chaghanbhai Mavji, Esq.      (03)
                                Total Rs. 23

The following is the list of other helpers who gave the school some materials.
2        Chairs By Mr. J. Gooddard, Telegraph Master.
1        Table by N. J. Rajkotwala, General Merchant.
1        Time-Piece by Chaganbhai Mavji, Esq.
Total 4
Slates and Books were given to the boys on the day of the opening ceremony of the school out of the public funds.

On the Coronation day the state sent us so kindly 33 medals which were distributed to the boys in addition to which they also received sweets for which this Mission is grateful to the state.

The school must have a building of its own quite separate from the dwellings of these people. It must have a spacious compound where the boys can get some manual training. In these days of famine when relief works are started everywhere, if the state gives sanction for erecting such a school building it will have accomplished a twofold object, by helping the famine stricken and supporting the cause of education of the Depressed Classes. The sum required for this purpose will be small which may be granted without requiring a special sanction.

As an experimental measure the tendency of these people should be diverted towards agriculture and farming. They are no doubt good weavers but if some of them be trained in the line of cultivating and gardening, I have no doubt they will be useful in that branch also which is a great need at present. This can be done easily by alloting to them free lands and a loan of money with a small interest on the agricultural banking system which is being introduced in small villages for improving the lot of the cultivators.

Government have passed a resolution in their recent circular that a weaving class will be attached to some school for giving facility to the spread of industrial education with an expert to guide them who will be on his tours in those districts mentioned in the resolution. I think Govt, should be requested to give effect to the scheme among the Depressed Classes schools such as in Bhavnagar where these people follow that trade and if they are made acquainted with the scientific way in which to handle the new handloom machine they will grasp it in a short time.
L. B. VAIDYA
Hon. Secy. Depressed Classes Mission
Bhavnagar
3rd February 1912.

6. DAPOLI — Dist. Ratnagiri        Opened, Nov. 1908
The annual prize distribution was held on the 24th April 1911 under the Presidency of Mr. Sayad Abdul Rahiman Kadri who distributed clothes and books to the children. The boy reading in the 5th English Standard passed that standard and was promoted to the sixth and two others were promoted from the 2nd and the 3rd in that school. Another boy Janu Pandu, aided by the committee studying at Guhagar felt discouraged by his failure in the Marathi Final Examination; but at the request of the committee, Mr. Narayen pillay the Depy, Sub-Inspector appointed him teacher at the lower caste school at Parule. Encouraged by this, he appeared for and passed in the Final Examination this year. A Chambhar woman is appointed teacher in the girl school of the S. P. G. Mission and is receiving a small aid from the Depressed Classes Mission, Bombay. Mr. V. R. Shinde, General Secretary of D. C. M. visited the centre in October last when he delivered a lecture, performed a Kirtan, visited the people at their homes and renewed the sympathy of the higher classes. The committee is thankful to Mr. Brander, I. C. S., The Collector, Mr. Whitworth and Mr. Anandrao Nair of Bombay for their practical sympathy.
S. A. R. Kadri
(President)
Dapoli
20th January 1912.

7. HUBLI — Distr. Dharwar    Opened 7th Sept. 1911
(1) This    Centre was opened on the 7th of Sept. 1911 by the help of Mr. V. R. Shinde, B. A., General Secretary, D. C. M. Society of India, Bombay. The following Committee was formed. Chairman— Mr. K. R. Valveker. Vice-Chairman-Mr. S. I. Kambli, B.A., LL. B. Secretaries and Treasurers — Messrs. V. P. Wagle and T. T. Mudraddi. Members — Dr. S. I. Gore, L. M. & S., Dr. C. H. Deshapande and Mr. R. G. Barpute, B. A.

(2) In Hubli there are 5 classes, which may be included in the term "Depressed Classes” (1) Dhors, (2) Mochis, (3) Holairs or Mahars, (4) Madars and (5) Bhangis. Their condition in life is of course from every point of view the lowest.(3) There are two Municipal Schools meant exclusively for the depressed classes. In one school, there are 40 boys and 34 girls and in the other 37 boys and 10 girls. There are 3 students studying in the Lamington High School, Hubli. The abovesaid 2 schools teach Kanarese upto the 4th standard. There are two scholarships awarded by the Municipality of Rs. 2 each per month to the first boy in the 4th Standard. There are 3 male teachers in the abovementioned schools belonging to the Depressed Classes and one female teacher. The schools are working well; each of the office bearers visits the schools every fortnight. Our Chairman and Vice- Chairman who hold similar posts in the Board of Education in the Municipality are doing all in their power to elevate the Depressed Classes.

(4) Two public meetings of the Depressed Classes were held in their centres. There was a large attendance at each meeting. Different speakers addressed them on religion, abstinence from drink, education, cleanliness etc.

(5) The chief drawbacks, against which the Society has to fight are drink and complete apathy, if not antipathy, towards education. As regards drink we have appointed a committee in each locality to dissuade these people from drinking. We have also selected from among them certain persons, who have received some education to preach to them against drink and on the importance of education.

(6) In September 1911, Mr. Shinde collected here about
Rs. 500 for the Parent Society, and therefore, it was thought inadvisable to approach the people for the collection of further sums for the Hubli Centre just now. Yet we have collected sufficient amount to defray the initial expenditure.
The Centre being only 4 months old, the work done is not of course much but the Committee is trying its best to improve the depressed classes.
VINAYEK P. WAGLE.
Secretary, D. C. M.
Hubli, 12-1-1912.    
8. MADRAS    Opened Jan. 1909
Last year the Society maintained two day schools and two night schools in Vyasarpady Parachery and Perambur Chaklypoly with a total strength of 130 pupils. These schools, especially those at Vyasarpady had done good work during the year and as the number of pupils increased, it became necessary to strengthen the staff by the appointment of two additional assistant teachers. The day schools were examined by the Sub-Asst. Inspector of schools who has reported favourably on them and sanctioned a grant of Rs. 127 for the year. All the schools are managed by experienced and trained staff of teachers and had a total strength of 156 pupils on their rolls at the end of the year. Seeing the facilities afforded by the society for imparting free elementary education to the so called depressed classes, the barbers living in Choolai requested the committee to open a night school in their neighbourhood and a trial school was accordingly opened in that locality which has 20 grown up pupils on the rolls. Applications have also been received, from several depressed classes people living in various localities in and about Madras, for opening schools in their neighbourhood but for want of funds the committee have not been able to comply with their request except by deputing the workers of the Mission to visit their quarters and to speak to them on temperance, sanitation and other subjects.
WORKERS
The committee have two workers who in addition to the staff of teachers paid visits to different localities inhabited by the depressed classes and spoke to them on topics of temperance, cleanliness etc. for their improvement. On Sundays and other holidays moral classes and Bhajans were held at which the workers and sympathisers of the cause spoke to the elderly people on the evils of drink, importance of cleanliness, value of co-operation, education of their children and their moral improvement. This important work which was started from the very commencement of the operations of the society is being carried on successfully and has been the means for securing the help and sympathy of the elders without which it would not have been possible to make any progress in our work. The committee however regret that properly qualified men with real interest in this kind of work which necessarily takes them to dirty insanitary paracheries are not available and till such men are trained, this very desirable item of work will suffer. One of our workers also visited Trichinapoly, Tanjore, Madura and other places with a view to enlist the sympathy of the educated and well-to-do classes in the work of the society.
VISITORS
Among those who visited our schools during the year are Mesdames Marguerite Glotz and Allard from France, Sister Omma and brother Ramananda of the Vaidika Mission and Mr. C. Manikka Moodr of Bangalore. Besides these a number of students of local colleges and other sympathisers of the Mission also visited the schools from time to time in company of our workers and encouraged the pupils by their gifts and advice. On the occasion of the Shraddha of the lateMr. L. Rangiah Chetty, his son Mr. S. Ramanujam Chetty, M. A., B. L. kindly distributed clothes to a number of pupils of the schools and also provided them with a hearty meal. On the last Dasara Holiday a treat was got up for the pupils of Vyasarpady which was honoured by the presence of several respectable Hindu gentlemen. In addition to sports, the pupils acted scenes from the Tamil drama Gajendra Mokhsham which was much appreciated by the audience.
FINANCE AND CONSTITUTION
The Society started the work three years ago depending on the casual donations of the public but as this was not a steady source of income it was proposed to give an organisation to the Society with membership in order to secure regular subscription. With this view draft rules were drawn up and endeavours were made to enroll members but the Comrrtittee regret that they have not yet secured a decent number of members. The Society has now to meet an expence of Rs. 75 per mensem for the pay of the school teachers and allowance paid to whole time workers, rent and other charges and unless this amount could be raised by regular subscriptions it will be difficult to carry on the work already undertaken not to speak of extending the work by opening more schools in response to applications made from other localities. Moreover with the exception of the Vyasarpady School which is held in a tiled shed built by the Committee, all the other schools are accommodated in rented buildings which is not at all a satisfactory arrangement and the Committee will be happy to construct decent school houses for them which in themselves would be attractive to these dirty people. These and other demands on the Committee's resources could be met only by the hearty co-operation of the public and it is earnestly hoped that such co-operation will be forthcoming.
Excluding the last year's balance, the receipts during the year amounted to Rs. 890-11-4 and the disbursements to Rs. 899-8-11 which shows the income was not sufficient to meet the expenditure.
V. GOVINDAN
(Hon. Secretary)
97, Anna Pillai Street,
G. T. Madras,
25th Jan. 1912.
9. MAHABLESHWAR    Opened Nov. 1910
The Mahableshwar Industrial School
The Industrial School progresses and supplies a want in providing a decent means of support for old and infirm persons and orphan children, who would otherwise be begging in the roads.
(1) It was started in 1908, by Mrs. Jameson for this purpose, but is still very far from self-supporting, the upkeep expenses being very heavy.
Mrs. H. A. Wadya having donated Rs. 4,000 for the purchase ol Florida Lodge, the rent Rs. 200 p. a. will now be saved. This building will now be known, as the Lady Muir Mackenzie Ashram in accordance with the agreement entered into with Mrs. Wadya, at a committee meeting held on June 2nd 1911. It is hoped that some necessary alterations, and repairs will soon be undertaken, making the building more suitable for its purpose.

(2) The School contains as last year 34 pupils, men and women, and about 8 children.
Age - ages of adults range from 30 to 70 Approximately.
Age - ages of children range from 7 to 10 Approximately.

The greater number of adults are old; a few though young are so crippled that they cannot work as coolies.

Caste: — Hindus — 12, Mahomedans — 22.
(3) Committee meetings are held at Mahableshwar during hot weather season to decide questions relating to the school. Thus it was decided in May 1911 not to build the new house spoken of in last year's report but to buy the building then in use, mentioned above, its position being central and accessible to visitors, to whom it is hoped to sell the products of the school.

(4) I am unable to give any information as to probable scope for mission work in the neighbourhood, as the Committee is only concerned in the managing of this charity. The school is not a branch of the D. C. M. but only affiliated to it, some of the earlier sums being raised by Lady Muir Mackenzie under the auspices of the D. C. M. The building and funds are held by the Committee in trust for the charity and for Mrs. H. A. Wadya, chief donor.

(5) Other donations in 1911 are :—
Rs. 1000 raised by Sir Vithaldas Thackersey toward building fund as follows :—

  RS.
Sir. V. D. thackersey and PurshotumV. Manjee 250
Caussum Ali. J. Seerbhai 250
Chief of Sangli 100
Mr. Cursondas Hargowandas 100
Messrs. dharamsey M. Goculdas, Morarji N. Goculdas 100
Mr. Dwarkadas Gordhandas 100
Hon. Sec. Muir Mackenzie fund unspent balance 100
Also, chequ from dubash Bros. 1000
Also, Balance from the jameson entertainment Fund. May 1911 3000
and Various other donations as follows: -  
 H. E. sir G. Clarke
50
 A hill
20
 Chief of Jamkhandi
25
 dharamsey M. Goculdas
10
 F. H. Albless
5
 Byramjee Pudumjee
10
 M. S. Weldon
10
Sapoorjee Eduljee chenai 15
W. t. Morison 20
R. A. Lamb 225
E. Carmichael 15
D. N. Wadia 10
Dady N. Dady 10
Tulsidas Keshavdas 10

(These details have been sent to me and the latter sum must, I think be an error.)

(6) The aloe plantation belonging to the school is not yet ready to supply it with fibre. When this is so, the heavy expense incurred in buying the latter will be lessened.

(7) Cotton bed tapes and large and small ropes of aloe fibre, all of exceptionally good quality are made, also matting in various colours, coir ropes and strings.
Ropes can be sold locally to a small extent, the people gladly buying them, and the Public Works Office gave a large order last year. Bed-tape though exceptionally good has to be disposed off at a distance at a loss.

It is hoped the visitors to the Hill will more and more visit the school and avail themselves of the opportunity to buy good articles at moderate cost.
L. R. Prior
(Acting Hon. Sec., M. I. S.)

10. MALVAN – Dist. Ratnagiri     Opened 20 October 1911
The following have become the members and subscribers of our centre. Rao Bahadur Madhaorao Somaji Moray,
Mr. Rayaji, Dattatraya Pai Inamdar, Mr. Sitaram Gundoba Keni, Mr. Govindrao Narayan Gogate, B.A., LL.B.,
Mr. Ramchandra Narayan Fanasgaokar (Pleader), Mr. Govind Vithal Vaze, Mr. Baburao Gopal Varadkar, B. A., Headmaster! Anant Shivaji Desai High School, Malvan, Mr. Krishnarao Sitaram Desai, Mr. Narayan Babaji Chavan, Mr. Rajaram Vinayak Kulkarni, Mr. A. S. Farnandez (Pensioner), Mr. Anant Govind Gadkar, Mr. Shivram Vithoji Gadkar (Pensioner Nazar), Mr. Keshao Krishna Kulkarni, Mr. Bhagvan Tatoji Gaokar,
Dr. Ghanashyam Sabaji Kasle, Mr. Vinayak Vasudeo Ajgaokar, B.A., Dr. Narayanrao Sadashio Desai, Mr. Narayanrao Pandurang Bhandarkar(Retired Engineer), Mr. Atmaram Sadashiv Kelkar, Mr. Sitaram Vishnu Apte, Mr. Vishnu Pandurang Chipkar (Pensioner), Mr. Raghunath Balkrishna Dangi (Pleader), Mr. Vaman Vasudev Patade, Mr. Anantrao Vasudeo Bhandarkar, Mr. Tukaram Narayan Gaokar, Mr. Suleman Wald Abdul Golandaj, Mr. Bapuji Narayan Samant, Mr. Krishnaji Vithoji Malvankar, Mr. Arjun Shivaji Bhagat (Pensioner), Military Subhedar, Mr. Keshav Abaji Gaokar, Atmaram Vyankaji Adarkar, Dr. Rajaram Vasudeo Ajgaokar (L. M. & S.), Mr. Shivram Balkrishna Kalsekar. Mr. Hari Bhikaji Apte (B. A.), Mr. Sakharam Pandu Khot.

On 12 Dec. 1911 suits of clothes were distributed to about 150 Low caste students — boys and girls — and about 400 Mahars and Chambhars were fed with good dishes.

The Malvan Municipal Low Caste School was twice visited by some of the members of our Committee.

The Committee hopes to make good progress in the undertaking. There is great likelihood that the Committee will gain sympathies of the general public hereof. One merchant of Malvan, a member of the Committee, has shown moral courage to engage chambhar women and children in cleaning his goods to the satisfaction of the Committee. The Committee hopes also that the pupils of the Depressed Classes will be to some extent benefitted by the Anant Shivaji Desai High School. Some Mahar and Chambhar boys are studying in the fifth and sixth standards of the Malvan Dewulwada Vernacular School who are fit for admission into the Central Boarding School at Parel; but no boy can be sent for the present as the parents are unwilling to part from their sons on account of their young age.

This centre was opened by the exertions of Mr. V. R. Shinde, B. A., the General Secretary, D. C. M. Society of India when lately on lour to Malvan. He addressed a large gathering including both classes and masses, which resulted in the formation of the local Committee of the D. C. M. Society on the 20th October 1911 which consists of the following members, with powers to add to their number.
(1) RaoBahadur Madhawrao Somaji Morey.
(2) Mr. Rayaji Dattatraya Pai, Inamdar, Secretary.
(3) Mr. Sitaram Gundoba Keni, Secretary and Treasurer.
(4) Mr. Govindrao Narayan Gogate, B. A., LL. B.
(5) Mr. Ramchandra Narayan Fanasgaokar, Pleader.
(6) Mr. Suleman wald Abdul Golandaja.
(7) Mr. Govinda Vithal Waze.
(8) Mr. Baburao Gopal Waradkar, B.A., Head Master Anant Desai's High School, Malwan.
(9) Mr. Krishnarao Sitaram Desai.
(10) Mr. Narayan Babaji Chavan, Chambhar Master Low Caste School, Malwan.

On this side of the Malbar coast, it can be safely said, that this place is mentally far advanced on having constant communication with Bombay and for some other local reasons. So the ground was prepared and was waiting for the seed to be sown, which was done by the opportune arrival of Mr. V. R. Shinde, B. A.

The Depressed Classes here maintain themselves by hard labour such as wood cutting, stone breaking; stonewall building, reclamation of lands &c. and also on wicker work. In days gone by people used even to avoid their shadows but now they are not kept at such a long distance. This was clearly experienced in the procession that started here on the 12th of December, the day of the celebration of the Coronation ceremony of our beloved King Emperor and Queen-Empress of India, when the low caste students were included therein without any sort of feeling of abhorance. Here are two geneal classes of low caste people viz. Mahars and Chambhars. Their population will come to about 500 in Malwan proper and that in the taluka is not less than two thousand strong. They are wretched in condition having no pecuniary means to raise themselves in the absence of freedom from exclusion.

Here the business of breaking cashu-nuts is carried on extensively and that labour pays very dear. The men dealing in that trade are from the upper classes of Hindus who are afraid to employ the labour of the depressed classes lest they would have to lose their brokers and Purchasers of the goods who are generally Bhatias of Bombay who are supposed to be very orthodox. If any Mahomedan or other rich merchant or any company at Bombay where the goods are sent for sale will be
ready to undertake this business, of course then, the labour of the low caste people will be accepted and that will go a far way to better their condition and that will be taking a short cut at the wisfled for object of the Mission. Though this will seem to be a silly proposal at the first sight, it will certainly work wonders in case it is brought into practice. If anybody interested in these low caste people will open the business of rope making from coir which is abundant here, he will kill two birds with one shot. This means he will get cheap labour from these people and they in turn will be able to get their daily bread easily by their personal labour.
SITARAM GUNDOBA KENI
RAYAJI D. PAI, Inamdar
(Hon. Secretaries)
Malvan,
13 January, 1911.

11. MANGALORE    Opened 1898
1. Managing Committee —
Messrs. U. Raghunathaya, Pensioner and Landholder, President. A. Srinivas Pai, B. A., B. L., High Court Vakil; Shesa Bhat Bhide, B. A., B. L., Pleader; A. Balkrishna Shetty, F. T. S., Landholder; Dr. M. S. Rao, F. T. S., L. R. C. P. & S., L. F. P. & S. 4 L. M. M.; Narsappa, Clerk, Messrs. Pierce Leslie & Co; G. Krishna Rao, B. A., LL. B., Pleader, Treasurer; and K. Ranga Rao, Secretary.

2. The Mission maintains the following institutions;
1. A Day School for boys and girls.
2. A Boarding House for grown up students.
3. A Night School.
4. An Industrial Institute.
5. A Small colony of Panchama families.

3. The Day School - The school had 80 Panchama Pupils - 69 boys and 11 girls - divided into 5 classes viz. the infant, I, II, III & IV standards and was manned by three teachers two of whom were Panchamas. Owing to the temporary absence of two of the experienced teachers and the admission of the new and inexperienced in their place, the progress of the school children suffered to some extent and the results at the annual examination were not as satisfactory as in the previous year. The following are the remarks recorded by the Inspecting Officer at the Annual examination which was held on 4th December, 1910. "The teaching of the Geography of the town, School Mottoes, Colours and Forms, Weighing and Measuring, Postal Information, Manuscript Reading, and Mental Arithmetic, require much attention. In general knowledge the lower classes especially, are poor. It is satisfactory that clay modelling, sticklaying, seed placing, and paper folding, are taught as manual occupations. Two boys learn weaving also. Paper- cut-ting too may be done in classes II to IV. The garden is very fair. Singing is good. The general condition of the school is fair. I would propose some more grant as before."

The instruction in the school is free, and the pupils being the children of miserables, are supplied with books, slates, and stationery as well as dress and umbrellas,-and as they come from great distances a daily midday meal is also given to all in the school premises — all free of charge.

The year closed with 78 pupils on the roll — 69 boys and 9 girls.

The total cash expenditure incurred on account of the school is Rs. 500-12-9. The school received a grant of Rs. 139-0-0 from the Municipal funds during the year under report, as a result of the annual inspection held in December, 1910.

4. The Rice Fund - The total quantity of rice collected during the year from weekly donors as well as from others is 20 Mooras and 341/2 seers. In addition to this 10 Mooras and 321/2 seers of rice was purchased during the year to meet the demand as occasion arose.

5. The Boarding House - This institution was started in 1908 with the object of giving moral and spiritual instruction to grown up Panchama students and to train them to habits of cleanliness and good manners in addition to the training in some industry, in the hope that when they returned home after their discharge, they might exercise a leavening influence among their community. They are forbidden liquor and smoking and are not allowed to go home without permission. No more than eight youths are admitted at a time. During the year under report there were 12 inmates in this institution, 7 of whom were discharged. A decent and commodious building for the occupation of the boarders and for the use of the school children for their midday meal is being built.

6. The Night School - A night school was started with one Panchama teacher in charge of it, for the benefit of Panchama Coolies in the beginning of June 1911, and an application was made to the educational authorities for recognition and aid under the grant-in-aid code. The strength however which rose from 9 to 23, soon began to fall. The pupils being mostly hardworking day-labourers obliged to come to school from great distances after the day's labour, could not be Punctual in attendance and would come to school so late as 9.30 p.m. and would soon become drowsy and unfit for instruction. The application made for recognition and aid was therefore withdrawn. The Committee in their meeting as however resolved upon continuing the school for whatever benefit it might bring to the pupils. The school however came to an end. The experience gained in this connection has shown that no night school can be successfully maintained for these scattered people unless and until a centre is formed by making a good number of families live in one compact locality, which want, our colony scheme is calculated to supply. The expenditure incurred on account of the night school is Rs. 21-10-1.

7. The Industrial Institute - The Institute produced only 2,7331/2 yards of cloth and sold 30511 yards which includes some cloth of the previous year. The total cash receipts and expenditure were 966-11-7 and 998-6-1 respectively. The weaving was done with flyshuttle handlooms. Owing to the competition of the power looms, this industry does not meet with sufficient encouragement.

8. The Eri Silk Industry - The experiment made in 1909 and 1910 in rearing eri silk worms having proved successful a temporary farm was opened, attached to the school. The worms throve very well and produced good cocoons which were exhibited in the Madras Agri- Horticultural Exhibition. The climate of this district having been found to be congenial for this industry and the expert opinion obtained in this connection having been favourable, the Collector of the District was addressed on the subject for money help and at his recommendation the Government sanctioned a grant of Rs. 500 from the Local Funds. One of the weavers of our institute was at first sent to the Government Agricultural College, Coimbitore, for training in this industry. He however returned, on account of ill-health before completing the course. A more competent man who was in the employ of the Bassel German Mission was thereupon sent to the Government Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa, at the end of September last with the permission of his superiors who granted him 4 months' leave with pay for the purpose. The man has returned with the necessary qualifications and a diploma from the College authorities. Every attempt will be made in the current year to popularize this industry and make it a cottage industry in the homestead of the poor, in this District. A model farm will be maintained attached to the school and the construction of a building for the purpose has already commenced.

9. The Panchama Colony - The construction work in connection with this scheme progressed more satisfactorily during the year than in the previous year. 5 tiled buildings and 9 huts of a temporary nature and two wells were constructed during the year. The well sanctioned by the District Board at a cost of Rs. 500 could not be finished before monsoon set in and is expected to be completed in the current year. From the 100 timber trees granted to us by the Government in the previous year, we got 868 rafters and appeals were sent to sympathising gentlemen for help. Two kinds of homesteads are now being built. As the mud work is done by the occupants themselves and a portion of the timber required has been supplied by the Government the estimated minimum cost of a building is Rs. 36 for one of the smaller size and Rs. 50 for the larger. Messrs C. P. Ramaswami Iyer, S. Kasturi Ranga lyangar, and S. Shrinivasa lyangar of Madras, Mr. C. Viraraghava Chariar of Salem and the Hindu Distress Relief Fund on behalf of Lala Lajpat Rai of Lahore, and an anonymous donor of Manjeshwar gave us money help, each to build one homestead on his behalf. Revd. Mr. Shinde, General Secretary of the D.C.M. Society of India sent us Rs. 300 on behalf of some sympathising gentlemen of Hubli for erection of one block under the name of the Hubli Block. The construction work on this block has already begun. A big well constructed at a cost of nearly Rs. 500 mainly with the help of money contributed by our Indian brethren in the Andamans most of whom were members of the Temple Club in Port Blair, was completed and has been named the Andaman well. A tablet will be put up in memory of the charity of these gentlemen. Another big well not yet completed will be dedicated to Rai Saheb N. Sadasiva Pillay whose active sympathy for our depressed fellow-beings here popularized our movement in the Andamans and brought us liberal money help. We take this opportunity to gratefully acknowledge the sum of Rs. 200 also which Leut. Col. H. A. Browning sent us in December last on behalf of the members of the Temple Club as a gift in honour of the visit of Their Most Gracious Majesties King George V and Queen Empress Mary to India. We cannot adequately express our gratitude to these gentlemen for the material help so kindly given to our depressed fellow-beings here on this auspicious occasion of the epoch-making visit of our sovereign and his consort to our country.

The Committee have also resolved upon dedicating one well to the late lamented Mr. Amembal Subbarao in grateful memory of the valuable help he rendered to the Mission. It might be needless to say that it was with, his help and in a meeting held under his presidentship that our Mission was organized.

9. General - The Coronation Durbar was celebrated by our Mission with great eclat under the presidency of our District Judge Mr. V. Venugbpal Chetty, I.C.S. who has been giving us liberal support since his arrival here. The local European and Indian gentry graced the occasion with their presence. The local Durbar Celebration Committee gaveia liberal contribution of Rs. 62-12-0 and 3 muras of rice. A notable featur-of the celebration was the distribution of valuable presents and a sumptuous dinner to the school children and the elderly Panchamas and their passing in a grand procession through the principal streets of the town carrying the pictures of Their Majesties in a Mantapam singing Coronation odes and other songs, invoking divine blessings on the rule of His Majesty. The procession passed with tomtom of the kind
 used by the higher classes a privilege not enjoyed by Panchama Classes hitherto. The success of this celebration is due mainly to the unstinted charity of Dr. and Mrs. L. P. Fernandes of St. Mary's Pharmacy. Dr. Fernandes has been the helper of our movement from its outset and has been moreover giving medical help to our school children and the staff ungrudgingly.

The total income from all sources during the year under report was Rs. 3,489-0-10 and the expenditure Rs. 2,696-2-11.
K. RANGA RAO
(Hon. Secretary)
Mangalore, 30th January 1912.
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Statement of Cash Account of the Depressed Classes Mission, Mangalore (for the year ending 31st Deceber 1910) To
Table (See the Statement Clik here)

12. SATARA        Opened 1904
1. There are two schools for the depressed classes in Satara. The day-school which was originally started in 1902 by the Prarthana Samaj here but was subsequently taken up by the Local Municipality and the night-school which is still managed by the Local Prarthana Samaj. The number of boys in the day-school during the year 1911 was 59 and in the night-school 28. Most of these are Mangs and Mahars and a few Chambhars. The average attendance is good only about 5 p. c. being absent on an average.
2. The first meeting during the year under report was held on the 16th January 1911 the death anniversary of the late Mr. Justice Ranade, and was presided over by Mr. R. R. Kale. That the low caste community has begun to understand the value of self-reliance and self-help is clear from the fact that donations to the extent of Rs. 25 and monthly subscriptions amounting to Rs. 6-6-0 were collected on the spot from among the members of the Community for being spent on educational purposes. The meeting was addressed among others by three members of the community itself. In the Shimaga-Holidays the Liberal Association of this place had arranged for innocent sports and other healthy entertainments to divert the people from indulging in obscene songs and mud-sports and it is a matter for congratulation that a very large number of the depressed classes abstained from the usual loose and obscene practices and took part in the various engagements provided by the Liberal Association and above all a very large number abstained from drinking and swore that they would abandon it in future.

3. Another move in the direction of improving the low and frivolous tastes of these people is the resolution come to by Mahars of certain villages in this District not to perform or attend Tamashas but to perform Bhajans and Kirtans instead. This was partly due to the excellent Kirtans which Baizabai of Sasawad belonging to the Mahar Community performed at the Bangalow of Mr. R. R. Kale and the impressive sermons preached in this place. Baizabai had been staying here for some time and it was hoped to accomplish a good deal of improvement among the low caste community with her assistance but the cruel hand of death suddenly carried her away in June last. On the Ashadhi Ekadashi she breathed her last and the sad event spread a gloom over the whole town. Her dead body was carried in procession with great pomp through the town at the request of several friends and sympathisers who attended the funeral. When I had been to my country residence at Pusegaon village on the Pandharpur Road in this District I found that the Mahars had given up singing Lavanis and taken to singing Bhajan songs instead.

4. There are more than one Co-operative Credit Societies formed by members of the low castes viz. a Society of Bhangees, another of Chambhars, a third of mangs and another again of Dhors and the benefits derived therefrom are very much appreciated by them. The Bhangees have been able to wipe off their old and heavy debts of Pathan Sawkars and are now building houses for those who could have ill afforded to do so formerly. The Chambars and Dhors are prospering in their trade and the Mangs have turned out some of them very good tailors and getting the benefit of their joint capital are enabled to buy cloth and make into fine clothes ready for sale.

5. During the year under report there were no donations received and the only income derived was that from the monthly subscribers Messrs. Kale, Pathak, Devadhar, Karandikar and Nabar, and the Government grant as shown in the statement of account for 1911.

6. Mr. V. R. Shinde, General Secretary, D. C. M., visited this town in July with his sister Janabai when they visited and gave some good advice to the depressed classes. Mr. Shinde also conducted divine service on the Gokul Ashtami day which was attended by a large number of women in addition to the male members of the community. Mr. Shinde gave a lecture in the Local Arthur Hall which was well-attended and was impressive and instructive. He was able to collect some money for the Depressed Classes Funds.

R. R. KALE
(Hon. Secretary)
Satara
13th Jany. 1912.
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13. THANA    Opened 17th October 1909
This centre was established on the 17th October, 1909. The Managing Committee through its Secretaries succeeded in inducing the Thana Municipality to award scholarships to the pupils attending the School regularly 15 days in a month at the following rates since July 1910 which has been still continued.

III Standard - 4 annas a month.
II  Standard - 3 annas a month.
I   Standard - 2 annas a month.

The Secretaries approached the parents of the boys and girls and explained to them the advantages of sending their children to the school.
The Committee has sent in an application to the Municipality to establish a night-school, as they expect a goodly number of boys during night time; since the majority of grown up children go out for work to assist their parents, a night-school is badly wanted.

A Chokha Mela Bhajan Griha is badly wanted where the people can assemble and offer their devotions to the Almighty. The Secretaries Messrs Padhye and Lad with this object in view delivered some lectures before a large number of Mahars. The result was that the people collected a sum of Rs. 36 and erected a shed on a piece of land for this purpose. A subscription list will shortly be opened and such people as are diposed to contribute will be approached. There is a general clamour on the part of the people to make this religious institution a success. The Hindu Temples are shut to them. The people must have some sort of place or temple where they can perform Bhajan.

The Committee regrets very much to lose the services pf Mr. R. B. Gupte, B. A., LL. B., on his transfer as a Subordinate Judge in the Nasik District. He took great interest in the mission work.

On the Coronation day clothes were distributed to 24 boys and 6 girls at the hands of Khan Bahadur Dr. Moos, President of the Municipality and Mrs. Wales, Mrs. Adwani the wife of the District Judge took kindly interest in the Institution by personally visiting the school and distributing sweet-meats to the children.

The Total number of Depressed Classes population in the Thana town is as follows:—
Mahars between 300 and 400
Chambhars about 50 to 100
Mangs nearly 20

Income
Balance                06-05-06
Subscriptions        57-00-00
Grand Total           63-00-00
Expenditure  
Sweetmeats 02-04-00

Flowers        03-12-00
Clothes        38-13-00
Coolie hire   00-12-00
Balance       17-12-06
Grand Total  63-05-06

Santooji Ramji Lad
(Secretary & Treasurer)
Thana, Bombay Road.
8th Jan. 1912.
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ASSOCIATED BODY
14. KOLHAPUR    Opened 9th February 1908
This Society was established and a fund was started on the 9th of Feb. 1908, with the object of promoting the welfare of the untouchable classes by assisting promising students from among these classes to a liberal education with the hope that capable leaders would thus be raised up amohg them.

In accordance with the objects named, some students were selected in March 1908 and a teacher for the work of St. IV (Vernacular) was appointed. At the same time efforts were made to secure admission for a few others into the State Schools where they could be educated along with boys of the higher classes and they are by orders of His Highness so admitted.

On enquiry it was found that 119 Students in the State had passed the IVth Vernacular standard and to 25 of these prizes in the form of books were given. Small prizes for cleanliness were also given and this procedure has a marked effect upon the families from which the students come, who are learning that cleanliness and simple clothing is more seemly than dress of a more expensive but dirty kind.
In the course of 1909 the necessity of a Boarding House began to be felt and efforts were made to supply the need. H. H. the Maharajahsaheb at once gave the project a definite shape by generously supplying the Society with a building and by making an annual grant of Rs. 300. The Boarding house was named The Miss Violet Clarke Boarding House as a tribute to that Lady's interest in the welfare of the Depressed Classes. Six students were admitted free of charge.

A new Society called The Shri Shahu Patitoddharak Mandali which confines its energies to its own town of Pattankudi (पट्टणकुडी) was founded in the same year and has been doing excellent work.

In 1910 great encouragement was given by His Holiness Shri Shankarcharya of the Karawir Peeth expressing his approval of the work of the Society and becoming a subscriber to its funds. It is not unreasonable to hope that His Holiness' action will stimulate the interest of those who look to him as their guide.

In 1911 the work of the society was continued on the lines laid down; but as it expanded it necessarily entailed additional expenditure. The number of students in the hostel rose to sixteen in 1911 and the care of these has become a serious responsibility. It is imperative that a resident Superintendent should be appointed and we hope our appeal for more help will be answered in a way to make this possible. Of the students in the hostel the expenses of all but one are borne by the Society.
Of those at present in residence, one is in English St. I, 9 in St. II, 4 in St. III & 1 in St. IV and 1 in the 2nd year of the Technical School. Two of these 16 have got the prizes of the 1st number in their classes. Eleven have passed, three promoted to the higher standards and two are detained in the same.

This year the committee passed an important resolution viz. that the students in the hostel be obliged to do some sort of hard work for about two hours every day (from 5 to 7 p. m.) that they may not lose the habit of undergoing physical labour.

The Principal of the Rajaram College has been pleased to give his opinion of the students as follows:-

"The boys from the Miss Clarke Boarding House are very well-conducted and painstaking, they give no trouble and with few exceptions show that they are quite capable of doing justice to the efforts of those who believe that they can be raised from their present lowly condition. I hope the good work would go on and prosper as it deserves.”

Year        Income              Expenses
1909        Rs. 544              Rs. 407-2-9
1910        Rs. 719              Rs. 565-14-8
1911        About Rs. 880    About Rs. 950-0

A. B. Olkar
(Hon. Secretary)
Kolhapur,
22nd January, 1912.
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Anuual Subscriptions received in 1911
Table (To See the Report Click here)

Cash Donations received in Bombay 1911
N. B.:- The lists given below do not include the donations to the Rupee Fund which are separately accounted.

Table 1 (To See the Report Click here)

The Depressed classes Mission society of India

(Established 18 Oct. 1906)
A review up to 17 Oct. 1909

OFFICE-BEARERS
The Hon'ble Mr. Justice Chandavarkar - President
Shet Damodardas G. Sukhadwala - Vice President
Mr. V. R. Shinde, B.A. - General Secretary
Mr. N. B. Pandit, B.A. - Treasurer
Mr. Sayad Abdul Kadir - Asst. General Secretary

TRUSTEES
The Hon'ble Mr. G. K. Parekh, B.A., LL.B.
Shet Damodardas G. Sukhadwala
Mr. V. R. Shinde, B.A.

OBJECT

To maintain a Mission which shall seek to elevate the social as well as spiritual condition of the Depressed Classes viz. the Mahars, Chamars, Pariahs, Namsudras and all such other neglected Classes in India by means of (1) promoting education, (2) providing work, (3) remedying their social disabilities and (4) preaching to them the ideals of Liberal Religion, personal character and good citizenship.

STATISTICS
The total population of India 294361056. The total Hindu population 207147026. The total "Untouchable" population 53206632. Of every six Indians or four Hindus one is an "Untouchable"!! (See the last Indian Census Report.)

INSTITUTIONS IN BOMBAY

1. Parel Middle School - Provision is made to teach 6 Marathi and four English standards. There are 7 teachers : 175 pupils on the Roll. There are special Book-binding and Sewing Classes.

2. Deonar Primary School - 2 teachers 47 pupils, 4 Marathi Standards. This supplies a want long-felt by the Municipal Colony of nearly 500 Mahars near Chembur.

3. Madanpura Primary School - 4 Teachers, 150 pupils, 5 Marathi standards.

4. Kamathipura Gujarati School - This is newly started for Bhangis and is practically the first of its kind in Bombay, except those conducted by Christian Missionaries. It is exclusively supported by the kind help of a friend. Even in this city great difficulty is felt in securing teachers for this school, there being a great aversion for the Bhangis specially among the Gujaratis. There is one teacher and 51 pupils on roll.

5. Sunday Schools - One is at Parel and the other at Madanpura. Selections from Ramayan and Ramdas, Theistic hymns from the Vedas and of the Maratha Saints and short moral stories are taught to the boys and girls every Sunday morning.

6. Bhajan Samajes - One is at Parel and the other at Madanpura where grown up people meet every Sunday for theistic worship, which they conduct themselves.

7. Lectures - are often organised on various useful topics and also conversations among the people themselves.

8. Co-operative Leather Works - Under the management of Mr. Sashibhusan Ruth, an expert in tanning and another German expert in the improved method of boot-making, a new enterprise is made to provide work on the principle of co-operative production. For the present a small shop-factory is started in Girgaum with a capital of Rs. 2,000.

9. Nirashrit Sadan - Two young men and three ladies have solely devoted themselves to the work of the Mission. The ladies visit the poor in their homes, nurse the sick, rescue the helpless and organise sewing circles and women's meetings. The men manage the Mission centres. About a dozen promising boys of the Parel School are lodged and four of them are also boarded under the direct care of the missionaries who reside in the school house. These Missionaries are supported by a friend, independently of the linances of Society.

10. Purity Servant - An English monthly, is the organ of the Mission published on the 15th of every month. It contains articles on temperance, social purity and monthly reports of the several branches of the Society and general news about the Depressed Classes in India. Rs. 2-8 per year.
Editor — Mr. V. S. Sohoni, Grant Road.

BRANCHES

1. Poona - There is one day school, two night schools, a Sunday school, a Bhajan Samaj a Library and a Debating Club. The number of pupils on roll is 149, 25 and 33 respectively. The average attendance at the Samaj and Club is 50.
Secretary — Mr. A. K. MUDLIAR, B.A., Raste's Peth

2. Manmad - A night school with 45 boys on the roll : a temperance league of which every member is pledged not to drink inspite of his parents persuading him to the contrary.
Secretary — Mr. Mohansing Motising

3. Igatpuri - A day school with 66 boys and 2 teachers teaching up to the 4th Marathi Standard. This branch is started and conducted solely by two young Mahars under guidance from Bombay. There is a Sunday School and a Bhajan Samaj besides. A new Committee is, recently constituted.
Secretary — Mr. G. V. Bhatawadekar

4. Indore - A night school with 20 boys under one teacher.
Secretary — Mr. R. G. Mitbaokar, Brahma Samaj

5. Akola - 2 night schools 72 pupils and 1 Bhajan Samaj.
Secretary — Mr. S. C. Hosalli, Bar-at-law

6. Amraoti - 2 night schools with 53 pupils.
Secretary — Mr. G. Kane, Pleader.

7. Dapoli - A day school with 37 pupils. The branch also provides scholarships, books, clothes to poor pupils.
Secretary —Dr. V. A. Varti

8. Mangalore - The condition of the Pariahs in South Canara is unspeakably wretched. Mr. K. Rangarao who has been struggling single - handed for the last more than 10 years has now a day School with 49 pupils, a Weaving Institute with six hand looms and a Boarding House where 7 young men reside and work In the loom factory. All the pupils receive one midday meal a day, without which the School will not go on. Mr. Rangarao has recently established a colony of twenty poor families on a beautiful hill near Mangalore, for which he is badly in need of help.
Secretary — Mr. K. Rangarao, Court Hill
9. Madras - A Pariah School with 23 pupils and a Chamar School with 29. The moral classes and Bhajans are conducted regularly. The scavengers or Bhangis are the most wretched of all the "Untouchables."

But the branch has still to drag a hand-to-mouth existence. Secretary— Mr. V. Govindan, B.A., Brahma Samaj, 97, Annapillay Street.

NEW BRANCHES

10. Mahableshwar - In May last a drawing room meeting was held under the auspices of Lady Muir Mackenzie in the Government House, Mahableshwar, when Major Jameson the Superintendent of the station, presided. A fund which had been previously collected about Rs. 900 for a similar purpose was handed over to the Mission and a branch was started for local work.
Secretary — Mrs. Jameson, Woodside, M'war.

11. Nasik - The General Secretary on his tour in the Nasik district in September last visited the centres at Igatpuri and Manmad, and organised a District Committee for Nasik with Mr. Jackson, I.C.S., Collector as the President.
Secretary — Mr. N. P. Patankar, Pleader

SUMMARY

The Society has under it 12 centres, 16 secular schools, with 1018 pupils, 6 Sunday schools, 5 Bhajan Samajes or theistic congregations, 4 Industrial Institutes, 7 Missionaries and 1 organ. But when we remember the five crores - the SUBMERGED SIXTH OF INDIA, how humiliatingly small appears our work!!

Some Eye Witnesses
It is one of the holiest things that can be done by the religious and charitable societies of the country.
- LAJPATRAI

The whole institution is typical of the times in which reasonableness is invading the domains of prejudice and superstition.
- R. G. BHANDARKAR

The industrial work is particularly commendable. There is no more terrible phrase in language than the "Untouchable classes" and the noble work of the Mission must touch a responsive chord.
- STANLEY REED

It is refreshing to come across such a knot of *** workers for their country.
- D. W. NANAWATI, I.C.S., Rangoon

OUR NEEDS

The Society has to spend more than Rs. 10,000 every year; and the expenditure is rapidly increasing. But it has practically no permanent fund and absolutely no building of its own. For the head-quarters in Bombay the need of a building is very badly felt. A permanent fund for the training of qualified and devoted workers from among the higher classes and for scholarships to be awarded to young boys of the Depressed Classes with a view to select from among them future workers is still more badly felt. Without some immediate provision in this direction, real efficiency in the work of the Mission would not be possible.
RAM MOHAN ASHRAM  
Girgaum, 17th October 1909

V. R. SHINDE

General Secretary, D.C.M.

The Depressed Classes Mission Society of India
Rupee Fund

DEAR SIR,

Will you kindly read the accompanying leaflet and subscribe only a Rupee for the useful cause set forth in it?

One Rupee only  to be paid and a receipt taken for it. If you are inclined to pay more, please do so in different names and take receipts for the same.

You will be convinced by the reading of the accompanying leaflet that One Rupee paid by you will be spent upon a very useful and sacred cause.

Trusting you will do the needful and oblige.
Yours cordially,
L. B. NAYAK,
(Captain General D.C.M. Rupee Fund)
Home Address : 469 Thakurdwar, BOMBAY.
Office Address : Chief Interpreter Bombay Court of Small Causes.

Buddha - "Let him that has recognised the truth, cultivate good-will without measure toward the whole world, above, below, around, unstinted, unmixed with any feeling of making distinctions or of showing preferences.

Jesus Christ - "Let us love one another; for love is God."

तुकाराम - "आर्त भूतां द्यावें दान । खरें पुण्य त्या नांवें ।।"

With the recommendation of....................................

Executive Committee
Sir Narayan G. Chandavarkar — President
Sheth Damodardas Goverdhandas J.P. — V. President
Mr. V. R. Shinde, B.A. — General Secretary
Mr. V. S. Sohoni — Assistant General Secretary
Mr. P. B. Gothoskar, B.A. — Hon. Treasurer
Dr. Miss Kashibai Nawrange, B.A., L.M. &  S.
Mrs. Laxmibai Ranaday
Mr. L. B. Nayak, B.A.
Mr. G. B. Trivedi, B.A.
Mr. A. V. Thakkar, L.C.E.
Prof. N. G. Welinkar, J.P., M.A., LL.B.
Mr. N. B. Pandit, B.A.

The Depressed Classes Mission Society of India
(Established on 18th October 1906 and registered under Act XXI of 1860)
President — Sir Narayan G. Chandavarkar
Vice-President — Mr. Damodardas G. Sukhadwala
General Secretary — Mr. V. R. Shinde

OBJECT - To maintain a mission which seeks to elevate the condition of the depressed and neglected classes in India by promoting their education, providing them with work, remedying their social disabilities and improving their spiritual condition.

STATISTICS - Total population of India — 31 crores
Total Hindu population — 21 crores
Total untouchable population — 51/2 crores
Out of every six Indians or four Hindus, one is an untouchable.
One out of every six Indians is neglected and despised.
Privileges of free social intercourse are denied to them.
Opportunities of elevating them by means of education and better and cleaner ways of living are not placed in their ways.

Their intellectual, moral and spiritual faculties which God has endowed us all with are made to lie dormant by reason of our own neglect ol them.

The D. C. Mission has therefore to make efforts to improve their condition by opening schools, boarding houses and industrial institutions and by holding social and religious meetings.

In all — 14 Centres, 25 Schools, 5 Boarding houses, 3 Industrial Homes, 1100 students, 55 teachers - Total annual expenditure, Rs. 24,600.

In Bombay — 5 Day Schools, 1 Night school, 500 students, 1 Boarding House, 26 Boarders, 1 Industrial & Technical School.

Annual expenditure, Rs. 12,000 - Annual income, Rs. 9,000.

To partly meet this large Annual deficit of Rs. 3,000 on a Fund called D. C. M. Rupee Fund has been started.

Depressed Classes Mission Rupee Fund
The Mission finding that the persistent efforts made by it hitherto to raise funds do not result in adequate returns so as to meet the expenses of the mission which are increasing from year to year thought of raising money in small contributions by means of this Fund from the public at large instead of solely depending on rich and well to do people.

A minimum sum of one rupee per year from each donor has been fixed. The promoters hope by this means to widen the circle of sympathisers.

A board of captains has been appointed with volunteers under them to collect such small contributions.

One Rupee throughout one year is but a trifle that is expected from each donor and that too for such a useful and sacred cause : It comes to only one pie given in charity every alternate day! Who does not throw out a pie every day to a beggar!

Men of light and leading are in full sympathy with this movement.

Sir George Clarke : "I shall always take a living interest in the work of the Society."

Sir N. G. Chandavarkar : "In elevating the depressed, we are elevating ourselves."

H. H. Sayajirao Gaikwar : “Let us first clean our own Augean Stables."

Surendranath Tagore : “The value of the splendid work being done is so self-evident that words of recommendation are superfluous.”

Lala Lajpatrai : "It is one of the holiest things that can be done by the religious and charitable societies of the country."

Sir R. G. Bhandarkar : "The whole institution is typical of the times in which reasonableness is invading the domains of prejudice and superstitions.”

Sir Richard Lamb : "The Depressed Classes Mission is doing notable work."

Dr. Stanley Reed : "The noble work of the mission must touch a responsive chord."

Will you now help the mission by subscribing only ONE RUPEE?
(Please do not pay a Rupee before you take a receipt)

V. R. SHINDE Esq.
(General Secretary, D.C.M. Society)

L. B. NAYAK
(Captain-General D.C.M. Rupee Fund)
469, Thakurdwar, Girgaum, BOMBAY