The Depressed Classes Mission Society of India

3. THE DEPRESSED CLASSES MISSION SOCIETY OF INDIA
(Established on the 18th of October 1906 and registered under act XXI of 1860 as a charitable society)

Origin - The Prarthana Samaj, or the Theistic Church of Bombay has been contributing for the last 30 years its own humble share to the elevation of the so-called low castes by opening night schools, &c., for them. Especially, during the last four or five years, the attention of some of its workers was drawn more keenly than ever towards the several interesting movements of self-improvement conducted by such members of the Depressed Communities themselves as had tasted the fruits of the present educational system in India or had come into contact with the Christian Missionaries or the Anglo-Indian masters. They were the Somawanshiya Samaj started by Mr. S. J. Kambale of Poona, the Mohapa Low Caste Association by Mr. Kisan Fagu of Nagpur, and the Somawanshiya Hitachintak Mandali, by Mr. Shripatrao Thorat and Mr. Pandoba Dangle of Ahmednagar. Having closely observed these movements among the Depressed Classes, Mr. V. R. Shinde of the Bombay Prarthana Samaj wrote in December 1905 a pamphlet on the Elevation of the Depressed Classes. At the end of it he said:

'Thus I have tried to review briefly from what little I know the results of both philanthropy and self-help in this great work of the elevation of the Depressed Classes. If each of these will operate in conscious or unconscious isolation from the other, as it has been the case so long, both will perhaps cease to work out of mere exhaustion. It is for the Social Reform Association and the Prarthana Samaj of Bombay to devise means to bring both these new forces into a happy and new co-operation.'

The same writer after further study of the subject - the appalling number and the abject condition of these classes - proved for the first time from the India Census Reports in a pamphlet published in August 1906 that the depressed population was more than one-fourth of the total Hindu population and that more than one-sixth of the total population in India was considered "un-touchable." He then pleaded in that pamphlet:

"What is wanted therefore is not merely a machinery of education however grand, but a real Mission, i.e., an organization in which the personal element presides over and energizes the mechanism; and secondly (which is still more essential) a mission which is not exotic but indigenous or in other words a mission which is bent upon working an evolution in the religion, traditions and social life of these people and not a revolution as the Christian Missions are doing... The City of Bombay in my humble opinion is the fittest centre for such work... The Prarthana Samaj of Bombay is the only liberal religious body in this province that can, if it will, undertake the noble Mission and carry it to its ultimate consumation, viz. restoring, at least such of these depressed souls as are capable, to their rightful though, long withheld place in a renovated Hindu Society."

In October 1906, shet Damodardas G. Sukhadwalla, Vice-President of the Bombay Prarthana Samaj, generously came forward with one thousand rupees as an initial contribution towards the funds of such a Mission; and on the 18th of the same month, the Hon'ble Mr. (now Sir) Justice Chandavarkar, President of the Bombay Prarthana Samaj, inaugurated the Depressed Classes Mission, by opening its first school at Parel, in the presence of a representative gathering of ladies and gentlemen. Before giving the first lesson to the children assembled, Sir N.G. Chandavarkar in his inaugural speech charged the workers in the memorable words “Let us not approach these people in a spirit of patronization. Let us always remember that in elevating the depressed we are but elevating overselves!" The following members of the Prarthana Samaj formed the First Committee of the Mission.

The Hon'ble Sir Narayan G. Chandavarkar, President.
Shet Damodardas G. Sukhadwala, J. P., Vice-President.
Mr. N. B. Pandit, B.A., Hon. Treasurer.
Mr. S. R. Lad, Hon. Superintendent.
Mr. V. R. Shinde, B.A., Hon. Secretary.

On having started the Mission, Mr. Shinde clearly stated the problem of the Depressed Classes in India in an article published in the Times of India (1907) and also worked up the total number of them in a table as follows:-

The whole population of the continent of Hindustan, whatever its other divisions, may be divided from the point of view of our problem, into the following divisions: - (1) The classes (literary and well-to-do). (2) Masses. (3) Low Castes. (4) Hill Tribes. Thus the third division which forms our subject is clear and definite by itself and is common all over India. It has all the disadvantages of the second division, viz., general poverty, want of education, uncertainty of wages, etc., and something more, i.e., they are for ever forbidden the ordinary social privileges of a citizen, viz. freely mixing among the higher castes for social or even economical purposes of life. They are not detached and unconnected with the body politic as the hill tribes; but yet they have no place in the social communion of this body. They are not even ordinarily touched by the members of the higher castes above them. This pronounced mark of untouchableness is the standing fulcrum on which the level of depression and degradation is slowly lowered down on them, and this Titanic lever will never be made inoperative until this ominous fulcrum is completely demolished. Consciously or not, the lever is set working; it is a fact and not a fiction, and wholesale social depression of these low castes is the result. As to their material and moral condition, some people have the knack of too smoothly gliding into optimistic conclusions. But none of these optimists-at-others cost would ever care to exchange lots with them nor could ever get any other castes higher than the victims to exchange lots with them.

Now let us estimate the number of these people in all India, so that possibly we may not make any unnecessary fuss over the scandal, if it be after all a negligible quantity.
Extracted from the Indian Census Report of 1901 :—

Table 1 (For PDF Click Here)
Total Indian Population                           =   294,361,056
Total Hindu Population                            =   207,147,026
Total Depressed Population                     =     53,206,632
Total Mahomedan Population                   =     62,458,077
Gegraded Mahomedans in Upper India     =      8,628,566

Table 2 
(For PDF Click Here)

Even if we leave out of consideration the number of the degraded Mahomedans shown above, the total figure of the depressed populations in the whole of India is more than one-fourth of the total Hindu population and more than one-sixth of the total Indian population : More than one- sixth of India is then theoretically and in most cases practically untouchable! Are we to disbelieve the Census reports or believing them, are we to still maintain our characteristic coolness over these appalling numbers?

Let me now hasten to the conclusion. The problem is not for any foreign agency howsoever benevolent it be. It is not again a religious problem — I mean religious in the sectarian or denominational sense. The question is not whether these vast numbers should be saved by Christianity or from Christianity but a broader one that they have to be restored to decent humanity. It is not only an educational problem but a social and philanthropical one. Even so far as it is educational, it is not a problem for the Government of India; it will be better solved by the persuasive and privately organised philanthropy than by a mechanically compelling Government. Nor is this a problem for a professional Indian patriot alone. It is the duty of every person that has a right to reside in India? Christian, Jew, Mahomedan, Parsi, or Hindu, white or black, in Government service or free, to see that one-sixth of this vast country, which is untouchable, will be restored to decent humanity and free citizenship. Of course a Christian missionary or a Hindu patriot or a Government official or an Employer is each quite welcome to his own special point of view of this common problem of the elevation of the depressed and to his own separate share in its achievement. But that a pariah should become a repenting Christian or remain in the fold of renovated Hinduism, or that he should turn out an efficient national asset or a good law-abiding loyal subject or an honest and industrious labourer these are only after results and they depend upon the pariah’s first becoming a decent human being, free to move and free to choose his vocation. It is then the duty of every Indian to see that he becomes so. But what is everyman’s concern is no man’s concern. My final word, therefore, is that if work is actually started by somebody on these broad lines and with these broad aims — and such work is already started in this City of Bombay — it should meet with sympathy from all.
Constitution — The following are some of the most important rules of Constitution of the Society which was duly registered in November 1910 under Act XXI of 1860 as a charitable body. The Trust Deed of the Society was also registered on the 9th of July 1910. Although this Mission is not organically connected with any of the Brahma or Prarthana Samajes in India, its aims and work as will be seen from the following rules and also its annual reports are as well spiritual as secular. The following resolution adopted by the All-India Theistic Conference held in Madras in December 1908 and reaffirmed in the following sessions is to be noted in this connection :—
‘That this Conference with great pleasure recognizes the aims and work of the Depressed Classes Mission Society of India as Theistic and heartily calls on all Brahma and Prarthana Samajes in India to show sympathy and render pecuniary help to the Mission in its work.”
Rules of Constitution
1. Name — The Society shall be called 'The Depressed Classes Mission Society of India.”
2. Object — The object of the Society shall be to maintain a Mission which shall seek to elevate the social as well as the spiritual condition of the Depressed Classes, viz., the Mahars, Chambhars, Pariahs, Namsudras, Dheds and all other classes treated as untouchable in India, by
(1) Promoting education,
(2) Providing work,
(3) Remedying their social disabilities, and
(4) Preaching to them principles of Liberal Religion (as are not inconsistent with such progressive movements as the Brahma or Prarthana Samajes in India), personal character and good citizenship'
3. Religious Work — The religious work of the Society shall be based on the recognition of the fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man. Beyond this, the Society, as such, shall not take any dogmatic or sectarian position.
4. Missionaries — Any person who at the invitation of the Executive Committee agrees to devote himself to the work of the Mission and is accepted as such by the General Body shall be deemed a Missionary of the Society.
5. Board of Spiritual and Social Ministry — To minister to the spiritual and social needs of the Depressed Classes in India there shall be a separate Board consisting of all Missionaries and three other members to be annually elected thereto by the Council from among themselves. This board shall have a charge of all the spiritual and social Institutions and organisations of the Mission, such as the Congregations, Sunday Schools, Young Peoples’ Clubs, etc., and shall be subject to the rules and the control of the Executive Committee of the Society.
6. Membership of the Society — The General Body of the Society shall consist of
(a) Patrons :— (1) That is, persons who make donations of five thousand rupees or more to the funds of the Society. (2) Persons of distinction accepting the Patronship at the special invitation of the Executive Committee of the Society.
(b) Life Members :— (1) Those who pay a donation of Rs. 1,000 or more, or an annual subscription of Rs. 100 for 12 years. (2) Those who have rendered not less than five years’ continuous service as Missionaries of the Society.
(c) Members :— Those paying an annual subscription of not less than Rs. 25.
(d) All Missionaries of the Society ex-officio.
13. Incorporated Branches — The General Body may start new branches or sanction the conversion of existing affiliated bodies into branches in order to further the objects of the Society with due regard to the financial resources of the Society.
14. The incorporated branches shall send to the Executive Committee for its approval a Budget of its estimated expenditure for the next succeeding three months; for any financial obligations incurred in excess of such estimates without the express sanction previously obtained of the Executive Committee of the Society, the Society shall not be responsible. The incorporated branches shall also send a quarterly statement of accounts and also a report of its work.
15. Affiliated Bodies — Subject to the approval of the General Body, the Executive Committee may affiliate existing bodies doing work similar to that of the Society, provided these bodies agree :—
(1) to work in a way not inconsistent with the aims and deals of this Society and
(2) to submit a duly adopted annual report of their work and accounts so as to reach the General Secretary before the 1st of February, every year.

Subject to these conditions of affiliation the Affiliated Bodies shall be independent in the conduct of their affairs, and the Society shall not be responsible for any financial obligations incurred or to be incurred by them.

The Executive Officers
The Hon’ble Justice Sir N. G. Chandavarkar - President.
Shet D. G. Sukhadwala, J.P. - Vice-President.
Mr. P. B. Gothoskar, B.A. - Treasurer.
Mr. V. R. Shinde, B.A. - General Secretary.
Mr. V. S. Sohoni - Assistant General Secretary.
Mrs. L. Ranaday - Secretary, Ladies' Committee.
Mr. L. B. Nayak, B.A. - Captain of the Rupee Fund.
Trustees
Shet Damoderdas G. Sukhadwala, J.P.
Mr. Hari Sitaram Dixit, B.A., LL.B.
Mr. Vitthal Ramji Shinde, B.A.
Nature of the Mission Work
Speaking at the Prize Distribution of the Society on the 21st of March 1911, His Excellency Sir George Clarke, Governor of Bombay, observed “It is an Indian Society working for Indians, and we may feel sure that it is helping indirectly to mould opinion, and thus to produce effects which cannot be calculated in figures or embodied in reports. As I have said it has a double mission to accomplish — to educate public opinion and to arouse sympathy for the wrongs of the Depressed Classes on the one hand, and to promote the education of these classes on the other.” Sir R. G. Bhandarkar, Ph. D., LL. D., remarks in the visitors’ book — “The whole institution is typical of the times in which reasonableness is invading the domain of prejudice and superstition."
Scope of work (For PDF Click Here)  
In all there are at present 15 Centres with 25 Schools, 5 Boarding houses, 5 Theistic Congregations, 7 Other Institutions, 55 Teachers, 1,100 pupils and 5 Missionaries.

The extent of work and sphere of influence of this Mission may be classified into sections as follow:—

The Depressed Classes Mission society of india_२

DEPRESSED CLASSES MISSION SOCIETY OF INDIA

Karnatak Branch, Hubli
(Opened on the 10th of August 1912)

Mr. V. R. Shinde, General Secretary of this Society, on a preliminary tour in August and September 1911 visited Belgaum, Dharwar, Hubli and other places in the S. M. Country, explained to the public the aims and work of this Society by means of lectures and other meetings and organized several local committees. With the help of Mr. Krishnarao Walvekar, Mr. Narayanrao Sirur, Mr. K. Anandrao and others, Mr. Shinde was able to create some special sympathy for the cause in Hubli which is a commercial centre and has a large number of low caste population employed in various trades. The place was therefore selected for the opening of a branch of the Society for the Kanarese speaking people of the districts around, and the Society decided that I should reside permanently and work in this part.

Before actually opening however this Branch, Mr. Shinde and I went on a second tour in May 1912 in this part with a view to raise a part of the funds required for the first two years. We visited this time Kolhapur, Kurundvad, Belgaum, Shahapur, Dharwad, Hubli, Gudag-Betigiri, Kurtkoti, Hombal and Bijapur. Mr. Brown, Collector of Belgaum, Mr. Kabraji, Collector of Bijapur and Mr. Namjoshi, Deputy Collector of Gudag, presided at our meetings and several other Government officers, merchants and pleaders extended their sympathy so that we could collect during this tour Rs. 1,400 in cash. Mrs. Sayyad and myself came in August 1912 to Hubli, rented a house near the old Post Office and opened this Branch on the 10th of that month.

The Local Advisory Committee :
Mr. K. R. Valvekar, President
Mr. S. T. Kambli, B.A., L.L.B., Vice-President
Dr. S. R. Gore, L.M. and S.
Dr. C. H. Deshpande
Mr. R. G. Barpute, B.A.
Mr. V. P. Wagle, Secretary
Mr. T. T. Mudraddi, Secretary

The population of the Depressed Classes in the three districts, Belgaum, Dharwar and Bijapur numbers about 2,00,000. The spread of education and the consequent progress being comparatively very slow in Karnatak, the condition of the depressed classes is more miserable here than in Maharashtra. The vice of drinking, the practice of dedicating young girls to gods and goddesses, unclean living and unclean food, superstitious beliefs and dense ignorance are among the various causes that have kept these people at a very low stage of life. Government and Municipalities have opened several schools but they do not prosper for the lack of good teachers. The work of the various institutions started for their betterment, is as follows :—

1. D.C.M. Boarding House

This boarding house was opened on the 10th August 1912 in Garden Peth. During the five months under report there were 8 admissions and 4 withdrawals. The number of boarders on the roll on 31st December 1912 was 4.

The following is the classification of boarders according to (a) caste and (b) progress in studies.

(a) Classification according to caste :—
       Crtalwadi    2
       Madigar      2
    
  ____________
       Total         4

(b) Classification according to studies :—
        English Std.       I     3
        Canarese Std. VII     1
                            ________    
                              Total 4
                            -----------

Three students attend the New English School where they have been admitted free and one attends a municipal vernacular school. Special attention is paid to habits, manners and cleanliness of the boarders. They are given simple vegetarian food. In Karnatak there are very few boys who have completed the vernacular fourth standard. Those few also who join the boarding do not remain long owing to their home sickness. Very many difficulties are therefore felt in conducting this institution in this part.

The daily programme of the boarders is as under :-
A.M.
5.0      Rise regularly
5.30    Bhajan
6.0      Cleaning premises
6.30    School-lessons
9.0      Breakfast
9.30    Domestic Work
10.0    School-lessons
11.0    Bath and Washing

P.M.
12.0    Dayschool
2.0      Lunch
5.0      Exercise
7.0      Lessons or Night School
9.0      Supper
9.30    Retire

2. Yallapur Day School

There are two municipal separate schools for the boys of the depressed classes here. But there were no arrangements made for the education of the children of the Bhangees at Yallapur. As it was formed that it was not possible for the Municipality to make any immediate arrangement for their education, a Day School was opened in the temple of the Bhangees at Yallapur on 22nd August 1912. The school was removed to the premises of the boarding on the 15th December 1912. There were 37 admissions and 2 withdrawals (deaths). Thus the number of students on the roll on 21st December was 35.

(a) Classification according to caste :—

  Boys Girls Total
Bhangees 14 10 24
   Waddars        3 8 11
 

17

 

18 35

(b) Classification according to studies :—

 

  Boys Girls Total
Bhangees 14 10 24
   Waddars        3 8 11
 

17

18 35

The Bhangee children are very regular and punctual in the school. Intellectually also they are not in any way inferior to other depressed classes. A cripple young Bhangee man is employed as a teacher in the school. He himself learns in the Night School. It is hoped that the number of children in this school will be increased shortly.

3. Garden Peth Night School

This Night School for workmen was started in the Boarding House on 21st August 1912. During the period under report the school worked satisfactorily. Arrangements are made to teach both English and Canarese. During five months under report 64 admissions were made. The number of students on the roll on 31st December 1912 was 36.

(a) Classification according to castes :—

Bhangee 18 Samgar 3
madigar 2 2 Dhor 4
Chalwadi 1 Mahomedan 2
Waddar 6 Total 36
(b) Classification According to study : -
English Std. I 2 Canarese Std. III 3
english Std. Infant 8 Canarese Std. II 2
    Canarese Std. I 2
    Canarese Std. Infant 29
Total 10 Total 36

4. Sunday Classes

These classes have been started in the Boarding House and the Yallapur school with the object of giving moral and religious instructions to students. About 60 boys in municipal schools and the Society's school attend these classes. Messrs. V. P. Wagle, Umajee Ghodke and Basappa Hirebendigiri conducted the classes during the period under report. Moral instruction was given with the help of "Neeti Manjari" and “Someshwar- Shataka."

5. Spiritual Work

There are 2 Bhajan Samajas — one in old Hubli and the other in New Hubli. They are organised by the depressed classes themselves under the auspices of the Branch. Every Sunday and Monday Night Bhajan is performed and sermons are given. Members of these Samajas have given up drinking. They have also stopped the use of liquor on occasions of marriage, funeral etc. Meetings are held in their own localities. Private quarrels among the people are settled amicably by these Samajas. If any one from the members of their Samajas is found drunk he is fined 5 annas and 4 pies by the committee of the Samajas.

6. D.C.M. Reading Room

This Reading Room was opened in the month of November. The proprietors of Subodh Patrika, Dnyan Prakash, Kshem Samachar and Karnatak Vritta have given their papers free. Mr. T.T. Mudraddi gives a copy of Vakkalgar Patrika free to the Reading Room. Students of the Night School and other depressed class people avail themselves of the Reading Room.

7. General Work

Tours : Workers of the Mission visited Dharwar, Halial, Alnavar, Laxmeshwar, Annigeri, Ron, Halkeri, Sudi &c. They arranged meetings in the above place and explained to the public the object of the Mission. 18 men's meetings and 7 women's meetings were held in different places. In connection with the 6th anniversary of the parent society a public special meeting was held in the Nipanikar's theatre at Hubli under the presidentship of Mr. S. S. Phadnis, Sub-Judge of Hubli. The theatre was densely crowded both by the high class and depressed class people. Messrs. K. R. Walvekar, Subrao Behatti, T. T. Mudraddi and V. P. Wagle spoke on the problem of the depressed classes.

Medical help : Ordinary family medicines were given to poor patients of the depressed classes. In serious cases the patients were sent to Dr. Kumbhakonam and Dr. Deshpande who were kind enough to treat the patients free. Plague having broken out in the localities of the depressed classes the Branch got 414 persons inoculated by Dr. Kumbhakonam in the Boarding House. There was not a single attack of plague among the persons inoculated even in the most dirty locality of the depressed classes.

Temperance Work : As the result of the temperance work many people have lessened drinking. Some of them have given it up altogether. Attempts have been made to stop the use of liquor on the occasions of marriage, funeral and holidays.

Other Work : Ten private quarrels among the depressed classes were settled amicably. These quarrels would have caused at least Rs. 500/- had the parties been to the court.

At the request of the Chairman of the Hubli Municipal School Board the two Municipal Dhed Schools were supervised by the agent of the Mission. Necessary and important suggestions were made to the Chairman of the School Board, who paid immediate attention to them. The boys in these 2 schools are improving in cleanliness, descipline and daily attendance in the schools. Scholarships were given to two students, one learning in the English 1st Standard at Bagalkot and the other learning in the 4th Standard in the Lamington High School, Hubli.

The Branch is thankful to Messrs. K. R. Walvekar, T. T. Mudraddi, V. P. Wagh, R. S. Sali, Dr. Kumbhakonam, Dr. Deshpande, Head Master of the New English School, and the local committee of the D. C. Mission for their most valuable help in the work of the Branch. It is also thankful to all the subscribers and donors on whose generous support the Branch is dependant.

8. Appeal

The Branch is spending hundred rupees a year for the rent of the house occupied for the work of the Mission. Even at such high rent the present house is not suitable for the work of the Branch. It is the most urgent need felt by the Branch to have a building of its own near the old Dispensary which is the central place for all the localities of the depressed classes at Hubli. It is hoped that the Hubli Municipality will help the Branch by giving a plot for building free.

Names of Subscribers and Annual Subscription - (To see the table no. 1)

Table 1

D. C. Mission Karnatak Branch Cash accounts for the year 1912 (To see the table no. 2)
D.C.M. Karnatak Branch (To see the table no. 2)
D.C.M. Karnatak Branch (To see the table no. 2)
Table 2

THE DEPRESSED CLASSES MISSION, MANGALORE
(Affiliated to the D.C.M. Society of India in 1907)

REPORT FOR THE YEAR ENDING 31st DECEMBER 1912

The Managing Committee
The following gentlemen constituted the managing committee during the year Messrs. U. Raghunathaya, Pensioner and Landholder, President; A. Shrinivas Pai, B.A., B.L., High Court Vakil. Shesha Bhat Bhide, B.A., B.L. Pleader, A. Balakrishna Shetty, Landholder, Dr. M.S. Rao, L.R.C.P. and S., L.F.P. and S. and L.M.; M. Narasappa Rai Sahib, M. Gopal Rao, B.A., B.L. Pensioner, U. Narsinga Rao, B.A., Head Clerk, District Court Mangalore; G. Krishna Rao, B.A., L.L.B. Pleader, Treasurer, and K. Ranga Rao, Secretary. Rai Saheb M. Gopal Rao and Mr. U. Narsinga Rao were added as members of the Committee during the year under report.

The Mission maintains the following institutions :—
I. A Day School under the name of the Court Hill Panchama School.
II. A Boarding House for Panchama Students.
III. An Industrial Institute.
IV. A colony of Panchma families.

The Court Hill Panchama School
The year commenced with 78 pupils on the roll. There were 41 new admissions and 26 dismissals during the year. The year thus closes with 93 on the roll - 86 boys and 7 girls. The School is manned by three teachers, of whom one is a Panchama, and it is divided into 5 classes. The strength of the classes at the end of the year is as follows :—

Class Pupils
  1912 1911
Infant Standard 59 44
I  Standard 13 14
II Standard 8 8
III Standard 7 8
IV Standard 6 4
Total  Pupils 93 78

The IV Standard presented 4 boys for the Primary Examination and 3 passed. The large number of pupils attending the infant class and the extremely small number in the higher classes will undoubtedly attract notice. This undesirable state of things is only explained by the fact of the extreme poverty of the parents who are compelled to withdraw their children when they have grown up sufficiently to help them in their household work or to send them to the Coffee and Rubber plantations.

Four of the old students of the School have become stipendiary students in the Local Government Training School and are undergoing training for the profession of teachers.

The School was visited by Mr. C. Ransford, Inspector of Schools, Rai Bahadur M. Raghunath Rao, Assistant Inspector, and Mr. N. Krishna Rao, B.A., Sub-Assistant Inspector.

The Inspector recorded the following remarks :— "Class IV write decently, III are slow in mental arithmetic. The II class should read with more attention to stories but they can answer questions on the subject matter. All the children in I class got both their sums right.

A stick-laying chart is required for the Infants. There are proper articles for the beginning of Kindergarten.

The Verandha is hot and crowded but the new building should prove quite suitable. A Government grant has been promised for slates and books which are badly needed. A small hostel also being erected. None of the teachers is trained but one is now under training.

The School fulfils a very urgent requirement."

(Sd.) C. Ransford, (I.S.)
7-9-1912

The Annual Inspection was made by the Sub-Assistant inspector, who made the following remarks :-

"The instruction imparted in this School is generally efficient Weights, measures, coins and simple geometrical forms prescribed in a circular must be taught in the Infant Class also. They should not be neglected in this lowest class, which on the other hand should be well drilled in them. More attention should be paid to the meanings of school mottos. On the whole however, useful work is done here on behalf of a most backward class of people and I shall be glad to propose as much grant as possible."

(Sd.) N. Krishna Rao
(Sub-Assistant Inspector of School)
30-11-1912

The Inspector's remark about the veranda refers to the old building where the school is at present held. A commodious new building is being built now. Government grant for this building as well as for a building for hostel or boarding house has been applied for.

The committee is thankful for the grant of Rs. 185 sanctioned by the Director of Public Instruction for a moiety of the value of furniture, books, slates &c., required for the school.

The instruction in the school is free and the pupils being the children of the miserables are supplied with books, slates and stationery as well as dress and umbrellas free of cost. As the children come from distant places a daily midday meal  is given them in the school premises.

The school was awarded a grant of Rs. 140 from the Municipal Funds. The total Cash expenditure of the school amounted to Rs. 644-13-5 as shown in the annexed statement of cash account. This item does not include the value of cloth supplied to the pupils and of rice collected weekly from donors both of which may be approximately fixed at Rs. 117-8-3. The total quantity of rice consumed was 36 mooras and seers of which 9 mooras and 39 seers came from the weekly donors and 26 mooras and 35 seers were purchased.

The Committee gratefully acknowledges the kind help rendered to the school by Rao Bahadur Hem Raj of the Meteorological Department, Simla, Mr. M. Bhavani Shanker Rao, Land Holder Manjeshwar, Mr. Pandit Ananda Rao of Bolar Tile Factory, Khan Bahadur Sayed Rustom Ali Saheb, Judge, Aden, the Hon'ble Rao Bahadur P. Somasundaram Chettiar of Calicut, Dr. L. P. Fernandez of St. Mary's Pharmacy, Mangalore, who gives gratitious medical help to our school children and staff, Mr. K. Shrinivas Shanbogue, Merchant, Mangalore, and the Students of the Sri Ramakrishna Hostel of Mangalore — all of whom contributed for dinner to the School Children. Mr. K. B. Thimmappa Shetty besides giving a sumptuous dinner distributed cloth to all the school children and the boarders. Mr. U. C. Krishna Bhat, High Court Vakil, Mangalore, supplied a load of plantains for distribution to these children. The Coorg Students of the Kodialbail Lodge supplied some clothes. An anonymous donor sent 11 yds. of check and Re. 1-8 in cash, Mr. M. Janardhan, Mangalore, made a present of five benches for the Infant Class and Messrs. Kavi and Sons presented 6 Umbrellas and 12 slates. The Students of the Sri Rama Krishna Hostel besides contributing for a dinner supplied the local weekly Swadeshabhimani free of charges to the boarders.

It is needless on our part to say that the Panchamas of our District are one of the most miserable classes in our Presidency. A reference to the Government Administration Report for the year ending 31st March 1910, pages 90 and 91 proves that in point of Panchama education, South canara is deplorably behind the other Districts in the Presidency. The Government observe, "The percentage of male pupils under instruction to the male population of school age was the largest viz. 91-5 in Tinnevelly, and Madras comes next with 68 p.c. while the South Canara held the last place with 1-5 p.c. thus maintaining the place they held last year." The general average of the Presidency it must be observed is 11-12.

In consideration of the deplorable condition of the Panchama Classes in this District, the committee at a meeting held on 26th September 1912 passed a resolution, that branch institutions should be started in as many villages as possible and small monthly or annual subscriptions should be collected from sympathising Canara gentlemen in the District as well as abroad. An appeal was accordingly published in the Swadeshabhimani, a local vernacular weekly soliciting monthly subscriptions ranging from a Rupee down to four annas or an annual subscription of a Rupee or two. 5000 copies of the appeal were printed for wide distribution in the District and amongst our Canara brethren abroad. Several gentlemen responded to our request but a great many have yet to do so. How far we shall succeed in extending our work to the outstations in the District depends upon the amount of co-operation we get.

We cannot refrain from chronicling here some touching instances of sympathy shown to the cause of our miserables by some gentlemen who are themselves poor in the possession of the worlds' goods. A sickly young man unable to pay any monthly contribution from the pittance of his pay sent Rs. 1-4 which he had set apart for purchasing shoes and made a vow that he would walk bare footed for a year. Another, a school-master in the Udipi Taluka on a pay of Rs. 12 a month offered us Rs. 2-15-5, the accumulated sale proceeds of the baskets and other products of the industry of the pupils of his school and fines levied from the children of well-to-do parents. One young man has kept a charity box in his shop for collection of aid from his constituents. The four old students of our school (Panchamas) who get a stipend of Rs. 8 each from the Government Training School, proposed each to pay monthly a pie in the Rupee of their income and are dropping the same regularly into the charity box kept in our premises. Five gentlemen sent small donations for treats to School children on the occasion of the death anniversary of their parents and other relations. A few Canara gentlemen residing in distant places have become our subscribers despite their own hardships. These pious contributions have touched us deeply and encourage us considerably in our up hill struggle.

The Boarding House

This institution which was started in 1908 admits select grown up students who are maintained free of charge until their course of training is finished. They are not allowed to go home, without permission. Out of school hours they receive training in some industry such as weaving, eri-silk culture and gardening and serve as watchmen in the premises at night. Special attention is also paid for their moral and spiritual culture and for instruction in good manners and habits of sobriety and cleanliness. This institution was started in the hope, that these youths after their discharge and return home might exercise a leavening influence amidst their community. We are glad that the experiment has achieved a success. This institution had ten inmates in the year including 5 of the previous year. Five out of these were discharged. The total number hitherto admitted and maintained in the institution was 34 of whom 21 were discharged and 8 were dismissed for misconduct. The year thus closes with 5.

The Industrial Institute
The Institute manufactured 2760 yards of cloth and sold 30941/4 yards against 27331/2 yards made and 3051 yards sold in the previous year. The total receipts and expenditure in the year were Rs. 853-8-7 and Rs. 876-13-10 respectively. Outstanding to the extent of Rs. 210-0-8 were struck off by the committee. Exclusive of this amount the outstandings in favour of the institute on 31st Decembor last was Rs. 698-9-5.

Weaving was done with fly shuttle handlooms. This work as well as the reeling was done mostly by Panchama boys under the supervision of a native Christian expert. The cloth manufactured is generally of good quality and our checks and bedsheets won merit certificates and money prizes from the Mysore and Lahore Exhibitions. Owing, however to the competition of power looms whose products though of much less durability sell comparatively cheaper, the hand loom industry, so far as our experience goes, does not seem to be encouraging. We are further handicapped for want of funds to extend this industry on a more extensive scale and make it yield any appreciable profit.

The Eri-Silk Culture - As stated in our last year's report, our experiments in rearing Eri-Silk worms having proved successful and expert opinions obtained about the suitability of the climate of this district for the purpose having been all favourable the local District Board had been moved (or a money grant to popula’rize this industry. The District Board generously paid a sum of Rs. 500 the previous year and a portion of this amount was utilized for sending a man to the Government Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa, who returned during the year under report after finishing his course of training and obtaining a diploma of efficiency from the authorities of that institution. This gentleman was an employee of the Basel German Mission and his services had been kindly lent for the purpose by that Mission. On his return from Pusa, the Basel German Mission proposed to do the needful themselves to popularize the Industry in the District and have opened a farm near the Pallikere Railway Station in the Kasargod Taluka.

We also maintain a small farm for the instruction of the school children. Looms have been already secured and other necessary machines for cocoon reversing and spinning have been brought from Calcutta. The manufacture of Eri-Silk Cloth will be attempted in the current year and a good quantity of cocoons have been already collected for the purpose. A more extensive farm will be opened and maintained in our colony lands in the current year for production of cocoons.

The Panchama Colony
The progress in this department of work was rather slow and was retarded for nearly 3 months during the important working season owing to want of funds. Seven homeless families were provided with temporary dwellings and one well is being sunk in the Azizuddin garden — one of the biggest blocks named after our former Collector, Khan Bahadur M. Azizuddin Saheb Bahadur whose sympathy for the Panchamas helped the progress of their cause very much in previous years. The occupants of this block at present use the well constructed by the district board close to it. Two wells were sunk in the Hubli Block, so named to commemorate the charity of our Hubli friends and 8 houses of a permanent nature are being built on the same block which we hope will be completed during the present working season. No appreciable work was done either on the block set apart for dedication to Mrs. Annie Besant or on other blocks for want of funds. The two wells one named after Rai Bahadur N. Sadasiva Pillay of Port Blair, one of the benefactors of our movement and another named after our late lamented trenef actor Mr. Amembal Subba Rao have been half constructed with laterite. We hope the admirers of the late Mr. Subba Rao will help us with contributions to enable us to complete the well, named after him. A large size oil painting of the said Mr. Subba Rao, has been ordered, and will be hung up in the main hall of our school building. There are at present 22 families consisting of 105 souls, men, women and children all told who live in our colony lands. Out of these 33 live in the Urmila Gardens the first block consecrated for our colony scheme and named after Shrimati Urmila Devi, a saintly lady of the Bombay Presidency. The big well, known as the Andaman well, so named to commemorate the sympathy of our Indian brethren in Port Blair and its' suburbs who sent us large money help in the previous years lies in this block. This block is capable of further improvement. 34 persons live in the Azizuddin gardens and 22 on the Hubli Block and the rest live scattered on other blocks. All these, it must be observed, were houseless and helpless people without the protection of any landlords for them. Every new family coming to dwell on our lands is supplied not only with a dwelling but also with hoes and pickaxes and occasional cash presents for other implements to enable them to their living.

Sirdar Kripal Singh, B. A. of Beluchistan and another gentleman of the Bombay Presidency under the name of "a brother of the miserables" contributed Rs. 36 and Rs. 50 respectively for two homesteads. Mr. Glatfelder of the Basel Mission Jeppu Tile Works gave us 3000 good roofing tiles. Rev. Mr. Shinde, General Secretary of the D. C. M. Society of India besides making a money gift of Rs. 100 on behalf of the Hubli Donors and advancing a loan of Rs. 200 when the Mission was badly in need of funds, sent a present of 20 copies of Prof. Dharmananda Kosambi’s Buddha Dharma with instructions to apply the sale proceeds for the Mission purposes. Mr. C. V. Murthi Iyengar gave a Musical entertainment in aid of the Mission in the local Government College kindly lent for the purpose by the Principal. This entertainment brought us Rs. 165-12-0, one-third of which as desired by Mr. Iyengar was sent to the Honourable Mr. Gokhale for the Guzarat Famine Relief fund. Mr. Shesha Bhat Bhide of Mangalore presented three good windows. Mr. C. Sankara Menon of the Loco Office, Insein, Burma sent us Rs. 20 as a donation from himself and his friends in that station. Mr. Saint Nihal Singh, the well known traveller and journalist popularized our movement by noticing it in his writings. The late Dr. R. S. Karnad, Chief Medical Officer of Baroda who belonged to Mangalore left by his will a legacy of Rs. 5700-0-0 which will benefit the cause of the Panchamas considerably. To all these gentlemen as well as to those ladies and gentlemen who gave us money help in the shape of donations and subscriptions and weekly doles of rice as shown in the appendix and to all who otherwise rendered help to us we tender our hearty thanks.

The cause of the local Panchamas suffered much by the lamented death of Mr. B. M. Malabari the eminent journalist and philanthrophist of Bombay and the Hon’ble Mr. V. Krishna "Swamy Iyer member of the Madras Executive Council, both of whom were helpers of our Mission. It suffered also by the transfer of Mr. R. A. Graham, I. C. S. and Mr. B. Krishna Rao, B. A. B. L. both of whom left the district, the former as the British Resident at Travancore and the latter as Sub-Judge at Nellore.

The total receipts and disbursements during the year amounted to Rs. 3543-11-6 and Rs. 2881-14-1 respectively thus leaving a balance of Rs. 661-13-5 for the current year. The expenditure of Rs. 214-12-4 shown in the annexed statement of the Auditor under the head Miscellaneous includes the sum of Rs. 55-4-0 sent to the Hon’ble Mr. Gokhale as stated above, Rs. 30 paid to the vendor of a portion of the colony land as interest on Rs. 500, the unpaid portion of the price, Rs. 22-3-0 spent for photoes and Rs. 13-4-4 for assessment and the balance includes the expenditure incurred for occasional entertainments, for the reception of distinguished visitors and for other minor expenses of the Mission.

The Mission has outstandings of the value of Rs. 698-9-5 and debts to the extent of Rs. 1100-0-0 being 500 unpaid portion of the price of the land purchased as aforesaid, Rs. 200 borrowed during the year and the balance borrowed on previous occasions as shown in the report for 1910.

During the year under report the Hon’ble Mr. P. S. Sivswamy Iyer, member of the Executive Council, Madras, Mr. Tahil Ram Gangaram, Zamindar of Dera Ismail Khan, Prof. Rama Murthy of the athletic fame, Rao Bahadur Hem Raj of Simla were some of the distinguished visitors who honoured our institutions with their visits.
10th February 1913.
K. RANGA RAO
(Secretary)

Statement of Cash Account of the Depressed Classes Mission,(See in the Table No. 1)
Mangalore (For the year ending 31st December 1912) 

THE DEPRESSED CLASSES MISSION MANGALORE (See in the Table No. 1)
(List of Donations and Subscriptions, received in 1912)
Table No. 1
To,
The Members of The Committee of The Depressed Classes Mission, Mangalore

Gentlemen,
I examined the accounts of the Depressed Classes Mission, Mangalore kept for the year ending 31st December 1912. The total cash receipts are Rs. 3543-11-6 including Rs. 826-14-5 a balance of the year 1911 and the total expenditure is Rs. 2881-14-1 as particularized in my statement appended hereto leaving a balance of Rs. 661-13-5 for the current year.

The institute made 2760 yards of cloth and sold 3094 1/4 yards from the stock which includes cloth made in the previous year. Outstandings to the extent of Rs. 210-0-8 were struck off by the committee in their meeting held on 31st December last. The value of the outstandings exclusive of the said Rs. 210-0-8 in favour of the Mission up to 31st December 1912 is Rs. 698-9-5.

I beg to remain,
Gentlemen,
Yours sincerely, (Sd.)
M. MADHAVA RAO (Auditor)
Mangalore,
10th Feb. 1912.

The Depressed Classes Mission, Bhavnagar
(Affiliated to the D. C. M. Society of India)

Second Annual Report
(For the year ending on 31st December 1912)

(1) One day-school is kept here for the children of the Depressed Classes. The new building into which this School has been removed lately was specially built for the purpose during the last famine relief work. It is now situated on a fine site having quarters for one teacher. There is one central hall with a big varandah on all sides which is closed with hoop-iron work, where classes are held. It has got a spacious compound in front for drill etc.

(2) The School has one teacher and 44 pupils on the roll. The average attendance is 30. Instruction is imparted upto two Gujarati Standards only. Of the 44 pupils, 40 belong to the Dhed Community and 4 are Dhors or tanners by trade. 42 are below 14 years of age and only two are above. This only proves how these Communities are backward in the taste for education.

(3) Three meetings were held during the year :—
(a) In the 1st meeting it was resolved that the new building for the School should be opened at the hands of the acting Dewansaheb. Accordingly it was declared open by him on the 14th of August 1912. There were present a number of Nagar gentlemen and the members of the managing committee. The occasion was solemnised by performing “Harikirtan". At the request of the Dewan Saheb, Mr. Gulabrai Desai addressed the Depressed Classes showing them the necessity of such an institution and his full sympathy for them in this movement.

In connection with School a small dispensary has been opened.

(b) A wealthy gentleman of this place gave a hearty dinner to the children of the Depressed Classes in the School Compound when several gentlemen were present to witness the occasion.

This being the Dasra Holiday the School was gaily decorated. At the main entrance an arch of Ashok leaves was erected in the centre of which was beautifully exhibited the Maharaja Saheb’s portrait garlanded with a wreath of flowers. When the Maharaja Saheb passed by the School for Shami Poojan to the Raoopari Temple he was highly pleased to see the mottos of “welcome” and “long live the Maharaja Saheb".

(c) The third meeting was held by the managing committee to pass the expenditure of the year under report and also the expenditure of the new building.

(4) At first the School was situated in the locality where these people live. It was thought advisable to remove it to a better place so that it might attract the attention of the public. At the suggestion of the General Secretary of D. C. M. a proposal was laid before the ex-Dewan Saheb the Hon. Mr. Pattani that the sum of Rs. 200 would be placed at our disposal which was the balance left with the Theistic Conference from the last Famine Fund, on condition that the sum would be utilised for the building in the form of relief work. The proposal was accepted. The State sanctioned Rs. 950 towards the expenditure of the building and gave us a plot of ground free of charge. The public also came forth with handsome donations. This shows that there is a growing tendency among the citizens of this place for the welfare of this backward community. This is a very healthy sign of the times. Two prominent persons visited the School during the year. Mr. M. A. Tarkhad and Mrs. Jamnabai Sakkai, who were much pleased with the progress made by the children.

The scarcity of water which was the long felt want of these people has been removed by a good supply of water in the well for which the State spent about Rs. 250. The Mission is very thankful to His Highness for the provision of water and other needs of these people.

The List of Annual Subscribers - (To see the Table No. 1)

Statement of Account - (To see the Table No. 1)

Table No. 1

THE DEPRESSED CLASSES MISSION,

Amraoti
(Affiliated to the D. C. M. Society of India)

Report of the year 1912
At the beginning of the year under Report there were two Night Schools, one was for the Kunbis at Rajapeth a suburban place of Amraoti. This was abolished on the 1st of August 1912, on account of there being no learners in the School. The other school at Mahajanpura, another suburban place of the town of Amraoti is principally attended by Dhor boys. There are 31 boys on the roll. Their number according to castes is as follows :—
Dhors or tauners of leather 14 Kunbi             1
Mahars            2
Maratha           1    
Mangs              2    
Musalman         1
Kalal                1    
Khatiks             4
Dhangar           1    
Teli                  1    
Mali                 3
            _________
                    31

The average attendance 15.56. Mr. Bapuna Dhor generously continues to give the use of his small house for the use of the School without charging any rent for it.

In the province of Berar, boys of all castes high or low are admitted in Government School as well as in schools conducted by private individuals. So it is clear that there does not exist any very urgent necessity for schools for special classes. What is greatly needed is the establishment of boarding houses for school going children. The depressed class children need also monetary help for payment of school fees. The Educational Department under the orders of the Government has withdrawn rules for exempting these classes from the payment of fees. The poor amongst them were formerly exempted from payment of fees. This is a very great hardship on the children of the depressed classes.

The establishment of a scholarship fund is also a desideratum in the educational advancement of the depressed classes.

At Thugaon a village at the distance of 20 miles from Amraoti the Mahar youths there have collected about Rs. 150 (one hundred and fifty) for building a prayer house for themselves based on the principles of Theistic Religion. This sum is not enough for the completion of the building and friends of the Depressed Classes should help them in this charitable work.

In November 1912, Sister Janabai Shinde had come to Berar, and she visited some places in Berar and spoke to the women of the Mahars on various social and religious subjects. Like her brother, she is an earnest worker in the cause of the depressed classes.

List of Subscriptions for the year 1912  - (To see the table No. 1)

Table No. 1
THE DEPRESSED CLASSES MISSION Akola
(Affiliated to the D. C. M. Society of India)

Report for the year 1912

Introduction :
The constitution of the Committee remains unchanged excepting the following additions :—
R. H. Deodhar, Esqr. B.A., L.L.B. Pleader    Secretary.
N. B. Katti, Esqr. Asstt. Master, High School, Akola    .Member.
P. S. Kelkar, Esqr. Weaving Master, S. R. Mills    Member.

Institutions:
This Mission has under its supervision the following institutions :-

(1) The Akola Mahar Wada Night School - This institution has been stopped towards the end of the year under report, owing to very low-attendance. The scholars, who are most of them mill-hands find it very difficult to attend school as the mills are being worked late hours.

(2) The Janoji Free Boarding House for Mahar Students - This is satisfactorily financed by Mrs. Bendrabai at an annual cost of about Rs. 500/- Out of 13 boarders entertained, 3 attend the High School and the rest the Middle School.

(3) The Paras Night School was closed towards the end of the year 1911, and since then has not been revived. The young men who were in want of such a school there have taken that advantage of it which they could and there cannot be new young men so soon found to take their place.

(4) The Akot File Night School has similarly been closed in the beginning of the year under report, as the boys — most of whom were mill-hands-could not attend it, owing to the late working of the mills.

Meetings :
There was held only one business meeting of the committee during the year, when one secretary and two members were added to the workers. Weekly prayer-meetings were held at the Janoji Free Boarding house on all Sundays, except during the vacation. Prayers and hymns were generally recited and Manache-Shlokas by Shree Ramdas were explained. The boys were taught to sing bhajans by Mr. P. S. Kelkar.

Progress and needs :
The Night Schools in a place like Akola must progress well; but the attendance goes very low owing to the system of late-work at the mills, where young men of the low-castes are generally employed. The Boarding House is a necessity and is going on satisfactorily. However it must be in a position to provide for more boarders than now and more direct supervision and guidance to the boys on a tutorial basis, are urgently required.

Accounts :
Income and Expenditure for the year 1912 - (To see the Table No. 1)

Table No. 1

Visits :—
Out of 18 visitors to the Janoji Boarding House, who have all been pleased to record their satisfaction, mention must be made of Dr. Miss Nagutai Joshi of Amraoti; Mrs. Bayabai Thakur, of Bombay Seva Sadan; Mr. Spence, Ag. Director of Public Instruction, Central Provinces; Mr. Kilroe, Inspector of Schools, Berar Circle; Mr. Sathe of Amraoti; Mr. Deshpande of Yeotmal; R. B. Khaserao Jadhav; Prof. Arte, Mr. Sardesai and Mr. Ghanekar of Baroda; and Mr. Laxman Shastri Lele of Poona. The distinguished visitors of Baroda have expressed their satisfaction regarding the Mahar-Wada Night School.
Y. G. Agarkar
(Secretary, D. C. M. Berar Branch, Akola, 10th January)

THE DEPRESSED CLASSES MISSION, Dapoli
(Affiliated to the D. C. M. Society of India)

The Third Annual Report
(For the year ending 31st December 1913)

History :
Dapoli Taluka includes a considerable number of people belonging to the so-called low castes. Amongst them are some Mahars and Chamars who have served as commissioned officers in the army and have followed other occupations in the different parts of India and now live in Dapoli on the pensions and other means earned by them.

The authorities have lately directed that these low caste boys should be admitted to Government schools without any charge for tuition. The Government have also reserved as many as 10 scholarships for the boys of these classes exclusively by way of direct encouragement to them.

I am sorry however that a considerable portion of these communities have not realised the importance of these concessions and have not yet availed themselves of these facilities of providing education to their children.

Mr. H. B. Clayton, Collector of Ratnagiri gave Rs. 10 as donation to this society.

Students : This year two boys have passed in the 3rd standard examination in the English High School and are promoted to the 4th standard. Another boy aided by the Committee studying in the English High School, Dapoli felt discouraged by his failure in the 6th Standard, but the Assistant Collector of salt appointed him a clerk in the Salt Department, Manranji.
The number of students is as below :—

English 6 Standard 1                      

English  4 Standard 2    = 3


Marathi 7                     Standard  1        

Marathi 6                     Standard  1

Marathi  2                    Standard  3

Marathi  2                    Standard  5

Marathi  1                    Standard  6

Infant                         Standard  8
Techical  School           Standard  1

                                  Total  25


I am glad to note that Rev. A. Gadney has opened a separate class for Depressed Classes girls and 14 girls are in the class now.

One boy has passed in 2nd grade drawing this year.

Receipt and Expenditure statements - (To see the statement Table  no. 1)

Table No. 1
THE DEPRESSED CLASSES MISSION,  Malwan
(Affiliated to the D. C. M. Society of India)

Report for 1912
In the year two meetings were held. First on 15th September 1912 for sending delegates from the low castes to attend the D. C. M. Maharashtra Conference, at Poona and for discussion as to the building of a hall at Malwan for the low caste people, and the second on 22nd December 1912 for considering the request of three more students wishing to be helped.

Some members of the Society hereof visited the Malwan Government Low caste School 5 times in all. Each time the students of the School were inspected and advised as to cleanliness. The number of students is increased this year. The distribution of rice 14 sheer per present day per poor student by the Society has much contributed this year to the increase of average attendance over that of the last. Now the gentlemen of our Centre who were indifferent before are evincing a respectful tendency towards the Society and its cause. A great want is felt for a hall to be built at Malwan for the low caste people, spacious enough to accommodate at least 200 people of both the low as well as high caste for the social and spiritual uplift of the former. A meeting was held on the 15th September 1912 for the purpose in which it was resolved that the subscription should be raised and a committee was appointed of 5 persons viz., 1. Mr. Krishnarao Sitaram Desai, 2. Mr. Baburao Gopal Waradakar, B. A., 1st Asst. Master, Anant Shiwaji Desai High School, Malwan, 3. Mr. Shivram Vithoji Gaokar retired Nazir, 4. Mr. Rayaji Dattatraya Pai, Inamdar and 5. Mr. Sitaram Gundoba Keni. The Committee intends to undertake the work in the near future.

There are four more Government Marathi Low Caste Schools in the Malwan Centre viz. at Dhamapore, Achara, Masura and Hadi villages.

Income and Expenditure Account of the year ending 31st December 1912 - (To see the  Account  Table No. 1)

Table No. 1
THE DEPRESSED CLASSES MISSION, Satara
(Affiliated to the D. C. M. Society of India)
Report of The Year 1912
There are two schools for the Depressed Classes in Satara both teaching up to the 5th standard (Vernacular). The day school was originally started by the Local Prarthana Samaj in 1902 but has since been taken up by the town Municipality. The number of boys in the Day School was 48. The other in the night school solely managed by the Prarthana Samaj. The number of boys in this was 38 as against 28 of the year before.

This school is maintained on private subscriptions and a grant-in- aid given by Governments. The progress of the schools was satisfactory during the year under report as will be seen from the following remarks in the visit book. "The (day) School was closed for some months on account of plague. I inspected it in all the subjects that were taught and found its progress to be in a pretty good state."
14-8-12.    Sd. MAHAMAD
        (Assist. Dy. Ed. Inspector)

“The night school was thoroughly inspected and found to progress well.”
26-8-12    G. A. JADHAV
        (Assist. Dy. Ed. Inspector, Satara)

2. The Bhajan Samaj meets every Sunday in the evening in the school premises and occasional divine services are held.

3. The following is the Statement of income and expenditure during the year :— (To see the statement Table No. 1)
Table No. 1

The Trustees of D.C.M. Society remitted to this Committee Rs. 15-8-0 as the interest on Mrs. Rukminibai Tilak Fund for the year 1911. The amount was spent as below :—
  Rs.    A.     P.
  10     6      0     Text-Books to Night School boys.
  2      10     0     Books to Master Subhaji S. Kamble.
  2       8      0    Books to Master Pandurang P. Bhosle.
_____________
 15      8      0

4. That the low caste communities have begun to understand the value of self reliance and self-help is obvious from the fact that several numbers attended the Depressed Classes Conference lately held in Poona. The imputs given by what they saw in Poona on that occassion has induced them to organize a District Conference for this District in the ensuing hot season and Mr. Mahadeo Nanaji Savant, the Head-Master has already started on a tour through the District for the purpose of awakening public opinion and creating interest among the numbers of the Depressed Classes by means of lecturing at meetings in various places. The committee hopes that the ensuing conference will be a success.

5. In the Shimaga holidays sports and other healthy entertainments were arranged to divert the people from indulging in obscene songs and filthy games. It is to be noted that a large number of people belonging to the Depressed Classes abstained from the usual loose and obscene practices and what is still more note-worthy, abstained from drinking, swearing which they would abandon it for ever.

6. There are some Co-operative Credit Societies formed by members of the low castes. The Bhangis Co-operative Society, which was organised some 3 or 4 years ago and whose work has already been reported in previous years reports after having been able to wipe off all their old debts and have been able to lay by a good deal. Out of the savings they are now building houses and are making other improvements. They have given up drinking as the members of the Society are able to exercise a check upon one another and this has had a very healthy effect upon their daily life. The Chambhars and Dhors are prospering in their trade and some of the Mangs have turned out excellent tailors and by their joint capital are enabled to buy cloth and make into fine clothes ready for sale.
R. R. Kale
(Hon., Secretary)
Satara, Feb. 1913.

THE DEPRESSED CLASSES MISSION, Thana
(Affiliated to the D.C.M. Society of India)
Report for the year 1912
1. The only one low caste Municipal school which was located in a rented house, has now been removed in a portion of the school building, which is used by the children of touchable classes. This has given to the D.C. boys more opportunity of observing the manners of the boys of superior classes.

2. Five Meetings were held during the year.

3. The system of awarding Scholarships has been continued by the Municipality. The question of Night School is still under consideration, and most probably will be settled favourably shortly. The Chokha Mella Bhajans are held in the temporary shed erected on a piece of land granted and approved by the special officer of the Revenue Department. During the year under report ready-made new clothes sent by Mrs. Advani from Surat were twice distributed to the boys and girls and sweet-meats distributed twice. The last distribution of clothes took place on the 12th December 1912, the coronation day in presence of the Members of the Mission Committee and Members of the School Board Committee of the Thana Municipality, in the School; and the poor children from the Free Church of Scottish Mission were also given clothes.

4. The population of the Depressed Classes in the vicinity of Thana is on the increase, as more Bone-Mills are springing up in the District. The prospects of the labourers in the Bone-Mills are more prosperous. There is also a great demand of the low class labour in the Railway Department, as the Railway line from Kalyan and Bombay is being quadrupled. In the Bone Mills boys above 8 years age earn fair wages, therefore the parents do not send their grown up children to school. The vice of liquor drinking among the low class population on the whole is on the increase.

5. The Bombay Centre will be good enough to send their missionaries frequently to inculcate the advantages of education, and disadvantages of the habits of liquor drinking, and observing cleanly habits, &c. It is our firm conviction that the status of the low caste people will not be improved, until and unless religious training is given to them. The step in this direction is that the Prarthana Samaj should establish its branch at Thana.

SANTOOJI RAMJI LAD
(Hon. Secretary)
Bombay Road,
Thana, Feb. 1913.

The Depressed Classes Scholarships

Matheran

In the month of May 1912 Mr. A. V. Thakkar and Mr. V. R. Shinde visited Matheran and held a meeting of the sympathisers of the D. C. Mission at the Laxmi Hindu Hotel on the hill and collected about Rs. 107. The sum was handed over to Major Murisson, president of the Matheran Municipality, to be paid in small scholarships to the Depressed Classes students attending the Municipal Vernacular School at Matheran. The amounts of Scholarships paid and acknowledged by the Head Master of the above School are as follow :—

Scholarships at Matheran - (To see the Table No. 1)

Table No. 1
REPORT OF THE OLCOTT FREE SCHOOL

Rajkot
(for the year 1912)

This institution was started by Mr. N. G. Paranjpe B.Sc., F.T.S. in April 1907. It met under the shade of a “Nim" trees till October 1909 when the Committee secured a free plot of land from His Highness the Thakore Saheb of Rajkot and erected a building at a cost of Rs. 500.

There was a Night School for elder Dheds in addition to a Day School for younger ones. The Night School had however to be closed for want of pupils.

On 31-12-12 there were 11 pupils on the register, 10 boys and 1 girl. The average attendance is 11. There are 4 Standards in Gujarati under one teacher who is a Vania (Vanik) by caste.
The School opens with the singing of a prayer and religious and moral instruction suited to the needs of the boys is also provided.

The boys are fed occasionally and the local Theosophical Lodge provides a regular feast once a year in memory of Colonel Olcott the champion of the Panchams in the Madras Presidency.

The majority    of Dheds here are weavers and an industrial class for weaving is a pressing necessity.
Rajkot,  
5th January 1913.

H. N. RAU

(Hon. Secretary)

Exhaustive list of Donors and Subscribers (See the Table no. 1)
Statement of Cash Account (See the Table no. 1)
Table No. 1
 

THE DEPRESSED CLASSES NIGHT SCHOOL
Yeotmal

Origin - This school owes its origin and present existence to the practical and earnest patriotism of Rao Bahadur R. G. Mundle, B.A., LL.B., the leading pleader of Yeotmal. The condition of the Depressed Classes in Berar is in many respects less odious than what is usually the case in other provinces. Nevertheless the brand of untouchableness is there with all the moral ruin it means to them and to the nation. Mr. Mundle started this school 15 years ago single-handed and has maintained it at his own expense, to this day.

Attendance - Out of the 52 boys on the rolls at present only 5 belong to castes which are not untouchable; all the rest are Mahars, Mangs, Pradhans or from the other sections of the untouchable population. Most of these boys work during the day and supplement the poor income of their parents. The classes are held from 6 p.m. to 8 p.m. The attendance roll is generally satisfactory. The average attendance, out of 52, was 40 last month.

No. of boys in the school May             January  
  1908 1909 1912 1913
  22 45 42 52

Standards - There are only two standards in the School. Marathi 1st and Marathi 2nd; 36 being in the 1st and 16 being in the 2nd at present; of course some boys from the 1st standard may be taken as belonging to the infant class. The object of the institution being the removal of illiteracy, further progress in the curriculum was not deemed to be quite necessary. Besides, means had to be looked to in the absence of popular support. There is only one teacher who takes both the classes.

Other particulars - The school is located in the house of a Mahar who has let it to Mr. Mundle for the purposes of the school at Rs. 4 a month. The expenses of lighting come to about a rupee a month and the teacher who has passed the Marathi 5th standard in the Government School, himself a Mahar, gets Rs. 9 every month as his pay. Amrita Anant, i.e. the teacher is earnest about his duties and has done much to popularise the institution among his people. The owner of the house, Diwaloo Kanhoo himself has passed through this school and engaged himself in petty contracts which have much improved his material condition. Slates, books &c. are provided to the boys, by Mr. Mundle.

The Remarks of visitors - The Assistant Inspector of Education says “Very good work is being done : reflects great credit on the manager and Head Master.”

Mr. M. V. Joshi, the famous advocate of Amraoti, says “The uplifting of the Depressed Classes is a necessity of the times and sympathy with this movements from members of the higher classes can best be shown by an institution like this.

Messrs. Dravid and Kaikini of the Servants of India Society speak highly of the work.

Mr. Shinde of the Depressed Classes Mission Says “This is one of the best attended schools... was started years ago before any Depressed Classes Mission was thought of in this country.”

Honorary workers - The late Mrs. Harnabai Landge was one of the most enthusiastic workers for the institution which has suffered a serious loss in her untimely death three years ago. Miss Dwarkabai Bhalchandra does a great deal for the school by frequent visits and inspection; so do Mrs. Sitabai Landge, Mrs. Mundle, Mrs. Krishnabai Mainkar and Mr. Kaikini.

Prospects - If the public extend a more cordial support to this school, it is possible that one more teacher, so badly needed, may be engaged and the number of classes increased.
L. V. KAIKINI
Veotmal,
Feb. 1913.

The Fifth Annual Report

 THE FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE
DEPRESSED CLASSES MISSION SOCIETY OF INDIA
(for the year ending on 31st December 1911)

Before presenting this report the Executive Committee of the D.C.M. solemnly offers their thanks to the Almighty God and prays for further strength and opportunities for serving humanity in His name.

An account of the celebrations of the fourth anniversary of the D.C.M. and the Prize Distribution at which His Excellency Sir George Sydenham Clarke presided and Her Excellency Lady Clarke distributed prizes to the students of the Society's schools in Bombay was published in an appendix to the last annual report.

Head quarters — All the four schools and other institutions in and near the island of Bombay have throughout the year held their own and some have made distinct progress. The office of the Society which was removed from the Ram Mohan Ashram to the Society’s School at Parel for some time, is now located on the ground floor of the bungalow ol Shet Bhagwandas Madhavdas by his kind courtesy.

Centres in the Mofussil — The incorporated branch, in Poona which is the only one under general control from Bombay is successfully conducted by the energetic Secretary, Mr. A. K. Mudliar, B. A., under many difficulties with the help of a local committee presided over by Dr. Harold H. Mann who spares no pain in his zeal for this work. Of the ten affiliated centres those at Manmad and Indore had to be closed during the year for want of workers, and encouragement, while three more viz. at Bhavnagar, Hubli and Malwan were newly affiliated.

Educational work — The Society has now 5 day schools under its incorporated branches and 4 day schools and 10 night schools in 7 of the centres affiliated to it. While in the remaining 4 affiliated centres the local committees help the Depressed Classes children in their respective neighbourhood to attend the local Municipal Schools and encourage them in their studies by giving them clothes, books and other necessary articles. Besides these, there are three hostels at Parel, Mangalore and Akola where the inmates are provided free board and lodging. Although at the year end there is a slight decrease in the number of boarders at Parel, which is only temporary, there has been a marked progress in the discipline and steadiness of attendance of the boarders which does credit to the Superintendent Mr. A.M. Sayed who spares no pains in looking after the studies, habits, health and recreation of the inmates in his charge. The Boarding House at Akola is conducted solely at the cost of Mrs. Bendrabai, widow of the late Mr. Janoji a generous Mahar gentleman who has provided for the maintenance of this institution. The local committee helps Mrs. Bendrabai by regular visits, advice and general supervision.

Industrial Education — Bookbinding has now been made compulsory in the advanced classes at the Parel School, and about half a dozen boys are now trained in the rudiments of that art and are set to teach other boys daily. The Executive Committee marks the special pertinence of the remarks of Mr. Sohoni, the local Secretary, (See page 5) as to the urgent necessity of developing a technical branch and a workshop in connection with this school and hopes some charitable person or trust will enable it to supply this immediate need. Good progress is reported from Mahableshwar and Mangalore of the industrial education at these centres. There is a very hopeful future for the Eri silk culture so zealously taken up by Mr. K. Rangrao at Mangalore. The practical suggestions made by the Secretary of the newly affiliated centre at Malwan in his report, are also worth consideration.

Literary Education — From the details given in the statistical table on pages 567-568 it will be seen that there are now in all 1,084 pupils receiving literary instruction in the 19 schools at the eight different centres of the Society. Except at the Parel Middle School where English is taught up to the 4th standard, in all other schools elementary education is imparted in four different vernaculars viz. Marathi, Gujarathi, Kanerese and Tamil. The classification according to the castes shows that the extent to which advantages is taken by the people of the several depressed communities of the educational facilities so freely and sympathetically afforded to them by this Society is not at all commensurate with their populations. The Mahars of Maharashtra who correspond to the Dheds of Gujarath and the Holiyas of Karnatic, the Mangs who are called Madigs in Karnatic, the Chambhars and Dhors who are shoemakers and tanners by trade respectively, and the Bhangis who are the scavengers or the carriers of the night-soil are the five principle communities who are considered to be untouchable in these provinces. Of the total 1,084 pupils in the schools, 596 are Mahars, 134 Chambhars, 30 Mangs, 30 Dhors and only 5 Bhangis. The Bhangis who have to do the most filthy work are naturally the most dispised people. Although the Gujarathi School at Mazagaon in Bombay is specially conducted by the Society for the benefit of these people, of the 50 pupils attending his school 46 belong to the Dheds from Gujarath who do the work of Bhangis in Bombay while the remaining 4 only are Bhangis proper by caste. The proportionately small number of Chambhars and Dhors is due to the fact that they have to train their boys to their own trade of shoe-making and tanning respectively while the still smaller numbers of the Mangs and Bhangis show that they are really the most backward and depressed people having hardly any sense of their own degraded condition in life. Of the 148 pupils belonging to higher “touchable” classes who attend the schools of the Society, 93 are in Bombay, 22 in Poona and 31 in the Berars — the districts where restrictions about the inter­touch are not very strict. The classification according to age will reveal the fact that very few pupils are prepared to receive the benefits of education after they attain the age of 14. Of the total 159 above 14 years, 111 belong to the Night Schools of the Society which are really meant for grown up working people. Thus the remaining 48 only, who are above 14 years, attend the Day Schools. The proportion of the Grant-in-aid received either from the Government or the Municipalities to the actual amount spent by the Society on purely educational purposes, viz. Rs. 1,690 to Rs. 11,435 shows that the Society deserves aid from these bodies on a much more liberal scale than the present, even according to their own codes.
Literary Education
(Statistics of the Schools and Hostels at Education the several centers of the society for the year 1911)

Table 1 (To see the table Click here)

Spiritual work — There are three Bhajan Samajes (Theistic congregations) being conducted by Mahars in three different places Viz. (1) Byculla in the city of Bombay, (2) Thugaon near Amraoti and (3) Satara. Especially the one at Byculla had to tide over many disheartening circumstances and the fact that this small congregation has been still meeting week after week on Sunday noons in a corner of the Improvement Trust Chawl at Agripada rented by the Samaj for pure devotional purposes divested of all encumbrances of ceremony and superstition which weigh so heavily on the lower classes in this country,—this one small fact indicates that these forsaken people are still capable of being stirred in the very depths of their souls and when so stirred can stand the strain of doubt from within and ridicule from without with an unsophisticated steadiness of their own. The band of twenty young men who started the Samaj at Thugaon near Amraoti (of whom soma have lately joined the hostel at Parel) have now nearly completed a small house of worship, of their own; while the Mahar and Mang theists of Satara have to be congratulated on their having kept up the light of the old Prarthana Samaj of that place which but for them would have been discontinued. It is encouraging amidst all the doubt and even opposition that is still rampant on the question of carrying on spiritual endeavours along with social service and mass education that in some of the centres of this Mission such as Akola and Thana, liberal sympathisers though themselves not belonging to any of the Samajes are quietly helping the religious work of the Mission by conducting Bhajans, reading Puranas, and delivering discourses to the poor people on the most non-sectarian and inoffensive lines.

Propagandistic work — Speaking about the nature of the work of this society His Excellency Sir George Clarke very truly observed at the last Prize Distribution — "As I said it has a double mission to accomplish, to educate public opinion and to arouse sympathy for the wrongs of the Depressed Classes on the one hand and to promote the education of these classes on the other." The workers of this Society will never forget that the first of these two aspects of their mission so clearly pointed out by His Excellency will remain even more important than the second for some time to come. The last Annual Report contained a detailed abstract of the information about the public meetings and demonstrations in behalf of the Depressed Classes held in different places mainly in this presidency. With a view to keep up the good effects of these meetings and to work further on their basis, the General Secretary of the Society went on four extended tours throughout this presidency for nearly six months during the year under report. He was accompanied by Sister Janabai Shinde on three of these tours viz. in Berars, Kathiawar and the S. M. Country and by Sister Kalyanibai Sayad on the West Coast; and also two friends of the Mission Mr. A. V. Thakkur and Mr. G. K. Kadam accompanied him at their own cost in parts of his tours in Kathiwar and the S. M. Country respectively. The services of the sisters were of special value in organising meetings of ladies of the higher classes as well as in visiting the homes of the Depressed Classes and enquiring into their domestic condition. In nearly all these places in Maharashtra and the Karnatic the representatives of the Society were received with cheerful sympathy. While in Kathiawar, although the people were backward in sympathy, the question being quite newly introduced among them, the Princes and Administrators of the several states visited by the General Secretary most readily accorded to him every kind of hospitality for which the Kathiawar States are so well known, and facilities in his work. To Thakursaheb Lakhajiraj and Mr. S. N. Pandit of Rajkot, Mr. P. Pattani, Diwan of Bhavnagar, Mr. H. D. Rendal C. I. E., Administrator of Junagad, the Shek Saheb of Mangrol, Darbar Saheb Wajsurwala, Joint Administrator of Porbunder and Mr. E. Maconochie Agent to the Governor are due the warmest thanks of the committee tor the active and valuable help they rendered to the Mission.

The Missionaries have found that there is a great and hopeful field before the Society for extending their work and influence throughout the southern and western part of the country. The committee recorded and published their thanks in papers to all the sympathisers who helped their representatives by donations and active service on their tours.

THE DEPRESSED CLASSES MISSION SOCIETY OF INDIA

(The general secretary's tours in the Berars, Kathiawar, S.M. country  and the West Coast)

Table 1 (To see the table Click here)

D. C. M. Rupee Fund
Origin : Several workers of this Mission finding that the persistent efforts made by them hitherto to raise funds did not result in adequate returns so as to meet the expenses of the Mission which are increasing from year to year, thought of applying themselves to raise money in small contributions from humbler classes instead of solely depending on the rich and well-to-do for large donations. With the approval of the Executive Committee of the Society they organised the following scheme of collection of funds, fixing judiciously a minimum sum of one rupee per year for all donors. By thus deliberately trying the efficacy of small gifts, the promoters not only hope to widen the circle of donors, but if they succeed in securing an adequate number of volunteers who will work throughout the year practically and systematically, they also hope to raise a large sum behind which there will be a large number of believers in and well-wishers of the Mission.
The Scheme
I. Name : A Fund shall be started called the “Depressed Classes Mission Rupee Fund."
II. Ten Captains: Ten earnest workers or friends shall form a Board of Captains to undertake to raise this Fund through Volunteers.
III. Hundred Volunteers : Each Captain shall try and secure ten Volunteers, who will each in their turn undertake to raise Rs. 100 in one year.
IV. One Rupee: These Volunteers shall be instructed to receive only one rupee from one individual, neither less nor more in one year, and to work under the strict guidance of their own Captain, who will see that they will not interfere with each other's field of collection. No Volunteer shall work except under a Captain.
V. Monthly Delivery: Every Volunteer shall strictly hand over all his collections, at the end of every month, to his Captain, who, before the expiry of the first week of every month, shall render his account to the Head of the Board, who also, in his turn, at the end of every three months hand over the balance to the Treasurer of the Society, submitting a complete account of the Fund, duly audited by the Society’s Auditor.
VI. May spend 5 per cent: The Board shall be entitled to spend only 5 per cent of what they actually raise towards the expenses of the Fund, and, for further expenses, shall get the previous sanction of the Executive Committee.
VII. Society’s claim and liability: The Depressed Classes Mission Society shall be entitled to every rupee collected by this Board and shall not be responsible for any expenditure incurred by the Board except as stated above.
VIII. Acknowledgment: The General Secretary shall publish in leading papers the accounts of the Funds submitted by the Head of the Board every three months, and that should be sufficient acknowledgement on behalf of the Society of the donations collected, in addition to the several receipts passed to the donors by the collecting Volunteers.
IX. The Freedom of the Board: The Board shall be free to plan and work out further details of the scheme and shall be subject only to the general control of the Executive Committee.

X. Constitution un-affected: The inauguration of this Fund shall not, in any way, preclude the present workers from raising money for the Society in the way they are now doing or they may hereafter devise; and those that may be in any way connected with the raising of this Rupee Fund shall not, by that fact alone, be vested with any constitutional right of administering that or any other fund of the Society or attain to any constitutional privileges of the membership of the Society.
The following is the report submitted by Mr. L. B. Nayak, Captain- General of the Fund from July to 31st December 1911.
Board of Captains — The idea of forming the above scheme was conceived early in July 1911. A board of captains was formed in the first meeting of the certain workers and sympathisers of the Mission held in the same month. (1) Mrs. Laxmibai Ranade, (2) Mr. P. B. Gothoskar, (3) Mr. A. V. Thakkar, (4) Mr. V. R. Shinde, (5) Mr. A. M. Sayad and (6) Mr. L. B. Nayak offered to work as captains in accordance with clause 2 of the scheme. Mr. L. B. Nayak was elected as the Captain General.
Volunteers — The captains secured the disinterested services of the following volunteers.
Under Mrs. Laxmibai Ranaday — (1) Miss. Tarabai Kelkar (2) Mrs. Laxmibai Gadgil (3) Miss. Sitabai Marathe (4) Mrs. Jamnabai N. Sakkai (5) Sister Janabai Shinde (6) Mrs. Shantabai Madgaonker (7) Miss. Indirabai Kelkar (8) Mr. Madhavji Shriram (9) Mr. Keshavlal Bhikabhai (10) Mr. K. V. Modak (11) Mrs. Manjulabai Lad (12) Mr. B. A. Kolatkar (13) Dr. R. V. Fanasalkar (14) Dr. T. L. Chiplunkar and (15) Mrs. Shantabai Gothoskar.
Under Mr. P. B. Gothoskar — (1) Mr. S. W. Kamat, (2) Mr. S. B. Gothoskar, (3) Mr. A. P. Sabnis (4) J. G. Havaldar (5) Mr. G. B. Pandit (6) Mr. M. P. Sabnis (7) Mr. Shivaji Lingu (8) Mrs. Gopikabai Pandit (9) Mr. G. G. Sabnis (10) Miss. Ahilyabai Bhandarkar (11) Mrs. Laxmibai Yadneshwar Bhandarkar (12) Mr. S. K. Divekar (13) Mr. V. R. Samant (14) Mr. G. A. Dalvi (15) Mr. K. A. Padhye and (16) Mr. D. A. Telang.
Under Mr. A. V. Thakkar (Captain) — (1) Mr. N. V. Thakkar (2) Mr. C. B. Mehta (3) Mr. Devachand Bhagwanji (4) Mr. Shankerlal T. Popat (5) Mr. Ratilal T. Sodha (6) Mr. Vaidya (7) Mr. Hirala! K. Wakharia (8) Dr. K V. Thakkar (9) Mr. Harilal L. Thakkar (10) Mr. Amritlal S. Padhia and (11) Mr. Utamlal G. Trivedi.
Under Mr. V. R. Shinde — (1) Mr. S. S. Tatre, (2) Mr. G. K. Kadam (3) Mr. D. B. Trivedi (4) Mr. T. Mudraddi (5) Mr. S. A. Honavarkar (6) Mr. Mohansing Motising (7) Mr. Vasantrao Anjarlekar (8) Prof. K. R. Kanitkar (9) Mr. Raghavendra Sharma (10) Mr. Joseph Samuel and (11) Mr. G. N. Paranjpe.
Under Mr. A. M. Sayad — (1) Mr. Kokatnur (2) Mr. M. B. Gowande (3) Mrs. Kalyanibai Sayad (4) Mr. Krishnaji V. Bam (5) Mr. D. M. Maidev (6) Mr. A. R. Ranjit (7) Mr. S. S. Pitale (8) Mr. V. A. Garud (9) Mr. G. H. Keskar (10) Mr. K. Sashital (11) Mr. Hasam H. Talibi (12) Mr. V. Kale (13) Mr. Nanalal Parbhuram (14) Mr. N. R. Vakil (15) Mrs. Laxmibai Nadkarni (16) Mr. S. K. Shenvi and (17) Mr. E. R. Shinde.
Under Mr. L. B. Nayak — (1) Mr. S. D. Joglekar (2) Mr. A. S. Nayak, (3) Mr. R. H. Trilokekar (4) Mr. Ramdatta W. Desai, (5) Mr. A. V. R. Laxamanji (6) Mr. R. P. Desai (7) Mr. M. A. Trilokeker (8) Mr. B. K. Dhurandhar (9) Mr. Vishnu A. Ajinkya and (10) Mr. Chhotalal Karsandas Mulji.
There were thus 80 volunteers who kindly offered themselves to work for the Mission, each undertaking to collect 100 rupees before the official year closed on 31st December 1911.
Collection — The total amount of collections made by the volunteers between August 12 and December 31, 1911 was rupees 1,471 only. This amount falls considerably short of Rs. 4,000 to Rs. 5,000 at least which were expected before the close of the year.
Meetings and Gatherings — There were 10 meetings of the Board of Captains held between 1st July and 31st December 1911. These meetings were held in Dr. S. G. Ranaday's dispensary at Thakurdwar. We are thankful to Dr. Ranaday for the use of his premises. One General Meeting under the presidency of Prof. N. G. Velinkar, M. A., LL. B. and two social gatherings of the Captains, Volunteers and sympathisers were held during the year in the bungalow of Sheth Tribhuwandas Mangaldas to whom our thanks are especially due. These social gatherings were helpful in as much as the volunteers were in a position to know the progress of the Fund and to compare notes as to the amount of collection which each of them was able to secure. They were largely attended and they proved a source interchange of individual experiences and good feelings.

It will be seen from the statement of accounts of the Society given below that there has been a deficit of Rs. 1,316-15-1 for the year under report. And if it be remembered that the amount of the Subscriptions and Donations Rs. 3,420-0-3 (Subs. 1,869 and Donation 1,551-0-3) is by no means a certain item of income; there is always a chance of the deficit being still larger. In order to bring this fact clearly to the notice of the sympathisers of the Mission, a Special Collections Account is separately shown in this report with a hope that the friends of the Mission, will exert themselves to relieve the workers from this constant financial strain and set them free to cope more effectively with the already innumerable difficulties in their way.

In conclusion, the Executive Committee tender their sincerest thanks to all the local secretaries at the various centres of the Mission and their co-workers, the volunteers of the Rupee Fund and all other helpers of this sacred cause of the depressed humanity in India.
V. R. SHINDE
(General Secretary, D.C.M.)
Parel, Bombay,    
18, February 1912
Statement of Income and Expenditure of the Rupee Fund
Table1 (For the Statement Click here)
Special Collections Account of the year 1911
Table2 (For the chart Click here)

Table3 (Income & Expenditure Account of the year ending 31st December)
Table4 (Balance sheeet of the ending 31st December 1911)
THE DEPRESSED CLASSES MISSION 
SOCIETY OF INDIA.

BOMBAY    Opened 18th Oct. 1906.

THE FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT
Parel Middle School, No. I
1. Situation — For the first four months of 1911, the School met in a bungalow opp. the Elphinstone Rd. Station of the B.B.C.I. Rly. The accommodation was, however, found to be insufficient as anticipated in the last year’s report and the school was removed to its present habitation at the eastern end of the new Railway Bridge, Parel (G.I.P.R.) in May. This house is capable of accommodating 175 students, but this number has been considerably exceeded and we shall have to hire an additional house to prevent overcrowding of the classes at an early date.
2. Education — (a) Secular instruction — As in previous years the school continued to teach this year also four Vernacular Standards according to the course of studies of the Schools Committee. The English side of the School was developed by the addition of the Fourth Standard. In addition to the instruction in the subjects of the curriculum, the pupils of the advanced standards were taught book-binding and drawing. Both these subjects were made compulsory. The girls were taught drawing and sewing. Physical education of the pupils was carefully looked after, provision being made for drill and cricket. Atyapatya was also a favourite game with the pupils. In all these games the teachers freely mixed and played with the boys.
(b) Religious and moral instruction — The School opened daily with the singing of a hymn from the Prarthana Sangit and prayer. Religious education of the most liberal and unsectarian character based on the selection of hymns in the Prarthana Sangit was given throughout the year. Moral instruction was given with the help of the Youth's Noble Path of F. J. Gould of the Moral Instruction League of England. Sunday Classes were conducted throughout the year by Mr. V. R. Shinde, Mr. G. B. Keskar and Mr. A. M. Sayad.

Mr. Shinde pays special attention to his Class which was attended on an average by 25 boys and girls all belonging to the English portion of this school. These students form the advanced section of this school and Mr. Shinde is desirous to create in them a livelier interest in the study of Marathi literature than is possible in the week-day course, as a means to make them mix with their higher class comrades on a surer footing of equality. With this view he finished till the end of the year under report the Narasinha-Avtar by Waman Pandit and Kachopakhyan by Moropant. With a view to improve their pronunciation and diction, he taught them by heart about 30 stanzas from Bhartrihari's Niti Shatak with explanation. The alacrity with which the youngsters are receiving this literary as well as moral instruction is most encouraging and promising.

3. Admissions, & c — The number of pupils on roll on 1st January, 1911 was 141. During the year 197 admissions were made. Of the total of 338 thus made up 111 pupils left the school, leaving 227 pupils on roll on 31st December. Of these 143 belong to the Depressed Classes and 84 to the higher castes. The number of girls on roll on 31st December was 20. The average attendance for the whole year was 129. The pupils on roll at the end of the year were divided as under according to the standards:—
English                        Marathi

Std.   IV  2                      III        13

Std.   III   8                    II         26

Std.   II   17                    I          26

Std.   I    17                  Infant and Beginners 118

              44                                                    183

      Total 227

4. The Transference Examination — The annual examination for the transference of boys was held in October, prior to the Divali holidays. It was conducted by Mr. Sahasrabudhe, B.A., Mr. Vaze (Servants of India Society), Mr. V. Y. Kashalkar, M.A., LL. B. and Mr. M. P. Khare. Of the 132 pupils present for the Examination 102 passed under all heads and were transferred to the higher standards. A boy and a girl who passed the English Fourth Standard are now studying in the Aryan Education Society’s High School and the Alexandra High School respectively. We are very thankful to the authorities of these Schools for giving free admission to both these pupils. The school sent 15 pupils for the Vernacular Fourth Standard Examination of whom 7 passed. Of the successful students two were girls. Our school was one of the centres for holding this Examination. In the first Grade Drawing Examination for which 11 pupils appeared, only one was declared successful. The result of the 2nd Grade was however better — four passing out of the six sent up.

The annual Inspection for grant-in-aid was held by Mr. M. K. Joshi, Asstt. Dy. Ed. Inspector, Marathi Schools, Bombay. The school was awarded Rs. 500 as grant for the year 1911-12. The following extracts are taken from his report:—
“The School teaches Jt. Schools Committee’s Standards. Last year the School sent up for the IV Standard General Examination 17 pupils out of which twelve came out successful. This speaks very strongly in favour of the school. The school was found in fairly efficient condition of progress.... The school maintains its own and may be given the same grant as last year viz. Rs. 500."

5. Visitors to the School — Among those who visited the School during the year under report and thus showed their sympathy with the work of the school in a practical manner special mention must be made of the names of Dr. D. G. Sabnis, (Retd. Asstt. Surgeon); Mr. St. George Lane Fox-Pitt of the Indian Moral Education League; Prof. D. N. Choudhari, M. A., Principal, “Hindu College", Delhi; Prof D. K. Karwe of the Hindu Widows’ Home, Poona; Mr. B. G. Godbole; The Hon’ble Mr. D. V. Belvi, an additional Member of the Bombay Legislative Council and Mr. R. B. Karandikar, Educational Inspector, S. D. The following extracts are made from the remarks made by them in the Visit Book.

Mr. M. K. Joshi, Inspector of Schools paid a surprise visit on 25- 7-11. In his remarks he says: — “...On the whole the progress appeared pretty good. Discipline and conduct of the pupils good.”

“It was a great pleasure to me to visit this School today... I was exceedingly pleased to see the progress the boys and girls have made. I earnestly wish that well-to-do people will pay more attention to this noble work.”
(Sd.) D. K. KARWE
(Secretary, Hindu Widows’ Home, Poona)
29th, August 1911
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“Visited the Depressed Classes Mission School at Parel this afternoon. Out of 200 pupils on the roll 141 are present to-day. Examined the pupils in Std. I in reading. The pupils read well. I was very much pleased with the way in which the School is conducted. I am happy to make to the Mission a small donation of Rs. 200 (two hundred) by way of encouragement.”
(Sd.) D. V. BELVI
24th November 1911 
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“I was very pleased with my visit to the School which is the first of the kind that I have seen managed by a band of zealous and enthusiastic Indians. I watched the work in the classes from A. V. Std. III down to the Infant Class…..The accommodation is good, but insufficient. These are matters of fund and the money has to be secured from Government, from the Municipality and from other sources. I have no doubt that the call for funds in this noble cause will meet with a generous response.

“The children looked bright and happy and mixed with one another freely without the least idea of untouchableness, and as remarked by Sir Ramkrishna Bhandarkar, reasonableness seemed to have broken down superstition and prejudice.

“....The education given is not entirely literary but is also industrial as book-binding, needle work and drawing. There is a hostel attached to the School and the number of boarders is about 20. They are well looked after by Mr. and Mrs. Sayad. Who can help wishing the Mission every success!
(Sd.) R. B. KARANDIKAR
(Edl. Inspector, S. D.)
21-12-11.

-------------------

6. Gifts to the School — The children of the School received various gifts of sweetmeat, clothes, books &c. during the year. R. B. Anandrao Talcherkar sent, as annually, sweetmeat at the time of the Divali holidays. R. B. N. T. Vaidya distributed sweetmeat at the time of the King’s Coronation in England in June last. R.S.G.V. Panandiker, Dy. Inspector of Schools sent clothes. Mr. V. B. Velankar was kind enough to send some school-books. Messrs. Wagle and Co. presented cricket kit for the use of the school. To all these and other ladies and gentlemen who thus remembered the school children, the Committee of the Mission is deeply thankful.
7. General Remarks — The school is now in existence for the last five years. During this period no fewer than a thousand pupils have learnt in it at least the rudiments of knowledge so useful to them in their life as they grow up. Some of those who have taken advantage of the full course of studies taught here have got employments in the workshops in the neighbourhood. The utility of the school is now beyond question as the number of boys on roll clearly shows. The experience of all these years has made, however, one fact clear to us and it is that all boys and girls as they come to us, ought not to have to go through the course of studies as it at present obtains. Some of them have no aptitude for the literary education they get. Such students must be taught some trade or craft to which they can easily take and the absolutely necessary literary education should be given to them in the few hours of a night school only. It is thus necessary to open a carpentry class and to turn the present book-binding class which is held for an hour or so daily into a book-binding shop in which some of the grown up boys could work for the larger portion of the day. Both these branche of the work of the school will have to be located in a separate building. Unless some such arrangement is made, it will be found very difficult to profitably utilise the time of some of the boys who at present are under the regular course of studies but who are not meant for it.

Deonar Kachrapatty Day School No. 2
The work of this School which meets a long felt want of the Deonar Kachrapatty labourers was carried on steadily throughout the year. The number on roll on 1st January 1911 was 38. During the year, 19 fresh admissions were made and eleven students left the School, thus leaving 46 students on roll at the end of the year. The average daily attendance for the whole year was 30.

For the official year ending 31st March 1911 the school was awarded a grant-in-aid of Rs. 42. For grant-in-aid for this year which is not yet awarded it was examined by Mr. R. S. Joshi, 2nd Asstt. Dy. Ed. Inspector, Thana, on 18th November last. Of the 32 students examined by him, one was in Std. III, two in Std. II, three in Std. I and the remaining in the Infant and the Beginners’ classes.

In connection with the Royal Visit and the Coronation at Delhi, of their Majesties the King Emperor and the Queen Empress, a large gathering of the children of the school and their parents was held on the 12th of Dec. 11. Mr. Oke, Inspector of the Kachrapatty Ry. Line, Mr. A. V. Thacker, Mr. M. K. Joshi, Dy. Inspector of Marathi Schools, Bombay and Mr. Madan were present. Mr. Joshi distributed medals and sweetmeat to the gathering.

The success of the school is due chiefly to the care and supervision of Messrs. Oke, Thacker and Madan who never lose an opportunity to encourage the labourers to send their children to School and also to instruct and assist the master in charge in the discharge of his duties. The committee of the Mission is thankful to these gentlemen for the great interest they take in the conduct and management of this school.
Madanpura Day School No. 3
1. The school held its classes as in the last year in the Abdul Hoosein Kikabhai’s Chawl near the Improvement Trust Chawls at Madanpura.
2. The admission and withdrawals during the year were almost equal viz. 120 and 116 respectively. The School opened in January 1911 with 102 boys on roll and closed with 106 on Dec. 31st. Of these 13 are girls. The average daily attendance for the year was 63.

3. The annual Transference Examination was held in October and was conducted by the teachers of the Parel School. Of the 84 pupils who were examined 54 passed under all heads. Five boys appeared for the Vernacular Fourth Std. Exn. of whom only one passed. The inspection of the School for the award of grant-in-aid was held in Aug. by Mr. M. K. Joshi, Asstt. Dy. Educational Inspector. The School has been awarded a grant of Rs. 167.
4. The Sunday Class was held regularly during the School terms. It was conducted by Sister Janabai and myself. The average attendance of this class was 21.

5. General remarks — On account of some elementary schools having been opened in the immediate vicinity of this School the attendance has somewhat suffered during the year under report. The School however has still a large attendance and its present accommodation is insufficient. It is necessary to introduce in this School also the imparting of systematic religious and moral instruction. Such an introduction however means an increase in the workers of the Mission which however is seriously handicapped in this respect. Drawing ought also to be taught. It is hoped it will be found possible to remedy both these wants during the year that has just commenced.
Mazagaon Low Caste Gujarati School No. 4
This School which held its classes in a room in the 3rd Kamathipura Lane was removed thence in March last to the Prince’s Buildings, near the J. J. Hospital. The present locality of the School brings it within the easy reach of the large number of Bhangis living at Walpakhadi, Mazagaon. Owing to the removal of the School there, there was a regular influx of Dhed boys in it and the services of an additional master had to be engaged. The school meets from 10-30 a. m. to 1 p. m. and from 2-30 p. m. to 5 p. m.

Admissions — On the first of January last the number on roll was 29. During the year under report there were 52 fresh admissions and withdrawals. The number on roll on 31st Dec. was therefore 66. The average daily attendance for the year was 32. The highest number on roll was 92 in March and the lowest 29 in January.

The school is registered under chapter III of the Grant-in-aid Code. It was inspected by Mr. K. A. Bala, Asstt. Dy. Ed. Inspector of Gujarati Schools, Bombay, on 4th January. The annual transference Examination was held prior to the Christmas holidays. It was conducted by Mr. N. V. Thakker, B. A. with the assistance of his friends Messrs. K. P. Thakkar and N. T. Sodha. The number of pupils examined was 31 of whom 27 passed under all heads and were transferred to the higher standards.

The master in charge of the School gave the children several outings on different holidays during the year, taking them to the Victoria Gardens and Chaupaty for amusement and instruction.

Mr. N. V. Thakkar whose name has been mentioned above took great interest in the work of the school. He often visited the School, supervised its work and made valuable suggestions conducive to its efficient management. He was also kind enough to get some of his friends to visit the school and interest them also in its work. One of his friends was so good as to give moral instruction to the pupils and to teach them drawing for a few months. For the present he is unable to attend the School regularly on account of illness.

The master of our School has often complained of an undesirable practice of the teachers of some neighbouring schools of inducing our boys away by offering them some trifling presents in the shape of eatables! To those who are really anxious to educate the lower strata of the Hindu Society, there is, we believe, plenty of material to work upon than the boys and girls already attending our School. The offering of petty bribes to little children has a very demoralising effect on them and only helps to make the attendance unsteady. We hope these undesirable methods will erelong cease.
In conclusion we thank heartily Mr. N. V. Thakkar and the other Gujarati gentlemen who visited the School and encouraged the children to learn. We need hardly say that the example they have set of touching the children, talking with them and teaching them has had a very desirable effect on the scholars as well as their parents, who as is well- known are supposed to belong to the most degraded caste in India and who therefore are looked upon as being entirely beyond the pale of education and civilization.

The D. C. M. Students’ Hostel
1. The D.C.M. Students’ Hostel was opened in February 1909. At the beginning of the year under report there were 21 students in the hostel. During the year there were 4 fresh admissions and 8 withdrawals. Thus the number of students left in the hostel on 31st Dec. was 17 of whom two were girls and 15 boys.
2. The following is the classification of the boarders according to their (a) castes (b) the districts they come from and (c) their progress in studies.

(a) Classification according to castes:—
 
                    Chambhars    Mahars    Total       
         Boys         2                13             15       
         Girls         0                 2               2       
                        2                15              17    

In the Fourth Standard General Examination four boarders, were declared successful and in the 1st and 2nd Grade Drawing Examination their number was 1 and 2 respectively.

3. Gifts to the boarders — We are greatly pleased to report that the boarders were very specially remembered by the kind-hearted people of Bombay on various occasions throughout the year.

They were treated to sumptuous feasts, were given sweetmeat, fruit, clothes, pots, books and medicine free of charge as will be seen from the names of the kind hearted donors given below.
(a) Clothes were received from:-
Messrs B. R. Madgaonkar, G. S. Mankar, Lalsingh Mansingh, V. P- Patel, K. N. Dewal, R. S. G. R. Panandikar, Purshottam Kanayya|al- Dr. Govande, and Sabnis and Dr. (Miss) Nowrange.

(b) Sweets were received from H. E. Lady Clarke, Mrs. Laxmibai Ranade, Mrs. Laxmibai Gadgil, R.B.A.R. Talcherkar, J.P., Mrs. Tarabai Tarkhad and Mrs. Laxmibai Chiplunkar.

(c) Pots were received from Bai Putlabai Rane, wife of Mr. Tribhovandas Karsandas Sodha, Mr. J. G. Gadre, and a Bhatia gentleman.

(d) Books were received from Mr. Govande, S. H. & Co. and Miss Kelkar.

(e) Feasts were given by Bai Putlabai, Dr. B. S. Manker, Dr. Govande, a friend through Mr. B. R. Madgaonkar and the Dhuru camp at Dadar.

(f) Medicines free of charge were given by Dr. S. G. Ranaday, Dr. Fondekar and Dr. D. R. Desai.

4. The hostel was visited by a number of persons from the various districts of the Bombay Presidency and even from the far off Mysore.

5. The Rice Fund — The collection of rice for boarders was carried on throughout the year. The number of families who keep rice bags in their homes and put a handful of grain in it every day for the boarders has greatly increased. The total collection of rice thus made was 28 1/2 faras last year.

6. General — The hostel has proved to be a very useful adjunct of the Parel Day School. The D. C. students who live and board in the hostel have shown by their success in the school and other examinations that freed from the depressing influences of their surroundings at home, they are able to hold their ground with the children of other communities, in study. We have also found out that for the D. C. children to do their very best in education they must be isolated from their debasing environments and must be cared for and guided on their way in institutions of this character only. The hostel has in this way succeeded in a large measure though the Superintendent has had to combat very often with the home sickness of the boarders.
--------------------------------
The Somawanshiya Mitra Samaj, Byculla
With a view to promote self-help in bringing about religious and social reform among the Depressed Classes, this association consisting of themselves was first started on the 24th of March 1907. There are now 25 members, all Mahars, in Byculla.

An Unforeseen Trouble — In 1910 the Sanitary Department of the Bombay Municipality tried to introduce a new custom of burning the dead among these people which roused the religious prejudices of the ig-norant mass of their community and they naturally suspected this Samaj to be at the bottom of this new reform and subjected it to great opposition. Hence the membership of this Samaj was reduced from 60 to 25. Still they met during the year every Sunday in a room rented by the Samaj at the Agripada Improvement Trust Chawl No. 3 (c) for Theistic worship. Besides these weekly meetings the Samaj organized 15 public meetings in different parts of this city and arranged for lectures on Education, Temperance and Social Reform.

Temperance — One of the most useful features of their work is that of temperance among the Members. A time honoured custom among the Mahars in this part is that on the 5th day of the birth of every child the caste fellows meet, drink liquor very hard and kick up an indecent tom-tom all through the night. This Samaj has set itself dead against this foolish custom and made a point to attend the 5th day of every new born child not only in the Samaj but wherever their influence can reach, and celebrate the night in singing religious hymns and reading ‘पुराण’ or religious books. During the year under report 35 such nights were celebrated.
The Mandir Fund — Which was reported last year to have amounted to Rs. 650 is now made a subject of great dispute on account of the above mentioned difficulties arising from the reformatory tendencies of the Samaj.

Finances — Every member has to pay a monthly subscription of 4 annas.
 
Receipts.              Rs.    a.    P.                          Rs.   a.  P-       
Opening Balance    8    10    0      Room rent      39    0     0       
Subscription          50    0    0      Miscellaneous 15    0     0       
                                                 Balance           4    8     0       
                           58    10    0                         58    10    0   

Nesbit Road, Mazgaon,    
Bombay, Feb. 1911.
KONDAJI RAMJI

(President, S. M. S.)

The Nirashrit Sadan.
Object — The object of this institution is (1) to train young men and specially women for work among the Depressed Classes by actually putting them to such work and (2) to afford shelter to helpless children of these classes.

The grant of Rs. 100 per month which was regularly received specially for this institution till June 1910, being discontinued, regular work could not be done during the year. The 2nd object is now served by the students Boarding House attached to the school at Parel. Sister Janabai Shinde and Mrs. Kalyanibai Sayad did honorary service, throughout the year visiting the Depressed Classes women and children at their homes, attending the sick, organizing social and religious meetings and giving the women private lessons in reading, writing and sewing. Sister Janabai accompanied Mr. Shinde on three of his tours viz., in Berars, Kathiawar and S. M. country and Mrs. Kalyanibai on the 4th in the West Coast; both of them worked in connection with the Rupee Fund of the Mission. Sister Janabai conducted a Sunday Class in the Madanpura school and The Womens' Meeting of the Somawanshiya Samaj at Byculla while Mrs. Kalyanibai looked after the boarders at Parel. That some large hearted friends may enable these sisters to increase the efficiency of their work which they are already doing but which now suffers merely through lack of funds, is the constant prayer of this Sadan.

7. In conclusion we beg to heartily thank all those whose names are given above for their kind and valuable aid to the hostel as also those who have given rice to it from week to week. Such help, we need hardly say, helps to make the life of the boarding students, bright and happy by making them feel that they are not after all neglected and uncared for by the members of the higher castes.

V. S. SOHONI
(Local Secretary)
Parel,    
Jan. 1912.
2. POONA      Opened 22nd June 1902

The committee of Management during the year was composed of
Dr. Harold H. Mann, D. Sc., M. Sc., F.I.C. Principal, Agricultural College, (President)

Mr. R. P. Paranjpe, B. Sc., M. A., Principal, Fergusson College, (Vice-President)

Mr. B. S. Kamat, B. A.
Dewan Bah. V. M. Samarth.
Capt. H. Steen.
Mr. S. Y. Javere.
Mr. M. H. Ghorparay.
Mr. A. K. Mudliar, B.A. (Secretary and Treasurer)

The work of this Branch is at present chiefly educational. Hence when public or open air meetings are held we make it our chief object to advise the depressed classes to send their children to school.

Meetings of this nature were held during the year under report at Jejuri, Bhamburda, Ganj Petha, Ghorpuri and KamatipuraH. H. the Gaikawar’s scholarship of Rs. 3 per month is being awarded to a Mahar boy who is in the English IV standard of the New English School.

During the year under report we were sheltering and assisting a Mahar young man who was studying in the P. E. class of the Fergusson College. He fell ill at the end of the year and was not able to appear for the University Examination.

We had a free library for the Mahars in the Camp. Gradually it ceased to be attended and now it is practically closed.

The Mangalwar Petha Night School in the city was closed on 1st October 1910, a fact which is not mentioned in the Report of this Branch included in the General Report for 1910 since the former report was only up to the end of June 1910.
With the object of helping the women of the depressed classes, Mrs. Mudliar visited two or three Mahar houses where she arranged for a social gathering of women. The effect of these meetings was that at first, eight or nine ladies used to meet two or three times a week in our day school for about two hours every time to learn sewing, reading and writing. But at present this number is reduced to one.

With regard to the working of the Camp Free Day Primary School, I am glad to quote below the concluding portion of the report of the Educational officer who with his Assistants inspected the School on 13th July 1911. The Inspection amounted to a thorough and detailed examination with a view to re-assessment of Grant; and it is satisfactory to note that although the Grant of Rs. 587 was fixed in 1910, still, owing to the increase in our expenses, the department was pleased to proportionately increase the grant in 1911 to
Rs. 995, exclusive of the small grant on account of furniture.

“In conclusion it is a great satisfaction to note that the Secretary Mr. A. K. Mudliar spares no pains to elevate the intellectual status of the Depressed Classes which is the sole object of the Mission. This attempt deserves all possible encouragement and munificent aid from the Department. The total expenditure for the last official year amounts to
Rs. 2985 and I therefore have the honour to recommend that the grant of Rs. 995 which is the one-third of the total expenditure incurred may be awarded.”
(Sd.)
M. N. SUBNIS (4th Asstt. Depty. Edl. Inspector, Poona)

These remarks were written in June 1911. It is therefore neccessary to note some of the changes that have taken place since then:-

The school is now located in a very suitable bungalow for which we have to pay a slightly higher rent. This bungalow has more space and a larger compound and is much better lighted and ventilated than the former buildings. It has also got the very great advantage of being situated very near the locality from which most of our pupils come.

There are nearly 180 boys on the rolls and the number of teachers is 9. Two more teachers will have to be employed soon.
The teacher at present employed to teach Carpentry and Drawing is one who has passed the Third Grade Drawing Examination of the Bombay J. J. School of Arts, and possesses certificates for proficiency in Carpentry, Architecture &c. from the Ratnagiri Industrial School. He has plenty of experience as teacher of Manual Training Classes. He was in independent charge of Industrial Schools in more than one place before joining our School.
Statistical Information
In addition to the above remarks of the Educational Inspecting officer the following statistics will be of interest
Total No. of admissions ...                   156
Average No. of pupils on the Rolls ...    141
Average daily attendance ...    ...         102
On rolls on 31st December 1911          175
Classification of Pupils according to Standards :—
Table (
See the Table Click here)

Classification of pupils according to Castes:-
Table (See the Table Click here)
VISITORS
Among the visitors to our school may be mentioned Mr. P. Wren Asstt. Director of Public Instruction, Dr. A. K. Komarswami, Lady Clarke, Countess Aurelia, Captain and Mrs. Powell and Mr. H. A. Wadya.
A.    K. MUDLIAR
(Hon. Secretary)
Poona
16 January 1912.
Table (See the Statement Receipts Click here)

The Fourth Annual Report Depressed Classes Mission Society of India

THE FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE
DEPRESSED CLASSES MISSION SOCIETY OF INDIA
(for the two years ending on 31st December 1910)

The Committee of the D.C.M. again offer their profound thanks to the Almighty Father the All-powerful Love that guided them in their humble task and further pray for strength, hope and humility.

The last Annual gatherings — In the month of March 1909, the Mission celebrated its 2nd anniversary by holding a series of lectures, divine services, Bhajans and Kirtans (musical services) in a spacious pendal raised for the purpose in the open space before the Society's School at Elphinstone Rd., which was largely attended by the depressed classes of the city. They were the very first celebrations organised on a large scale mainly for the intellectual as well as spiritual edification of the masses hitherto so neglected and even despised. The social part of the gatherings was no less successful. A hearty Priti-Bhojan (love- feast) was partaken of by about sixty selected representatives of the Mahar and Chamar communities and the sympathisers and supporters of the Mission from the higher classes. A conference of the friends and workers of the Mission that had been invited from the different centres met and deliberated on various subjects under the presidency of Prof. N. G. Welinkar, M.A., LL.B. But a strange stroke of fate suddenly arrested the course of the gatherings and made one of their very essential features, the Annual Prize Distribution, impossible. His Excellency Sir George Clarke had kindly consented to preside, but his daughter, Miss Violet Clarke, the kindliest friend of the Mission departed this world on the very day on which she was to give away the prizes to the pupils of the Mission. Thus the gatherings had to be closed with a most melancholy meeting of the women of the depressed classes gathered to send a message of sympathy and condolence to the sorrowing father.

The Prize Distribution — The postponed Prize Distribution was held on the 18th of October 1909, the foundation day of the Mission, in the Town Hall, which was crowded to its utmost capacity. His Highness Shri Sayajirao, Maharaja of Baroda, presided on the occasion, and the Hon’ble Sir N. G. Chandavarkar, the Hon’ble Prof. G. K. Gokhale, Mr. Vimadalal and Pandit Atmaram made speeches, explaining the various attempts made under different auspices but towards the common goal viz. the elevation of the Depressed Classes. The Maharaja closed his learned speech on the problem by declaring his hearty sympathy (or and appreciation of the work of the Mission and generously gave Rs. 2,000 for the foundation of scholarships to the deserving students in the name of his ancestor, Damaji Gaikwar.

The constitution — The rules of constitution passed at the General Meeting of the Society on the 10th of December 1908 and published in the 2nd Annual Report were reconsidered and changed in a General Meeting held on the 2nd July 1910. They were again revised by a Sub­committee specially appointed for the purpose and now appear in the appendix as finally passed.

Registration — The Trust Deed of the Society was registered duly on the 9th July 1910; and the Society itself was registered in November 1910 under Act XXI of 1860 as a charitable body. All the Society’s schools in Bombay and Poona are registered according to the Grant- in-Aid Code of the Government.

The Missionary Body — A band of volunteers, who had from the beginning devoted themselves solely to the work of the Mission, were given a mere subsistence allowance by the Nirashrit Sadan which was started with the sole help of an anonymous philanthropist in May 1907. He regularly paid Rs. 100 every month till July 1910. Since he stopped this generous grant, the Mission work has received a severe blow; for even this meagre pittance granted to some of the Missionaries had to be stopped and although they are yet working as before it is feared that unless some friend comes forward with a liberal grant the Society will have soon to forego the valuable services of some men and women who have been so long working silently and faithfully under most uninviting conditions.

Ladies’ Committee — The best thanks of the Committee are due 'o the energetic Secretaries of the Ladies’ Committee Mrs. Laxmibai Ranaday and Mrs. P. Captain, who have done much to draw the attention of the ladies in the higher circles to the work of the Mission and to secure pecuniary help. It is hoped the place of the Presidentship of the Committee left vacant by Lady Muir Mackenzie who so worthily occupied for the last two years will soon be filled up by an equally worthy lady.

Incorporated Branches — The branch at Poona is the only one that is incorporated with the Head Quarters at Bombay and is under the general control from Bombay. Under the enthusiastic and devoted Secretary, Mr. A. K. Mudliar and the worthy President, Dr. Harold H. Mann, the Local Committee has till now successfully conducted the branch without much pecuniary support from Bombay and bids fair to continue this healthy independence in future.

Affiliated Centres — Four new centres, viz., Amraoti, Mahableshvvar, Thana and Satara, were affiliated to the Society during the two years under report. Of the old ones those of Indore and Manmad are being conducted under circumstances most discouraging and that of Igatpuri had to be closed for want of support. As the two local Secretaries Mr. Mohansing Motising, B.A. and Dr. W. A. Warty, had to leave their respective centres, Manmad and Dapoli, at both these places, devoted men are badly needed to keep the good work going. As the scope of the Society is so vast as to need centre almost in every village, it is neither possible nor desirable to maintain these centres from the Head Quarters; these, therefore, as a rule, are managed by local workers, with local means, according to local needs, and are helped by the Parent Society by correspondence, occasional sundry grants and propagandistic work done by its missionaries. Mr. K. Rangrao, Secretary, Brahma Samaj, Mangalore, who began the noble work of the uplift about 12 years before even the starting of this Society, single handed and under distressful conditions, has now splendidly organized his centre of the D.C.M. at Mangalore. Mr. V. M. Mahajani of Akola, Mr. M. V. Joshi of Amraoti, Mr. Abdul Rahman Kadri of Dapoli, Mr. R. R. Kale of Satara and Mrs. C. E. Jameson of Mahablehwar are to be congratulated among others for having helped towards the success of their respective centres.

Educational Work — The problem of the uplift of the Depressed Classes is evidently too vast — the evil of the national neglect too long­standing and the consequent depression too wide spread — to be adequately tackled by any one agency or group of agencies, all at once. The Society, has therefore, by means of word and work to direct its principal attempts patiently towards educating the Public opinion of the higher classes as well as to work up the depressed classes themselves to a sence of their own duties in this respect. Whether there should be separate shools for these people or whether they will be in the long run more benefitted by slow and persistent efforts being made by them and for them for the admission of their children in the ordinary schools, whether Missions like this should start schools of their own or rather relegate that duty to the Government and the Municipalities, reserving their limited resources for work on indirect lines — these and similar questions of vital importance are often discussed privately and in the press, by those who are actively engaged in the work of the Society. But time is not yet come for this Society, nor is it idely waiting for that time, when it should devote itself exclusively to either one or the other of these controverted courses of action.

The 5 Schools, 4 in Bombay and one in Poona, which are under the direct control of the Society and which are all prospering, not to speak of others at the various affiliated centers, are therefore as much necessary for the Society to gain the confidence of the people for whom it is working as to equip its Missionaries and workers with first hand experience of the difficulties of the problem and the practical needs of the people. Still the Society cannot indefinitely aspire to start many more such institutions for direct educational work. A glance at the reports of the various affiliated centres will show that most of the local committees, e.g. at Dapoli and Satara, are directing their main efforts to make the most of the local facilities given by the Government and the Municipalities. As will be seen from the extract quoted in the report from Amraoti, the Government authorities too are not blind to the good work done by these local committees.

The Boarding House — One of the important new developments of the work in Bombay is the Boarding House which is attched to the Society’s Middle School at parel. The Superintendent, in his report given elsewhere, briefly traces the interesting history of this small institution. One of the sources from which this institution draws its support is the Miss Clarke Memorial Scholarship Fund, which, if liberally contributed to by the admirers of the late Miss Clarke and the friends of the Mission, will not only lay this institution on a sound financial basis but help the Society to develop a model central training institute preparing workers for the Mission as well as teachers who are now so much in demand in the Schools for these classes. The House is even now drawing students from different Marathi speaking Districts of this Province, and will, if the above fund be augmented, be able to accommodate the many needy and deserving students wishing to continue their secondary course of education, who now apply for admission but cannot get it for want of support.

Industrial Education — With the Present resources the Society cannot hope to do much in this direction, however much be the need for it. The Book-binding Work-shop conducted in connection with the School at Parel is — although its results are very encouraging and it has secured a prize of merit for its exhibits from the Committee of the last Industrial Exhibition at Lahore — only a class for manual instruction and cannot be developed further without more funds. Last year a proposal to start a leather shop-factory on a co-operative basis was laid before the Committee which on sufficient consideration of the matter, had to satisfy itself only by lending Rs. 2000 from its funds at the interest of 12 p.c. to Mr. S. B. Ruth who then started an independent factory at Kalbadevi Road. This amount of Rs. 2000 being insufficient to give any practical shape to Mr. Ruth's original idea of training some youths from the Society’s schools in the art of turning out high class leather work, he has now returned Rs. 1000 to the Committee and intends to return the rest by instalments with interest. Mr. K. Rangrao’s loom factory at the Mangalore Centre has been steadily progressing along with his other Schemes, viz., of the Eri Silk-worm breeding and of the Colony.

The rope-making industry at the Mahableshwar Centre is favourably reported by the energetic Secretary, Mrs. C. E. Jameson who is also to be congratulated on having secured a promise of a building for the school, from Mrs. H. A. Wadia, in memory of Lady Muir Mackenzie, the ex-President of the D. C. M. Ladies’ Committee.

Social Work — Half-a-dozen years ago, when this Society was not in existence, a public meeting in which the “Untouchables” could freely mix with the higher classes and take their seats openly and on relations of equality and mutual respect with them was not to be thought of. Now such meetings are the order of the day. The remark of the Editor of the “Indian Social Reformer” that this movement is the uppermost thought of the day only shows that there has been almost a right-about-turn in the thoughts and feelings of the educated public in this respect. In Bombay and Poona, there have been more than once open public dinners in which the so-called “untouchables” sat side by side with prominent men of the highest caste not connected with any Prarthana or Brahma Samaj. The leading members of the Depressed classes themselves are now taking active part in Temperance and Purity Movements. In Kirkee, near Poona, a woman who was originally a Moorli and who could not be married according to the orthodox notions, was openly, and inspite of a great row, married to a man by the Mahar leaders, Mr. S. G. Kamble and others who are connected with the D. C. M. branch there. The members of the Somawanshiya Mitra Samaj, under the leadership of Mr. Kondaji Ramji of Bombay, are slowly and steadily working out healthy changes in the many awkward customs and traditions in connection with births, deaths and other domestic occurrences. That thus re-novated, the communities are slowly elevating themselves to their rightful place in the Hindu Society will be seen from the fact that many members of the above Samaj are constant attendants at the monthly Inter-Club Hindu Social Gatherings organised by the Social Reform Association of Bombay.

Spiritual Work — Superstition is at the root of all degradation; and no uplift work will ever be really efficient and abiding unless it is characterised by strong spiritual efforts. To refuse to do any religious work at all, least it will prove sectarian, is only a latter-day superstition. The missionary body of the society is therefore not only keeping itself always apprised of the dangers of both these kinds of superstition, old and new, prevailing among the illiterate and the educated portions of the society at large, but is showing by its actual endeavours that it is quite possible to steer along a line of simple and yet fervent faith, clearly avoiding the excesses of sectarianism on the one hand and those of stark secularism on the other. It bases its religious work on the bed­rock of Hinduism formed by the meditations of the ancient sages and the passions of the medieval saints, both of which, unburdened by any theological niceties are equally borne witness to by the most modern religious thought of the day. If such is the resolve of our Missionaries, their actual experience is no less encouraging. The unsophisticated masses and the lower strata of the Hindu Society are perhaps the better field of work than the higher ones for the evangelists of the modern creedless faith. The Theistic congregation of Mahars started four years ago at Byculla (24th March 1907) though now a little reduced in membership has been through these years tried by all those difficulties that befall those that help themselves and has since last year set on foot a movement amongst its own community, called “The Somavanshiya Nirashrit Mandir Fund", for erecting a building of its own. Of the two Mahar youths who were initiated into Brahmaism in 1909 one has started a similar congregation for simple theistic worship divested of all Mythological, ritualistic and idolatrous practices at Thugaon near Amraoti, and the other at Mohapa near Nagpur. In the Sunday Schools of the Society e.g. at Akola, Manmad, Poona and Bombay, the hymns of Tukaram and Namdev, Eknath and Ramdas in Marathi and the simple tenets from Bhagwadgita and moral epigrams of Bhartrihari in Sanskrit are taught. In the Women's Meetings newly organised last year select and deeply suggestive stories from the Mahabharat and Ramayan are explained.

Propagandistic work — The Committee is glad to note that since 1909, the Bombay Social Reform Association has taken the subject of the elevation of the Depressed Classes on its active propaganda. In co-operation with Mr. B. N. Bhajekar, the energetic Secretary of the Association, large meetings were held on the 18th of October, the Foundation Day of the Mission, in Bombay and in nearly all the district towns of this province in which prominent men of the respective localities took part. The abstract of these meetings is given below.

Propagandistic Meetings in behalf of the Depressed Classes organised at the initiative of the D.C.M. Society and the Bombay Social Reform Association -
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Such meetings were also held last year, and it is hoped, will be repeated every year in future. The Mission sent its agents to the several districts of the Southern and Northern Maharashtra and the Berars to preach the cause. Mr. Kondaji Ramji, the enthusiastic President of the Somavanshiya Samaj pays occasional visits to some taluka places in the Poona District and holds meetings of his people in order to acquaint them with the work of the Mission. The following work done by one of our Volunteers Mr. Shripad Keshav Naique on his tour through the Southern Maratha Country last May Vacation all at his own cost only illustrates how the young blood in the country is bestirring itself to wipe away one of the worst blots on its fair name.
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Deputation to H. E. the Governor — A Deputation of the D. C. M. Society, consisting of Mrs. R. P. Paranjpye, Dr. Harold H. Mann, Mr. H. A. Wadia, Mr. D. K. Godbole, Prof. D. K. Karve and Mr. V. R. Shinde, waited upon H. E. Sir George Clarke, the Governor of Bombay, at Ganeshkhind, in the afternoon of the 25th of August 1910. After Mrs. Paranjpye, Dr. Mann, Mr. Wadia and Mr. Shinde had made their Preliminary observations, an address was presented to His Excellency by Mrs. Praranjpye, setting forth the work and needs of the Mission and inviting H. E. the Governor to become a Patron of the Mission and asking for special Government aid in various directions. Although His Excellency could not become a Patron for reasons which he explained, he treated the members of the Deputation very kindly and courteously and promised to help the Society in many other ways. The address to, and the reply of H.E. the Governor appear in detail as an appendix to this report. Government have now issued a resolution directing that copies of these shall be forwarded to all Collectors with a request that the attention of Municipalities in their respective charges may be drawn to the request of the Mission, that additional facilities for the education of the Depressed Classes may be provided.

In a speech which His Excellency the Governor made, soon after this, at the Ferguson College, Sir George Clarke so kindly recommended the work of this mission to the young audience before him in the following words.

"It is our object and our duty to lead the mixed races of India onwards towards the time when a nation will have been built up capable of sell Government. It seems to me that there are signs that the process is already going on. I note the movements, such as the Indian Mission to the Depressed Classes which must tend to inculcate the sense of brotherhood... Many of the Colleges in England furnish missionary bodies which are working to raise the poorest classes. Can you not help by giving some of your time to educating the Depressed Classes in Poona or at least by using your influence in admitting them on equal terms to the schools from which they are excluded by your own un-written laws.”

Permanent Funds :

(1) Miss Clarke Memorial Scholarships Fund — The Committee has set aside an amount of five thousand Rupees, called the Miss Clarke Memorial Scholarships Fund, by permission of His Excellency Sir George Clarke. The amount is invested in the Port Trust Bonds @ 4 p.c. and the interest is to be paid in scholarships to the boarders at the D.C.M. Boarding House at Parel. The fund consists of the following amounts :-

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(2) The Damaji Gaikwar Scholarships Funds — H. H. Shri Sayajirao Gaikwar gave Rs. 2000 to fund in the name of his ancestor H. H. Damaji Gaikwar, scholarships to be awarded to the deserving students of the Depressed Classes in the Society's Schools. This amount has been invested in Port Trust Bonds yielding an annual interest of Rs. 80.

(3) Mr. Damodardas G. Sukhadwala, the Vice-President became a patron of this Society by paying a donation of Rs. 5000, in November 1909. This sum has been set aside by the Committee as the Capital Fund of the Society. Mr. Sukhadwala had before this given an initial donation of Rs. 1000 to start the Society and a Debenture of the Oriental Club of Rs. 500.

All these funds have been assigned to the Trustees of the Society according to the Rule of the Society.

The Committee in conclusion offers its hearty thanks to all the local Secretaries and their co-workers and to all other helpers of this cause of our depressed breathren of Hindustan.

V. R. SHINDE
(General Secretary, D.C.M.)
RAM MOHAN ASHRAM,    
GIRGAUM, Bombay, 11th March 1911

The Depressed Classes Mission Society of India
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The Depressed Classes Mission Society of India
1 BOMBAY        Opened 18th Oct.1906

FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE

1. Parel Middle School No. 1

1. Situation - The Depressed Classes Mission Society’s School No. 1, now called the Parel Middle School was originally opened at Parel (G.I.P. Rly.) in the Morarji Walji’s bungalow, on 18th October 1906, in the interest of the children of the Depressed Classes. It was thence transferred first to a chawl near the Globe Mill and afterwards for larger accommodation, to its present habitation opposite the Elphinstone Road Station of the B. B. & C. I. RIy. in November 1907.

2. Range of Education given -
(a) Secular Education - This school teaches four Vernacular and four English standards. The Vernacular course adopted is that of the Joint Schools Committee and the English course as followed in Government Schools. In addition to the instruction imparted in the ordinary subjects of the curriculum, instruction is given in drawing, bookbinding and sewing. The first and the last subjects are taught compulsorily to boys of the upper standards and girls respectively. Book­binding is taught to grown up boys of all the standards. The school sent some binding specimens to the Industrial Exhibition held at Lahore in 1909 and was awarded a certificate of merit and a prize of twenty- five rupees for the same by the Exhibition Committee. Physical education of the pupils was carefully looked after last year as in the previous year, provision being made for cricket. The boys also played the Indian game of atyapatya under the direct supervision of one of their masters. Reference to the results of the St. IV Examination and Drawing Examination is made in para 4 of this report.

(b) Religious and Moral Instruction - The school opens daily with prayer followed by systematic instruction in religion and morality, for fifteen minutes. Religious education, which is of the most liberal and unsectarian character is given with the help of the writings of modern Hindu saints and poets like Tukaram and Ramdas, and moral instruction lessons for the upper standards are adapted from “The Teacher's Handbook of Moral Lessons" by A. G. Waldegrave, published with the sanction of the “Moral Instruction League of England.” It has been the chief aim of the school authorities to impart religious instruction in a manner calculated to shake the belief of the children in superstition which has helped to degrade the condition of the depressed classes, more than anything else. In connection with this school, there were held Sunday Classes regularly throughout the school terms. A prize distribution of the Sunday Classes was held in last August, when Sir John Muir Mackenzie presided and Lady Muir Mackenzie distributed books and clothes to the successful children.

3. Less Admissions & c. - The total number of pupils on roll on 1st January 1910 was 143. Of these 18 were girls and 125 boys. In the course of the year 276 fresh admissions were made. Of the total of 419 thus made 278 pupils left the school, leaving thus 141 pupils on roll on 31st December 1910. Of this number 92 belong to the Depressed Classes and 49 to the higher castes. The number of girls on roll on 31st December was 17. The average attendance for the whole year was 115. The pupils on roll on December 31st were divided as under according to Standards. 

 

English St. IV         3                 Marthi St. III       17

English St. IV         2                 Marthi St. III       15                        

English St. IV         7                 Marthi St. III       28

English St. IV       15                 Marthi St. III       54

        Total            27                    Total               114 

4. The Annual Transference Examination - The Annual Transference Examination of the school was held before the Divali Holidays in last October. It was conducted by the General Secretary Mr. Shinde with the help of the teachers belonging to the other schools the Mission. Of the 150 pupils who appeared for the Examination, 106 passed under all heads. Of these 106, 65 belonged to the Depressed Classes and 41 to the higher ones. The school sent up 17 Pupils for the Fourth Standard Examination. Of these, 12 were successful, one of them being a girl. Of the seven pupils who appeared for the 1st Grade Drawing Examination five were successful, one of them also being the girl who passed the St. IV Examination.

5. The Annual Inspection - The Annual Inspection for Grant-in-Aid was conducted by Mr. M. K. Joshi, Marathi Asstt. Dy. Inspector, on 31st August. The following extract is taken from his report :-

“The school teaches Joint Schools Committee’s standards. For the Fourth Standard General Examination this year, the school sent up seventeen pupils and out of them 12 passed. The school which is largely attended by Depressed Class boys was found in a fairly efficient condition of progress, ...Hand-writing, reading & c. are pretty good. Drawing has been lately introduced which is creditable. The staff is adequate and fairly well qualified. Discipline and conduct of students — satisfactory. The school is trying hard and promises to show good results and improve the condition of the children of the Depressed Classes and deserves every encouragement. A grant of five hundred rupees, as recommended last year may be awarded though the School Committee, as we hear, gave only Rs. 300."

It will be seen from the above extract from the Inspector’s report that the school which was registered under Chapt. II of the Grant-in- Aid Code in 1908 as a Primary School had been recommended for a grant of rupees 500 for that year. This amount was nearly one-fifth of the total expenditure incurred on account of the school. The Schools Committee, however, for reasons best known to them; did not see their way to give the recommended grant and reduced the amount to rupees 300 only. It is hoped that this year at least, the Committee will have no hesitation in accepting the Inspector’s repeated recommendation for a grant of 500 rupees.

6. Visitors to the School - Among those who visited the school during the year under report, were Sir Jamshedji Jijibhoy Bart, Mr. H. A. Wadia, Bar-at-Law, Mr. Surendra Nath Tagore, Mr. P. K. Mehta, Mr. T. D. Warma, Mr. and Mrs. F. Anderson and Mr. and Mrs. Saint Nihal Singh. The Inspector of Marathi Schools and his Asstt. paid a surprise visit each. The following are some of the remarks made by the visitors.

Visited the school and found it in proper working order.

18-1-1910.
(Sd.) GOPAL V. PANANDIKAR    
(Ag. Dy. Ed. Inspector, Bombay)

Visited the school this morning and found it in working order. The boys and girls could read and recite pretty satisfactorily. The infants too appeared to take interest in their lessons. Discipline was good. Attendance 114/196. There is a book-binding class where the boys work in the morning for the first hour. The boarding arrangement is pretty satisfactory. There are in all 12 boarders. The institution is doing on the whole good work.

23-6-1910
(Sd.) M. K. JOSHJ
(Marathi Asstt. Dy. Ed. Inspector)

Visited the D. C. M. School this afternoon and was pleased to see the school masters and pupils all doing their duties and interested in their various engagements. The Head Master in charge is very active and appears to have taken much care towards the uplift of the Depressed Classes... The pupils look neat, bright and cheerful.

3rd October 1910.
(Sd.) T. D. VARMA

...The value of the splendid work being done is so self-evident that words of commendation are superfluous. I was much pleased with the house, the arrangements and the neat appearance of the little cholars, — the book-binding and other work turned out seemed to be very well executed. The authorities and staff are to be congratulated on the successful fight they have made against enormous odds.

(Sd.) SURENDRA NATH TAGORE

7. Gifts to the School Children - The children of the school continue to receive various gifts of sweetmeat, clothes, books & c. from their well-wishers. Among those who sent sweetmeat, special mention must be made of the name of Raobahadur Anandrao R. Talcherkar whose annual gift of the same was gratefully enjoyed by the children. Sheth Damodardas Goverdhandas our Vice-President whose interest in the Mission and the school children is well-known, sent ten rupees for sweetmeat of the foundation day of the Mission. Mr. M. R. Jayakar’s gift of beddings and books to the boarders was most opportune as the boys were badly in need of them. Mrs. Laxmibai Ranaday also remembered the pupils on various occasions in the course of the year and was kind enough to procure gifts for them from her friends. To all those who remembered the children in this way, last year, we beg to tender our heart-felt thanks.

8. General Remarks - The children who attend our school, come, as is well-known, from the dirtiest quarters of the city. They are therefore supplied with soap and water to bathe and wash their clothes on the school premises. This has proved to be a good way of impressing upon them the necessity of living cleanly and it has helped in no small measure to spread ideas of cleanliness in their homes. During the last four years, the school has developed into a Middle School from an indigenous one teaching the first Marathi Standard. Its utility seems to be well recognised, as boys from up country and even the far-off Berars, have come here to join it. It is fast out-growing its accommodation and must be removed to a place capable of holding at least 200 pupils. Its adjunct the students' hostel has rendered material help in steadying the attendance of the pupils in the English side of the School and has brought the young boys under the influence and direct control and care of the workers. The school staff without exception worked very hard during the year under report as in preceding years, to maintain the quality of the instruction imparted and the discipline and tone of the school on a high level. I therefore beg to conclude my report by expressing my heart-felt thanks to my assistants without whose earnest and whole­hearted co-operation, the school would not have been in the position in which it at present, is.

V. S. SOHONI
(Head Master, Parel Middle School)

2. Deonar Kachrapatty Day School, No. 2
The Deonar Kachrapatty Day School which is situated close to the chawls for the depressed classes labourers working in connection with the removal of refuse of the city of Bombay to the Kachrapatty, Chembur continued to do its work steadily, throughout the year. The school has now been registered as an indigenous one for grant. It was examined by Mr. R. S. Dixit, B.A., Ag. 1st Deputy Educational Inspector, Thana, on 22nd November 1910. The following extract is taken from his remarks, made in the visit book of the school. “Examined the school with the following results.

Std. No. on roll No. on Present No.
II 3 3 2
I 4 3 2
infants 33 25 Of these six did well and were only beginners

 

The master should pay greater attention to personal cleanliness of the boys and should try to teach them method in doing every thing."

During the year under report 48 new pupils were admitted into the school. Of these 35 were boys and 13 girls. As in the previous year, these were drawn from the children of the labourers residing in the chawls mentioned above. The number of pupils on roll on 31st December 1910 was 37 of which 30 were boys and 7 girls. The average daily attendance for the year was 32.

The following extract is taken from the remarks of Mr. Shaikh A. K. Ahemad, 3rd Asstt. Deputy Ed. Inspector, Thana S. D., made by him on the occasion of his surprise visit to the school on 21st April 1910.

“Visited the Kachrapatty Low Caste Free School opened by the D.C.M., on 24th April 1910. Heard Balbodha and Modi reading of boys in Standard II as also the Mental Arithmetic of the boys in the same standards. The boys acquitted themselves fairly well... On the whole I was pleased to see that the D.C.M. was doing a signal service by spreading knowledge amongst the members of the depressed classes.

The master in charge of this school is a Mahar - the first that the Mission has been able to secure from the depressed classes. Mr. A. V. Thakar, L.C.E. who was chiefly instrumental in the starting of this school, although now transferred from Chembur to Bombay still evinces great interest in the conduct of the school. The Mission Committee is thankful to him as also to Mr. Oke, who is in charge of the Kachrapatty line of the Railway and to Mr. Madan, the overseer, for the great interest they take in the work of the school and the very efficient supervision they exercise over it.
January 1911.
V. S. SOHONI
(Inspector of D.C.M. Society's Schools)

3. Madanpura Day School, No. 3

Situation - This school was opened on the 1st of June 1908, in the Dagdi Chawl, near the Byculla Club, Agripada. It was thence removed to the Improvement Trust Chawl C in a few months since its starting in June, on account of a rapid increase in the number of pupils. The number having gone over a hundred, it had to be removed from this place also to a chawl with better accommodation, close to the Improvement Trust Chawls.

Attendance & c. - The number of pupils on roll on the 1st of January 1910 was 122, of whom 97 were boys and 25 girls. In all 120 fresh admissions (91 boys, 29 girls) were made in the course of the year, bringing the total number on roll to 242. Of this number 139 pupils (108 boys and 31 girls) left the school, thus leaving 115 pupils on roll on 31st December 1910. This is made up of 96 boys and 19 girls. The average daily attendance for the year was 58.

Transference Examination and Annual Inspection - The Annual Transference Examination of the school was conducted by me with the assistance of Mr. A. M. Sayyad for three days beginning with Oct. 24. Of the 80 pupils presented for the Examination 57 passed under all heads. The result of the examination was very encouraging. The Annual Inspection for the award of Grant-in-aid was conducted by Mr. Joshi, Asstt. Dy. Educational Inspector, Bombay, at the end of August. As the result of the Inspection the school has been awarded a grant of Rs. 158 against Rs. 138 of the previous year. The School is still treated as an indigenous one, but an application will shortly be made to the Joint Schools Committee for its registration under Chap. II of the Grant-in-aid Code as a primary school.

The following extract is taken from the Inspector’s report - "The students in the 4 standard were examined in the school and the progress of the class appeared fair enough and the class may be sent up from the next year to the General IV Standard Examination. The work of the school, on the whole, appeared to be very fair handwriting and reading were very fair. The school is attended for the most part by the Depressed Classes and from this point of view the work of the school was found good. Drawing is lately introduced. Discipline and conduct of students both satisfactory. The staff is adequate and well qualified.”

The Sunday Class - This class was held regularly during the school terms. The pupils of this class were examined and prizes given to the successful ones in last November. The class was conducted by Sister Janabai Shinde and myself. The average attendance of this class was 29.

General Remarks - This school too, like the first of the Society's schools, at Parel, is serving the object of imparting instruction to the children of the Depressed Classes. It is situated close to the Improvement Trust Chawls, four of which are set apart for the Depressed Classes. Thus the school supplies a much felt want of these people. It has now more than a hundred pupils on its roll and this number, if the present signs may be trusted, is likely to increase considerably. It is therefore becoming necessary, in the case of this school also, to find out better accommodation, a place capable of holding at least 150 pupils.

January 1911.
V S. Sohoni
(Inspector of D. C. M. Society's Schools)

4. Kamathipura Day School for Bhangis, No. 4

Origin - This school which was opened in 1909 owes its origin to the generosity of a gentleman who prefers to be anonymous. He bore the entire cost of it for the first and second year of its existence. Great difficulty was experienced in securing decent rooms for this school and in inducing high class Gujarati teachers to teach the Bhangi children. The Bhangis do the work of removing night soil and they are therefore looked upon as the lowest in the social grade and very few high class men are found to be willing to touch them, not to speak of teaching them by remaining in their midst for a number of hours every day. The difficulty of securing a teacher was so great in last June that the school came almost on the verge of being closed altogether. We were however fortunate to come across a Dhed gentleman who is a trained teacher from Baroda, and succeeded in inducing him to take up the work of the teacher of our school. Since then the school is in his charge and is making steady progress under him. It is situated at Kamathipura 13th Lane.

Attendance & c. - The number of pupils on roll on 1st January was 23. In the the course of the year 53 new admissions were made. Of the total of 76 thus made 47 left, there being thus 29 pupils on roll on the 31st December 1910. Of these 23 are boys and 6 girls. The average daily attendance for the year was 22. The school teaches up to 4th Standard, according to the Standards of the Joint Schools Committee.

Annual Transference Examination - The School was examined for transferring the pupils on the 2nd December 1910 by Mr. D. B. Trivedi, with the following result.

Standard No. of Piplis Examin No.  Passed
IV 1 1
III 4 3
II 4 4
I 2 2

The Infant class did satisfactorily.

The school has been registered by the Joint Schools Committee under Chapt. III of the Grant-in-aid Code and will be awarded grant from next year.
January 1911.

V. S. Sohoni
(Inspector ol D.C.M. Society's Schools)

5. D. C. M. Boarding House

History - From the beginning arrangements were occasionally made in the D. C. M. Nirashrit Sadan for the lodging and boarding of the deserving students of the Depressed Classes who came from the moffusil or were found shelterless in Bombay. Later on it was found highly desirable to induce a select number of pupils from the Parel Middle School, to reside in the school house under the direct care of the resident missionary of the Mission and go to their homes only twice a day for their meals for about half an hour. Thus a hostel was started with 11 students on the 4th of February 1909. The result was so encouraging that applications were received from several students from the moffusil for admission. From the month of Sept. 1909 regular arrangements were made for their board in this hostel. Till the 31st of December 1910 the total admissions registered were 36. The number of boarders on the roll on that day was 21, including 3 girls. Of these 21, two are paying, four are half-free and the rest are maintained partly by contributions from the Miss Clarke Memorial Scholarships Fund and partly otherwise.

The classification of boarders (on the roll on the 31st December 1910) according to their

Caste -

  Maratha Mahar Chambhar total
Boys 1 12 5 18
Girls   3   3
 Total 1 15 5 21

Districts from which they come :-
Table (To see the chart click here)

The Daily Programme :

AM.

5.00 Rise regularly

5.30  Bhajan & morning prayer

6.00 Canjee

6.30 Book-Binding

7.30 School Lessons

9.00 Bath & breackfast.

10.00 Book binding

AM - PM

11 to 5.00 Day School

1.30 Lunch

5.00 Washing & Exercise

6.00 Supper.

7.30 Lessons or Night School

10.00 retire

Sunday — In the morning the boarders attend the Sunday Class and in the afternoon they hold their own Debating Club. The evening divine services which have been discontinued for some months, will be soon reorganised.

Excursions — The boarders were twice taken to Borivili and the Canaree Caves for excursion. Both the times Mr. B. R. Madgaonker gave his bungalow at Borivili tor use.

Gifts to the boarders — The following gifts were received during the two years under report.

(1) 24 Dhotees from Mr. B. R. Madgaonkar.
(2) 17 sets of plates and cups from Dr. S. G. Ranaday and Mr. N. G. Ranaday.
(3) 17 Beddings from Mr. M. R. Jayakar, Bar-at-law.
(4) 36 Vests from the Deccan Stores.
(5) Boxes of soap from the Lotus and the Diamond Soap Companies.
(6) Bottles of Jwarbindu (medicine) from Dr. Gowande.
(7) Many useful old clothes from friends.

We are very much thankful to the above mentioned gentlemen for the gifts and to Dr. V. K. Kamat for the trouble he has taken in visiting the boarders and treating the patients free of any charges.

Management - Mrs. Kamalabai, who is Chambhar by caste, cooks for the boarders. There is no servant employed in the hostel and boarders themselves have to do all sorts of domestic work in the Hostel. They live and dine together, without observing any caste distinction. The diet is strictly vegetarian and yet the boarders feel no discomfort whatsoever. Keen attention is paid to their habits of cleanliness and behaviour.

The present school building is found most inadequate for the purposes of the Boarding House and it is earnestly hoped that some large hearted friend of the Depressed Classes will enable the Society to provide suitable quarters to the house, somewhere in the suburbs of Bombay.

Jan. 1911.
A. M. SAYAD
(Superintendent)

6. Nirashrit Sadan (1909-1911)

The Nirashrit Sadan was started in the year 1907 with the help of a generous philanthropist who paid till the end of June 1910 Nirashrit every month for the maintenance of the members of the Rs. 100 Stadan.

Object - The object of the Sadan was to train young men and women for the work among the Depressed Classes and to afford shelter to the helpless children of these classes.

Work - There were 6 members of the N. Sadan in the years under report. They were all working in Bombay. Two of the lady members worked in the Poona Branch of the D. C. M. for sometime in 1909. 21 Meetings of the D. Class women were arranged in which lectures on useful subjects were given, Purans were read and Kirtans were performed. Divine services were arranged at Parel every Sunday till the month of March 1910.

Visits - The lady members visited the houses of the poor where they advised the people to send their children to school and drew their attention to the general un-cleanliness of their homes, bodies and clothes. They paid 273 such visits in different parts of the city of Bombay.

Medical Help - During their visits to the homes of the poor people they found many poor patients lying in bed. In cases of serious illness they got the doctor from the Sewa Sadan Dispensary to visit the patients free of charge. Other patients were advised or helped to go to some charitable dispensaries. The sisters of the Sadan also nursed poor patients and dying old women in their homes. One of them attended 13 cases of delivery as midwife, one of which being very serious was taken to the Cama Hospital. In all cases the delivery was safe.

Home Classes - Classes were opened for grown up women in chawls where reading, writing and sewing were taught. Such women also attended the sewing classes in the D. C. M. Schools at Parel and Byculla.

D. C. Women's Meetings — A regular association of the women of the Depressed Classes started in 1909 has been meeting every alternate Saturday at the Madanpura Day School to listen to the Hindu religious scriptures such as Bharat, Ramayan & c. read out to them. At present there are about 20 members, each paying a subscription of one anna a month. Most of them are wives of the members of the Somawanshiya Nirashrit Mitra Samaj. During the Chaturmas (the four sacred Hindu months) in 1910, Haladi Kunku i. e., socio-religious gatherings were held by these members at their places by turns, with great enthusiasm. The sister in charge at times invited them all to At-homes in the school.

Rescue Work — The Commissioner of Police sent three waifs, two Chamars and one Mahar to the Sadan and one castaway infant aged 6 months. The Chamar girls were sent to the Sewa Sadan Ashram at Malad and the infant to the Foundling Asylum at Pandharpur. A Mahar girl aged 15 years received from the Society for the Protection of Children of Poona is now a happy inmate of the Boarding House at Parel.

A. M. SAYAD
Superintendent
Nirashrit Sadan,    
Elphinstone RD., Feb. 1911.

7. D. C. M. Ladies' Committee
Mrs. Stanley Reed — Chairman
Mrs. Shiraji
Mrs. Dilshad Begum
Mrs. Bowen
Miss S. Kabraji — Treasurer
Mrs. P. Captain — Secretary
Mrs. Laxmibai Ranaday — Secretary

Objects — This Committee was organized in the year 1908 with the threefold object of (1) Creating among the ladies of the upper classes interest in the work of the Mission especially in that which is done by the sisters of the Nirashrit Sadan among the women and children of the Depressed Classes; (2) Raising funds and helping the Mission by such other practical means; (3) Organizing social functions such as gatherings, meetings, concerts, buzzars &c., for the benefit of the Mission.

Lady Muir Mackenzie who was the president of this Committee from its beginning, took active interest in its work till her departure from Bombay. She helped largely in opening a centre of the Mission at Mahableshwar in May 1909 and attended the Annual Prize Distribution of the Poona Branch in Sept. 1909 when she exhorted the noblemen and gentlemen then present to support the Mission. Some times she convened the meetings of the Committee at her residence on the Malabar Hill. In order to publicly recognize her services to the Mission, at her departure from Bombay, the Ladies' Committee gave a social gathering, at their own cost, in the Prarthana Samaj Hall, Girgaum on the 10th of August 1910 which was largely attended by prominent ladies and gentlemen of the city. Mrs. Stanley Reed, the Chairman, in welcoming Sir John and Lady Muir Mackenzie rightly observed :— "...Sir John and Lady Muir Mackenzie were the first prominent English people to give the Mission their countenance and practical assistance. They visited the mission Schools, they identified themselves conspicuously with our work. Not only so but Lady Muir Mackenzie constituted herself the Missioner for the Society among the Princes and Chiefs of the Presidency. Sir John who presided over the 1st Annual Meeting of the Mission stood its constant friend with the Government and no doubt targely through his kindly offices, we have received all help from those in authority" ...Sir John then made a sympathetic speech and Lady Muir Mackenzie gave away prizes to the Sunday School pupils of the Society.

Another and a still larger public meeting of the women of all the depressed communities of Bombay viz., Mahars, Chambhars, Mangs and Bhangis was held under the auspices of this Committee in the open space before the Improvement Trust Chawl at Agripada on the 5th of November 1910, under the presidency of Mrs. Yashodabai Thakur of the Sewa Sadan in which the following resolution was passed amidst cheers and a copy of it was forwarded from the spot to H.E. Sir George Clarke, Governor of Bombay and Lady Clarke.

“That this assembly representing the women of the various Depressed Classes residing in the city of Bombay and their sympathisers record their exceedingly warm feelings of sincere gratification and delight on account of the marriage solemnized yesterday of H.E. Sir George Clarke our most popular Governor with Mrs. Reynolds, and beg to express their humble congratulations and blessings to their Excellencies Sir George and Lady Clarke, and also pray to the Gracious Almighty to grant them both a long and prosperous life of personal happiness and continued public utility.”

Mrs. Stanley Reed distributed prizes to the pupils of the Sunday Schools and sweets to all the pupils of the Society in a large public gathering held in 1909 of which she bore all the cost herself. Other members of the Committee paid several visits to the schools of the Society in company of their friends.
LAXMIBAI RANADAY
(Hon. Secretary)
Thakurdwar,    
Bombay, Feb. 1911

8. The Somawanshiya Mitra Samaj, Byculla

Under the auspices of the D. C. M. this Samaj was started on the 24th of March 1907. It first used to meet in the Dagdi Chawl, Morland Rd., Byculla, and now holds its weekly divine services and other meetings in a room hired by it in Improvement Trust Chawl No. 3 Block C.

Objects — (1) To promote social and religious reforms and (2) to promote the spread of education among the Depressed Classes.

Members — On the 31st of Dec. 1910, there were 40 regular members on the roll who paid a monthly subscription of four annas.

Theistic Services were regularly held every Sunday noon which were conducted by the leading members by turns. Messrs. V. R. Shinde, S. Y. Javere, G. K. Kadam, and some other members of the Prarthana Samaj also helped to conduct them.

Public Meetings — During 1910-11 public meetings were held al the various places inhabited by the Depressed Classes of Bombay and lectures were delivered on Education, Temperance, Social Reform and other useful subjects.

The Somawanshiya Nirashrit Mandir Fund — The most encouraging feature of the work of this Samaj during the last year was the active promotion of the fund named as above towards the erection of a Mandir i.e., a building for the Samaj, which was started in November 1909 - Enthusiastic meetings were held, of the Mahar community in Bombay, throughout the year in which subscriptions were collected. The amount now realised is Rs. 650 which is deposited in the Bank of Bombay in the name of the following five members of the Samaj, Messrs. Kondaji Ramji, Limbaji Vazarkar, Bapuji Narayan Gaokar, Kondaji Mankooji Wadgaokar, Maruti Sabaji Nimgaokar. The fund is to be administered by these five members on behalf of the Samaj strictly on monotheistic lines.

POONA    Opened 22nd June 1908
Second Annual Report of the Poona Branch
July 1909 — June 1910

LOCAL COMMITTEE
Dr. Harold H. Mann, D.Sc. — President.
Principal R. P. Paranjpye, B.Sc., M. A. — Vice President.
Mr. B. S. Kamat, B. A.
Mr. M. H. Ghorparay.
Mr. S. Y. Javeri.
Captain H. C. Stein.
Dewan Bahadur V. M. Samarth.
Mr. M. D. Lotlikar — Treasurer.
Mr. A. K. Mudliar — Secretary.

At the commencement of the year under report we had three educational institutions under our management, viz. :—
Current

(1) The Ganj Peth Night School
(2) The Mangalwar Peth Night School
(3) The Free Day Primary School in Camp

The following are very brief extracts from the reports of the Inspecting Officers.

Ganj Peth Night School

“........    On the whole the progress shown was fair enough for a school intended for the Depressed Classes. A Chambhar girl in the Infant Section gave very intelligent answers.....”
3rd August 1909.
(Sd.) S. BAKAR All
(4th Asstt. Deputy Edl. Inspector)

Mangalwar Peth Night School
“    It has on the whole shown fair results."
27th July 1909.
( Sd. ) A. G. WANGIKAR
(2nd Asstt. Deputy Edl. Inspector)

Camp Day School
“....The school is held in a rented building, well lighted and well ventilated, with an area of 2065 Sq. feet. The building is divided into five convenient rooms and has also got a verandah which can be used at times for holding classes. The school has been supplied with all the necessary articles such as benches, tables, chairs, books, maps, & c., and it may be stated here that the articles are all new which proves that due care is taken from the beginning to make the school attractive and to give intelligent instruction.........................................

“The staff consists of four teachers excluding the Drill Master, and it does not seem to be adequate when the present number on the roll is taken into consideration. But looking to the average number which is 110.3, four teachers seem to be an adequate staff......... One thing which struck me in this school is that some of the little children are in charge of a Brahman lady-teacher who seems to take great interest in her work and freely mixes with the low caste children. The remaining three teachers, of whom two are Brahmans, are equally zealous, and seem to take great interest in their work......

"Instruction is given free, and the fact that the school has been attended by 149 children including boys and girls clearly shows that the locality wants a school of the kind and the demand has been well supplied by this school. So large a school for the Depressed Classes is the first attempt in this part of the District and therefore it deserves as much help as can be given under Article 13, of Chapter I of the Grant-in-aid Code."
26th July 1909.
(Sd.) A. G. WANGIKAR
(2nd Asstt. Deputy Edl. Inspector)

Of the three schools mentioned above, the Ganj Peth Night School was closed on 1st March 1910 owing to the absence of those circumstances which made a Night School in that locality an urgent necessity a few years ago.

The following are the statistics pertaining to the Mangalwar Peth Night School and the Camp Day School :—

Mangalwar Peth Night School
Table  (To see the statistics click here)

Camp Day School 
Table 2 (To see the statistics click here)

The Camp Day School is the chief centre of our work. Here we do all that we can to improve not only the intellectual, but also the physical and moral condition of the pupils. They are, we venture to state, taught by the best staff procurable for them. Zeal, self-sacrifice and affection characterise the instruction imparted. Drawing for boys and girls, and Sewing for girls are attractions added this year. As for physical culture, the boys are taught drill, Indian and English gymnastics; and they play cricket and foot-ball. Day after day the idea of cleanliness is being impressed upon them; but poverty, surroundings, habits and indifference of parents are great obstacles to the success of our ideals. Our satisfaction is that we do all that we can to discourage uncleanliness and uncleanly habits. Boys are punished for neglecting daily bath; and during summer days, those who fail to bathe at home, are compelled to bath under the pipe in the school-compound under the supervision of a teacher. With regard to moral and religious education, we have the moral class in the morning and the Bhajan service in the evening every Sunday. The moral class is in charge of Mr. L. K. Aidale, the Asstt. Resident Master, and the Bhajan service in charge of Mr. D. N. Patwardhan, the Head Master, to both of which gentlemen the Committee desire to express their obligation for cheerfully undertaking these voluntary duties.

In this connection we may also mention the attempts made by the Head Master, supported by his Assistants, to minimise the baneful and immoral effects of the Holi festival : The school was kept open during all the Shimga days, although, of course, the attendance was very poor. On that particular day when people greet one another with mud, dirt and ashes, and indulge in obscenities, counter attractions were provided in the school in the form of English and Indian music, refreshments and out-door games. The result was very satisfactory. The consistency, throughout, with which some of the boys in the higher standards refrained from any participation whatever in the so-called tamashas of the festival, was due to an address delivered by Mr. G. K. Deodhar, M.A., of the Servants of India Society, to the school children on “How to behave during Shimga days." During the Holi season a Mela of boys was also organised. They were provided with songs specially composed for the purpose by the Head Master and they were taught to sing them with effect. They visited different low caste localities where they sung to large and appreciative audiences. One of the effects of the Mela was to Popularise our school.

Before proceeding to narrate some of the events of the year under report, we may here mention that we continue to maintain a Free Reading Room and Library for men of the Depressed Classes, to which the following newspapers are sent gratis :— Dnyanaprakash, Jagat Vritta, Sayaji Vijaya, Soma Vamshiya Mitra, Kamgar Samachar, Subodh Patrika, Karamanuk, Dinabandhu. To the proprietors of all these newspapers the Committee express their warm gratitude.

First Annual Prize Distribution

The First Annual Prize Distribution in connection with the schools under the management of the Poona Branch of the Depressed Classes Mission was held at the Islamia Camp School on Sunday afternoon, 26th September 1909, H. H. the Gaikwar presiding. The Islamia School hall was crowded to overflowing with distinguished Indians, not excluding their ladies, and with others of all grades. On the dais were seated with His Highness, H. H. General Sir Pertab Singh of Idar, Lady Muir- Mackenzie, Baba Saheb of Bhor, Hon’ble Mr. Gokhale, Dr. Bhandarkar, C.I.E., Sardar Nowrojee Pudumji and Dr. Mann, President of the Mission. Boundless enthusiasm, both inside and outside the Hall, was evidenced. His Highness the Gaikwar, on arrival, was received at the entrance by the Committee of the Mission, and shortly after a photograph was taken of His Highness, the Committee, and some representatives of the Depressed Classes, His Highness was conducted to the dais, a choir of school children singing a song of welcome. The President, Dr. Mann, then in welcoming His Highness, said :—

....... Based on a broad but deep conception of human brotherhood, the D. C. M. is a Society which, starting from the people, aims at raising the education, the morals, the general tone of what has hitherto been a despised and outcaste community. It has the support of some enlightened ruling chiefs, and gentlemen of all ranks have united in wishing it success. But all this would be of no avail if it were not responded to by an energetic forward movement among the Depressed Community itself.

And that response is not lacking. We are to hear this afternoon members of that community who have been among those who have exerted themselves in various ways for the advancement of their own people. I am proud to number them among my personal friends and I am proud to take a part in a meeting in which for the first time in Poona they take the part they are taking to-day.

Mr. A. K. Mudliar then read the report.

Prizes to the school children came next. These were presented by His Highness, and as a return of the compliment Radha, a tiny school girl, garlanded His Highness.

Mr. Shivram Janba Kamble next read an address in Marathi to His Highness, on behalf of the Depressed Classes of the Deccan, and presented it to His Highness in a beautiful silver casket.

Subhedar Bahadur Bhatankar of Panwel and Mr. Dangle of Ahmednagar, members of the Depressed Classes also addressed the gathering briefly in Marathi.

Lady Muir Mackenzie then said :— As the president of the Ladies’ Committee of the Depressed Classes Mission, I have been asked to say a few words to-day. Speaking at such short notice my words must only take the form of wishing every good luck and success to this Mission which bids fair to be one of the most significant movements of the present day in India. For the first time in history we see members of all castes drawn together in the bond of brotherly kindness. It is a great encouragement and pleasure to see gentlemen like the Maharajah Sir Partab Singh, the Hon’ble Mr. Gokhale and Dr. Bhandarkar supporting this excellent and important movement. I still hope other influential noblemen and gentlemen will follow their good example and will support the Mission, not only with moral support but with money, which the Mission, still in its infancy, is greatly in need of, if the work is to spread. I am sure this meeting will bear good fruit in this respect. I will no longer stand in the way of His Highness who is going to address you. He will no doubt give a more interesting speech especially as it is to be in Marathi.

His Highness the Gaikwar, in rising to reply spoke at some length in Marathi. At the same time he emphasised the fact that he took a deep and personal interest in the good work the Mission was doing and it would always have his sympathy. He wished the mission continued success and prosperity.

In connection with the above Prize Distribution it must be mentioned with gratitude that H. H. the Maharajah, to mark his abiding interest in the object of the Mission, donated Rs. 1,000 so that the interest accruing from it might be paid as a scholarship to any student of the Depressed Classes who is eager to prosecute his studies in the higher English standards. The money is in the hands of three Truste.es (approved by H. H.) who pay out of the interest Rs. 3 a month to the Mission who pay it as a scholarship to J. D. Mehter, in the English HI Standard in the Poona High School.

A graceful act on the part of H. H. was his gift of six Baroda gold Mohars to the Mahar and Chambhar girls who welcomed him and garlanded him on the occasion of the Prize Distribution.

D. C. M. Day
The next important event in connection with our institution occurred in October 1909. It was the celebration of the Depressed Classes Mission Day, viz., 18th October — the date of the foundation in Bombay of the Depressed Classes Mission Society of India. On that day we were able to organize a bumper meeting in the Kirloskar Theatre under the Presidency of Principal R. P. Paranjpye. The theatre was packed to its utmost capacity. For the first time in the history of mass meetings in Poona, men of all castes were promiscuously mixed up within one building, for the audience was composed not only of Brahmans and Mahrattas, but also of Mahars, Mangs and Chambhars. On the stage in company with the leading Brahman gentlemen of the city, were some of the boys and girls of the Depressed Classes Mission School. Speeches were delivered by Messrs. S. R. Thorat, Bhopatkar, Ismael Bahadur, Harkare, N. G. Kelkar, and Prof. Kosambi. Principal Paranjpye made a very thoughtful speech. Mr. D. K. Karve of the Hindu Widows' Home, in proposing a vote of thanks to the chair, announced his donation of Rs. 100 to our work. His speech on the occasion was a vigorous and telling one. Another notable speaker on the occasion was Mr. Harkare, the representative of His Holiness Shri Shankaracharya of Hampi whose donation of Rs.100 was also announced to the meeting. It is hardly necessary to point out the immense moral value of this open countenance of the work on behalf of the untouchables, by such a spiritual authority as the Shri Shankaracharya of Hampi.

There came off an open air public meeting at Kirkee on 11th December 1909. This was organized on our behalf by Mr. L. M Satoor, an indefatigable helper and sympathiser. Mr. B. S. Kamat, one of the members of the Committee, presided. His remarks were widely noticed at the time with appreciation by the Vernacular press.

On 27th March 1910 Mr. M. H. Ghorparay of our Committee proceeded to Dehu on the occasion of the Anniversary of Saint Tukaram and taking advantage of the multitudes that gather there at the annual fair, addressed a low caste audience of 200 people on temperance. Speeches were also delivered by two friends of Mr. Ghorparay.

On 25th April 1910, the Secretary, three Assistant Masters and some boys visited the Jejuri Fair with a view to appeal to the crowds of Mahars that gather there year after year not altogether for holy purposes. They were supported by Mr. Satoor of Kirkee, Mr. B. S. Tarkunde of Saswad, and Mr. S. K. Naik of Bombay. We expected to speak to the people about the Murali question, but the drunken brawls of the Mahars themselves over the question did not allow us to get a hearing. So we opened a hostile camp with the choir of our School boy singers and drew away to our surprise a large, appreciative audience to ourselves, to whom short speeches were delivered after the singing of songs by the school-boys. A collection was taken with which the expenses of the trip were partly defrayed.

24th May 1910 was observed by the staff and pupils of the Camp Day School as the Second Annual Gathering Day. At the social hour in the evening of that day many Hindu and Brahman ladies shared refreshments with the women of the Depressed Classes. The social hour was followed by an open air public meeting in the school-compound, Dr. H. H. Mann presiding and Mr. Ganpatrao Kotkar making the speech of the day. The occasion was taken advantage of by the Poona Branch of the Theosophical Society, by the leading members of the Depressed Classes, and by some private ladies and gentlemen, to offer gifts to the school. The members of the Theosophical Society, in addition to sharing the expenses of the refreshments to the school children with Captain H. Stein, and Mr. L. M. Satoor also presented Kindergarten materials and Object Lesson pictures of the total value of Rs. 40 to the school. Some Mahar gentlemen, to mark their sense of gratitude for what we are doing for their children, presented cloth enough to make suits for 50 boys. These and other gifts are elsewhere acknowledged.

Our income from all sources during the year was Rs. 3,581-9-7. Our expenditure during the same period was Rs. 2,424-12-3.

Owing to the development of the Camp Day School our expenses have been mounting up steadily. We have been mainly dependent upon chance donations — a very unreliable source. By regular subscriptions we hardly get a third of the expenses we need; and permanent funds we have none. We have frequently and in different ways appealed for funds, but with very little result. Still the undeserved apathy in the past of the Indian part of the population of this town to all our touching appeals does not and cannot prevent us from appealing to everyone again. To all ladies and gentlemen of any race or creed, we appeal with all the earnestness at our command for pecuniary help and we will be delighted to have responses at once or in the near future.

 

Statement of Receipts July 1909 - June 1910/Statement of Expenses July 1909 - June 1910
Table (To see the statement click here)