सामान्य आलोचन

प्रकरण पहिले

अस्पृश्यता हि एक पुरातन सामाजिक जागतिक संस्था आहे.  तिचा व्याप सर्व जुने जग भरून, निदान आशिया खंड धरून तरी, असल्याचे पुरावे प्राचीन इतिहासात, व हल्लीच्या काळातही, वर्तमान असलेले आढळतात.  पूर्वेकडे चीनात व जपानात अस्पृश्यता अद्यापि रेंगाळते.  ब्रह्मदेशात तर मी स्वतः शोधून स्पष्ट पाहिली आहे.  पश्चिमेकडे सामान्यतः भूमध्य समुद्राच्या पूर्वेकडील प्राचीन राष्ट्रांत, विशेषतः इस्त्रायल लोकांत, ही संस्था होती.  जेथे जेथे देवपूजकांची व पुरोहितांची एक निराळी जात आणि वृत्ती स्थापित झाली आणि अशा वार्तिकांच्या प्रेरणेने राजकर्त्यांच्या व त्यांच्या प्रभावळीतल्या उच्चवर्णीयांच्या रक्ताला जेथे जेथे सोवळेपणा आला, तेथे तेथे ही संस्था जुन्या-नव्या जगाच्या इतिहासात उदयास आली आहे.  म्हणून ही संस्था आर्यांचेच अगर कोणा एका विशिष्ट मानववंशाचे एक विशेष कृत्य आहे, असे मानण्याचे कारण नाही.  तथापि, इतके मात्र निर्विवाद आहे की, आपल्या भरतखंडात, विशेषतः दक्षिणेकडील द्राविड देशांत, ह्या सामाजिक तोडग्याचा प्रयोग आर्य अथवा द्राविड म्हणविणारांकडून जितक्या पद्धतशील रीतीने अगदी ह्या घडीपर्यंत करण्यात आला आहे, आणि ह्या प्रयोगाला येथे जे यश आले आहे, तो प्रयोग, ती पद्धत आणि ते यश इतरत्र कोठेच - निदान येथील प्रमाणात तरी - आढळणार नाही.  म्हणून अस्पृश्यता ही भारतीय सामाजिक संस्कृतीचे एक विशिष्ट आणि मुख्य लक्षण आहे, असे म्हणणे इतिहासज्ञाला भाग पडेल, असे मला वाटते.

व्याख्या

प्रस्तुत विषयासाठी अस्पृश्यतेची थोडक्यात एक कामचलाऊ व्याख्या करणे अवश्य आहे.  सोयेर, सुतक, रजोदर्शन, सांसर्गिक रोग, इत्यादी वैयक्तिक, कौटुंबिक आणि प्रासंगिक बाबींसंबंधी अस्पृश्यता हल्लीदेखील हिंदुस्थानात, तशीच बाहेरील राष्ट्रांतही पाळलेली पुष्कळ ठिकाणी आढळते.  फरक इतकाच की पहिल्या तीन बाबी जंगली लोकांत व चौथी सुधारलेल्या देशांतील रुग्णालयांतच आढळते.  पण ही नैमित्तिक अस्पृश्यता ह्या निबंधाचा विषय नव्हे.  नित्य अस्पृश्यता हीच केवळ ह्या निबंधाचा विषय आहे; आणि ह्या निबंधाच्या हेतूपुरती, ह्या अस्पृश्यतेची कामचलाऊ व्याख्या मी करीत आहे.

विवक्षित जातीच्या जाती ऊर्फ राष्ट्रे वंशपरंपरेने अस्पृश्य मानणे, त्या जाती अशा अस्पृश्य राहाव्यात म्हणून त्यांना अगदी गावाबाहेर, पण फार दूर नाही, अशा निराळ्या वस्तींत डांबणे, व जर कोणी स्पृश्यांनी किंवा अस्पृश्यांनी हा बहिष्काराचा नियम मोडला तर त्या दोघांवरही प्रचलित धार्मिक आणि राजकीय कायद्यांची अंमलबजावणी करणे, ह्या तीन्ही गोष्टी भारतीय अस्पृश्यतेची मुख्य लक्षणे आहेत.  म्हणजे ही अस्पृश्यता केवळ स्थानिक अथवा धार्मिक नसून ती जातीय ऊर्फ राष्ट्रीय आणि नित्य स्वरूपाची आहे.  एखाद्या मानीव अस्पृश्याने आपला धर्म बदलला, किंबहुना, प्रचलित राजसत्तेनेही आपला धर्म बदलला, तरी भारतीय रूढी आणि ह्या देशात वेळोवेळी स्थापित होणार्‍या राजसत्तेच्या कायद्यांनी तिला दिलेली मान्यता कायम असेपर्यंत, अस्पृश्यता ही कायमच असावी अशी भारतीय अस्पृश्यतेची उपपत्ती आहे.  मुसलमान भंगी, मजबी, शीख आणि मद्रासकडील रोमन कॅथॉलिक ख्रिस्ती धर्मात घेतलेले पारिया, हे हल्ली हिंदू नसूनही अस्पृश्यच आहेत.  केवळ अस्पृश्यच नव्हे तर ग्रामबाह्यही आहेत.  हल्लीचे हिंदुस्थान सरकार स्वतः ख्रिस्ती म्हणवीत असले तरी त्याने आपला कायदा, रूढी आणि तिर्‍हाईतपणा ह्या दोन विक्षिप्‍त आणि लवचिक तत्त्वांवर स्थापिला असल्यामुळे, ह्या कायद्याचा आश्रय अस्पृश्यांना उपपत्तीच्या दृष्टीनेही मिळणे शक्य नाही; मग व्यवहारात त्याची अंमलबजावणी उलटच होत असल्यास त्यात आश्चर्य काय ?  इ.स.१८४३त हिंदुस्थान सरकारने कायदा करून येथील गुलामगिरी बेकायदेशीर केली; पण अस्पृश्यता अद्यापि कायदेशीरच आहे !  हल्लीची राउंड टेबल परिषद संपली, किंबहुना गेल्या सप्टेंबर महिन्यात महात्मा गांधींनी केलेल्या प्रायोपवेशनामुळे घडलेला अस्पृश्यासंबंधाचा 'पुण्याचा करार' राजमान्य झाला, तरी अस्पृश्यता ही अवदसा कायमच राहील, अशी चिन्हे दिसत आहेत.  जातीय अस्पृश्यता, सार्वत्रिक बहिष्कार आणि कायद्याच्या दृष्टीने सार्वकालिक निराश्रितपणा ही भारतीय अस्पृश्यतेची तीन लक्षणे आजतागायत तरी कायम आहेत.  मुसलमानी अमदानीत धर्मांतराने ही अस्पृश्यता नष्ट होत असे.  कारण, मुसलमानी कायदा हिंदू रूढीला मुळीच जुमानीत नसे.  पण ब्रिटिश हिंदी सरकार ह्या बाबतीत अधिक भित्रे आणि कावेबाज आहे.  आणि ख्रिस्ती धर्मही महंमदी धर्मापेक्षा अधिक लवचिक आहे.  ख्रिस्ती झालेल्यांची अस्पृश्यता नष्ट होत नसून केवळ बेपत्ता होते.  म्हणजे तिचा नीट, नेमका पत्ता न लागल्यामुळे बहिष्काराची कुर्‍हाड तिच्यावर नेमकी उगारणे कठीण जाते पण जर का पत्ता लागला तर ह्या कुर्‍हाडीच्या उलट आश्रय देण्याचे सामर्थ्य प्रचलित ब्रिटिश कायद्यातही नाही, ख्रिस्ती धर्मात तर नाहीच नाही हे उघड आहे.  पुण्याच्या शेजारच्याच अहमदनगर जिल्ह्यात-अहमदनगर शहराला लागूनही-ख्रिस्ती झालेल्यांचे महारवाडे व मांगवाडे ख्रिस्ती न झालेल्यांच्याप्रमाणेच बहिष्कृत स्थितीत आहेत.  ज्यांना ह्या विधानाविषयी शंका येत असेल त्यांनी मद्रास इलाख्यातील मागासलेल्या ख्रिस्ती समाजाची आणि मुंबई इलाख्यांतील अहमदनगर, गुजराथ काठेवाडकडील ख्रिस्ती अस्पृश्यांची स्थिति किती ग्रामबाह्य आणि हलाखीची आहे हे जाऊन पाहावे. जावे त्याच्या वंशा तेव्हा कळे !  नित्य विटाळ मानणें, गावाबाहेर राहावयास लावणें व कायद्याच्या दृष्टीने निराश्रित असणें, ह्या तीन लक्षणांनी अन्वित एक राष्ट्रीय संस्था अशी आमची व्याख्या तयार झाली; आणि ह्या व्याख्येने ओळखली जाणारी अस्पृश्यता केवळ आमच्या भरतखंडांत आणि शेजारच्या ब्रह्मदेशांतच आढळून येणारी आहे.

उदय

अस्पृश्यता ही एक स्वतंत्र मानवी संस्था आहे.  हिचा उदय मानवी जातीच्या अगदी प्राथमिक स्थितींतच झाला असला पाहिजे.  भूत, प्रेत, पिशाच इत्यादि कल्पना मानवी जातीच्या प्राथमिक म्हणजे अगदी रानटी स्थितींत सर्वत्र पसरलेल्या होत्या.  तौलनिक धर्मशास्त्रांत ह्या कल्पनासमुच्चयाला 'भूतवाद' (Animism) असें नांव आहे.  हा भूतवाद व ह्याप्रमाणेंच इतर प्राथमिक धर्माच्या अडाणी कल्पना व त्यांवरून बनलेल्या जादूटोणा, थातुरमातुर इत्यादिकांना मी पुढे 'अपधर्म' असें नांव दिलें आहे.  ज्या धर्माचा पाया मानवी प्रज्ञा आहे, तो जरी पुढे निष्काळजीपणामुळें विकृत झाला तरी त्याला मी 'अपधर्म' हें नांव देणार नाही.  रागावलेल्या भूतांना संतुष्ट करणें किंवा एखाद्या भूताला लालूच दाखवून किंवा भेवडावून त्याच्याकडून आपल्याला इष्ट असा अर्थ किंवा अनर्थ घडवून आणणें शक्य आहे, अशी प्राथमिक मानवाची समजूत असे.  ह्या समजुतीप्रमाणें जादू, टोणा, मंत्र, तंत्र, यंत्र वगैरे जे अपधर्माचे अनेक प्रकार असत, त्याला 'अभिचार' (Magic) असें एक सामान्य नागर नांव देतां येईल.  ह्याचे 'कृष्ण अभिचार' (Black Magic) आणि 'भेषज' (Medicinal) अथवा 'शुक्ल अभिचार' (White Magic) असे दोन मुख्य प्रकार सुधारलेल्या वैदिक काळांतही होते.  पहिला प्रकार विशेषतः अथर्ववेदांत आणि दुसरा ॠग्वेदादि वेदत्रयींत विपुल आढळतो.  दोन्ही प्रकारचा अपधर्म प्राचीन काळीं सर्व प्राथमिक जगांत होता, इतकेंच नव्हे, तर हल्लीच्या रानटी जातींत आणि पुष्कळ ठिकाणीं सुधारलेल्या पाश्चात्य राष्ट्रांतूनही अद्यापि आढळतो.  तो मी स्वतः रोमन कॅथॉलिक चर्चमध्यें सौम्य रूपांत आढळणारा पाहिला आहे.  जन्म, मृत्यु, साथीचे रोग व इतर आकस्मिक आपत्ति ह्यांचा संबंध प्राथमिक जगांत भुतांखेतांकडे आणि क्रुद्ध देवतांकडे लावण्यांत येत असे.  त्यांचे निवारण करण्यांत निष्णात असे पंचाक्षरी अथवा वैदू (Medicine Men) होते, तेच पूर्वकाळचे ॠषि आणि पुरोहित असत.  त्यांच्या बर्‍यावाईट क्रियांना जादू किंवा अभिचार म्हणतां येईल.  ह्याप्रमाणें ह्या जादूचा प्राचीन धर्मांत समावेश झाला, तो अद्यापि पुष्कळ ठिकाणीं सामान्य जनतेंत प्रचलित आहे.  ह्या अपधर्मांतच अस्पृश्यतेचा उगम आहे.
प्रथम प्रथम ही अस्पृश्यता वैयक्तिक व प्रासंगिक उर्फ नैमित्तिक होती.  बाळंतीण व तिची खोली, मृतांची जागा व आप्‍त, विशिष्ट रोगी, झपाटलेलीं माणसें, विक्षिप्‍त झाडें, खुनासारख्या अपघाताचीं ठिकाणें वगैरे बाबी अस्पृश्य आणि वर्जनीय ठरल्या.  जादू करणारे जादूगार आणि पुरोहित हे देखील सोंवळे म्हणजे एक प्रकारें अस्पृश्यच असत.  देवपूजा करणार्‍या ब्राह्मणाला आणि यज्ञपरिषद चालू असे तोंपर्यंत सर्व ॠत्विजांना आणि इतर याज्ञिकांना नेहमी सोवळ्यांत म्हणजे अस्पृश्य अथवा अलग स्थितींतच राहावें लागे.  कर्नाटकांत मादिग (मातंग) जातीचे ढकलगार म्हणून जे धर्मगुरु आहेत त्यांना स्वतः त्यांचे अनुयायी मादिगही शिवत नाहीत, इतकेंच नव्हे, तर त्यांना आपल्या पाणवठ्यांनाही शिवूं देत नाहीत, हें मी प्रत्यक्ष पाहिलें आहे.  कर्नाटकांत गदग तालुक्यांत डॉ. कुर्तकोटींच्या बंधूंनी मला हा प्रकार दाखविला.  अशा अपधर्माला उत्तरोत्तर जसजसें गूढ आणि दृढ स्वरूप प्राप्‍त होऊन पुरोहितांच्या द्वारें त्याची परंपरा आणि घटना बनत चालली तसतशी ह्या अस्पृश्यतेच्या वैयक्तिक आणि स्थानिक स्वरूपाची परिणति जातीय आणि सार्वत्रिक ऊर्फ नित्य स्वरूपांत होऊं लागली.  निरनिराळ्या मानव जातींत आणि वंशांत पूर्वी अभेद्य शत्रुत्वच असणें साहजिक होतें.  मित्रत्व केवळ अपवादच.  एका जातीचीं पूजेचीं स्थानें आणि उपकरणें परक्या जातीला अगम्य आणि अस्पृश्य असत.  सुधारलेल्या वैदिक काळांतदेखील ही परस्पर अस्पृश्यता फार जोरांत होती.  इराणी आर्य व हिंदी आर्य हे झरथुष्ट्राच्या काळानंतर विभक्त झाले.  त्यानंतर इराणी आपल्यास 'असुरयज्ञ' म्हणजे असुराची पूजा करणारे आणि हिंदी आपणास 'देवयज्ञ' म्हणजे देवांची पूजा करणारे म्हणवूं लागले.  हे असुरयाजी व देवयाजी परस्परांना परस्परांच्या यज्ञस्थानांच्या वार्‍यालाही उभे राहूं देत नसत व तीं स्थानेंही स्वतः अस्पृश्य समजत.  म्हणजे परकीयांचें यज्ञस्थान स्वतःला अस्पृश्य आणि त्याज्य व स्वकीयांचें यज्ञस्थान स्वतःलाही सोंवळें (अगम्य) अशी वहिवाट असे.  एकाचा धर्म तो दुसर्‍याचा अपधर्म आणि दुसर्‍याचा धर्म तो पहिल्याचा अपधर्म अशी समजूत बळावून जातिद्वेष माजत असे.  आणि अस्पृश्यतेचें मूळ कारण हा जो अभिचारमूलक अपधर्म; तो जरी पुढे लुप्‍त होऊन विस्मृत झाला तरी, जातीय अस्पृश्यता शिल्लक उरलीच.  यहुदी लोक शेजारच्या सुमेरिया देशांतील लोकांना अस्पृश्य मानीत असत, हें बायबलांतील भल्या सम्यारिटनच्या गोष्टींतील तात्पर्यावरून आजमावितां येतें.  येशू ख्रिस्ताला तहान लागली असतां त्याने एका सुमेरियन बाईजवळ पाणी मागितलें; तेव्हा ती म्हणते, ''तूं ज्यू असून कसें मला पाणी मागतोस ?  कारण ज्यूंचा सुमेरियन लोकांशीं कोणत्याही प्रकारें व्यवहार घडत नाही.''  (सेंट जॉनकृत शुभवर्तमान, अध्याय ४, श्लोक ९ पहा.) अशीं दुसरींही अनेक उदाहरणें सामाजिक इतिहासांतून देतां येतील.

व्याप्‍ति

वैयक्तिक आणि जातीय अस्पृश्यतेची व्युत्पत्ति वर सामान्यतः सांगितली.  असली अस्पृश्यता प्राचीन आर्यांतच होती असें नसून बर्‍याच प्राथमिक राष्ट्रांत, विशेषतः सुधारलेल्या संराष्ट्रांत होती.  अस्पृश्यतेचा विकास वैयक्तिक स्वरूपांतून जातीय स्वरूपांत होण्यापूर्वी राज्यांचा विकास साम्राज्यांत झाला असे असणें समाजवर्धनशास्त्राच्या दृष्टीने आवश्यक आहे.  जी जात अथवा राष्ट्र दुसर्‍या सबंध जातीला किंवा राष्ट्राला ज्या काळीं कायमचें अस्पृश्य मानितें व तें राष्ट्र मानून घेतें, ती विजयी जात त्या काळीं सम्राट स्थितीला पोचली असावी लागते.  अशा विजयी जातीने दहा-पांच इतर मागासलेल्या जातींचा पराजय केल्यावर अशाच एका पराजित जातीला कायमचें हस्तगत करून आपल्या शुश्रूषेस ठेवण्याच्या कल्पनेचा त्या विजयी जातीमध्यें उदय होतो.  म्हणजेच साम्राज्याचा उदय होणें होय.  आणि तेव्हाच जातीय गुलामगिरीचा उर्फ अस्पृश्यतेचा उदय होणें शक्य असतें.  जातीय अस्पृश्यता हा एक गुलामगिरीचाच प्रकार - अर्थात अत्यंत कठोर प्रकार-होय.  असा प्रकार असीरिया, बाबिलोनिया इत्यादि द्राविड, इस्त्रायल, आरब वगैरे सेमिटिक; इराणी, मीड इत्यादि आर्य; चीन, जपान वगैरे मोंगल अशा अनेक वंशांच्या अनेक देशांत आढळून येत होता.

ताबू उर्फ विटाळ

वर ज्या अस्पृश्यतेचा उदय आणि व्याप्‍ति सामान्यत्वेंकरून निर्दिष्ट केली, ती कालतः दोन प्रकारची म्हणजे नैमित्तिक आणि नित्य अशा दोन स्वरूपांची आहे हें वर सांगितलें आहेच.  ह्याशिवाय वरील अस्पृश्यतेचे आणखी दोन प्रकार आहेत, ते असे :  एक तिरस्करणीय व दुसरा आदरणीय.  लौकिक मराठी भाषेंत एकीला विटाळ व दुसरीला सोवळें अशीं नांवें आहेत.  ह्या दोन्ही प्रकारांची व्याप्‍ति हिंदुस्थानच्या बाहेरही होती व आहे.  ज्याला मराठींत सोवळें असें नांव आहे त्याला इंग्रजींत ताबू (Taboo) असें म्हणतात.  अद्यापि जंगली जातींत, विशेषतः आग्नेय आशियांतील बेटांतून राहाणार्‍या जंगली जातीच्या लोकांत, ह्या अस्पृश्यत्वाचा व तद्दर्शक शब्दांचा प्रचार जास्त आहे.  ह्या शब्दांत जरी तिरस्करणीय आणि माननीय ह्या दोन्ही अर्थांच्या अस्पृश्यत्वाचा समावेश होतो; तरी दुसर्‍या म्हणजे सोवळेपणाच्या प्रकाराचा प्रचार इंग्रजी शब्दाने जास्त दाखविण्यांत येतो.  ह्या विचित्र शब्दाची उत्पत्ति मी बरींच वर्षे शोधीत आहें.  इंग्रजी कोशांतून, ह्या शब्दाचें मूळ पॉलिनेशियन जंगली भाषांत आहे, ह्यापेक्षा जास्त खुलासा सांपडत नाही.  परलोकवासी टिळकांचा एक इंग्रजी निबंध "Khaldian and Indian Vedas" (खाल्डियन आणि भारतीय वेद) हा डॉ. सर रामकृष्ण भांडारकर ह्यांच्या स्मरणार्थ लिहिलेल्या निबंधसमूहांत मी वाचला.  त्यांत टिळकांनी अथर्ववेदांतील ॠचेचा उतारा दिला आहे.  ती ॠचा ही :

ताबुवं न ताबुवं न घे त्वमसि ताबुवम् ।  ताबुवेना रसं विषम् ॥
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अथर्व संहिता, ५. ३. १०.

प्रो. ब्लूमफील्डने Sacred Books of the East Series, Vol.XLII, Page २८ वर पुढीलप्रमाणें तिचें भाषांतर केलें आहे : "Tabuvam (or) not Tabuvam, thou (० serpent) art not Tabuvam.  Through Tabuvam the poison in bereft of force."
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अर्थ :- 'ताबुव असो वा अताबुव असो.  (रे सर्पा) तू ताबुव नाहीस.  ताबुवामुळें तुझ्या विषाचा जोर नाहीसा होतो.'  अथर्ववेदांतील हा ताबुव शब्द आणि इंग्रजी कोशांतील Taboo हा शब्द एकच असावेत अशी मला जबर शंका येऊं लागली आहे.  तिला खालील कारणें आहेत.  ताबुव शब्दांत मूळ रूप 'ताबू' इतकेंच असावें. 'व' हा केवळ आदेश आहे.  तो आर्य आणि अनार्य उकारान्त शब्दांना विभक्तींच्या पूर्वी लागणें साहजिक आहे.  'एनसायक्लोपीडिया ब्रिटानिका' आणि 'हेस्टिंग्स एन्सायक्लोपीडिया ऑफ रिलिजन अ‍ॅन्ड एथिक्स' ह्या दोन कोशांतून अशी माहिती मिळते की, ताबू हा शब्द प्रथम कॅपटन कुक ह्यास पॉलिनेशिआंतील टोंगा नांवाच्या बेटांत इ.स. १७७७ सालीं आढळला.  त्यापूर्वी युरोपीय भाषांतून ह्याचा प्रचार नसे.  पश्चिम मादागास्करमध्यें 'फादी', मलाया द्वीपकल्पांत 'पंमाल्ली', मलानेसियामध्यें 'ताबु, तापु' वगैरे ह्याच अर्थाचे निराळे शब्द आहेत.  एकंदरींत ही ताबूची संस्था हिंदुस्थानांतील सोवळें आणि विटाळ ह्याच स्वरूपाची तंतोतंत आहे.  वरील शब्दांपैकी पंमाल्ली हा शब्द द्राविड भाषेंतील 'पंबाडा' ह्या शब्दाशीं संबद्ध असावा.  दक्षिणेंतील मल्याळी, तामीळ व तेलगु भाषांतून अस्पृश्य पारिया जातीच्या पुरोहितांना 'पंबाडा' असें म्हणतात, हें पुष्कळ ठिकाणीं मी पाहिलें आहे.  आणि दक्षिण महासागरांतील बेटांतून ताबू ह्या संस्थेचे जनक तिकडील जंगली जातींचे पुरोहित व नाईक हेच असत.  ते सोवळेपणा इतका पाळतात कीं, त्यांना नुसतें पाहाणेंही धोक्याचें असतें असें सांगतात.  कर्नाटकांतील मादिग जातीचे पुरोहित ढकलगार हे आपल्या शिष्य मातंगांतही अस्पृश्य असतात हें मी वर सांगितलें आहेच.  ते नेहमी एकांतवासांत असतात.  त्यांतील एका ढकलगारांला मी एक रुपया देऊं लागलों.  तो त्याने जमिनीवर ठेवण्यास सांगितला.  हा सोवळेपणाचा मासला ढकलगारांतच नसून हिंदुस्थानांतील वरिष्ठ वर्गांत, म्हणजे ब्राह्मण पुरोहितांत नैमित्तिकपणें व ब्राह्मणांच्या जुन्या वळणाच्या बायकांत नित्यपणानेच नांदत आहे.  हे सर्व प्रकार तंतोतंत ताबू ह्या संस्थेचेच होत.  हे प्रकार उत्तरेपेक्षा दक्षिण हिंदुस्थानांत, विशेषतः द्राविड देशांत आणि त्यांतल्या त्यांत मलबारांत फारच आढळतात हें विशेष ध्यानांत ठेवण्यासारखें आहे.  कारण फार प्राचीन काळीं मलबार, मादागास्कर बेट व दक्षिण आफ्रिकेचा किनारा ह्यांना जोडणारें 'लिमूरिया' नांवाचे एक खंड होतें.  तें आता आरबी समुद्राखाली बुडालेलें आहे असें प्राचीन भूगोलशात्र्यांचें मत आहे.

ताबू ह्याचें मूळ रूप तापू असून त्यांत ता=खूण करणें अशी धातु असून 'पु' हें एक अतिशयत्वबोधक क्रियाविशेषण असावें असा एनसायक्लोपीडियांतील लेखकाचा कयास आहे.  मला वाटतें कानडी भाषेंत तप्पु=चूक, दोष, असा एक शब्द आहे त्याच्याशीं ताबू या शब्दाचा संबंध असावा.  भाषाशास्त्राअन्वयें तप्पूचें तापू=वू=बू अशीं रूपें होण्यास हरकत नाही असें मला वाटतें.  वरील अथर्ववेदांतील जो उतारा दिला आहे त्याशिवाय इतरत्र कोठेही व विक्षिप्‍त शब्द आढळत नाही.  असे विक्षिप्‍त शब्द व चाली अथर्ववेदांत पुष्कळ आढळतात, त्यावरून हा वेद आर्येतरांचा असून तो ॠग्वेदाच्याही पूर्वीचा असावा असा कित्येक विद्वानांचा कयास आहे.

हिंदी अस्पृश्यतेचें संशोधन

असो.  आपण येथवर ह्या सामान्य संस्थेचा जगांत कसा उदय आणि विकास झाला ह्याचा निर्देश केला.  शिवाय प्रस्तुत निबंधापुरती आमच्या विषयाची विशिष्ट व्याख्याही वर दिली.  आता ह्यापुढे आमच्या हिंदुस्थानांत वरील तीन लक्षणांनी युक्त अशी अस्पृश्यता केव्हा रूढ झाली ह्या गोष्टीचा छडा लावण्याचा आपण प्रयत्‍न करूं या.  हें काम सोपें नाही.  कारण ह्या संस्थेविषयीं ग्रांथिक अथवा शिलालेखीय पुरावा मिळणें अशक्य आहे.  तथापि ही संस्था पुरावा नसतांही आमच्या देशांत अगदी अनादि कालापासून होतीच असेंही मानण्याचें कारण नाही.  पुढील भागांत शक्य तितका प्रयत्‍न करून ह्यासंबंधीं जितके ग्रांथिक संदर्भ मिळतील तितके संकलित केले आहेत.  इतकेंच नव्हे, तर ज्या काळामागे असे संदर्भ सापडत नाहीत त्या काळांत, पुढे अस्पृश्य व तिरस्करणीय ठरलेल्या कांही प्राचीन जातींच्या नांवाचा जो केवळ विरळ विरळ उल्लेख आढळतो, तो हुडकून त्या जातींचा सामाजिक दर्जा काय होता तोही पुढे निर्दिष्ट केला आहे.

ऐतिहासिक व प्रागैतिहासिक कालविभाग

वेदपूर्वकालीन भारतीय इतिहासाचे पुरावे लेखी मिळणें तूर्त तरी असंभवनीय आहे.  आर्यांपूर्वी भारतवर्षांत द्राविड अथवा मिसरी (मित्री) इजिप्शियन लोक आले.  तेही बाहेरूनच आले होते.  त्यांचें तत्कालीन भारतीय वाङ्‌मय अद्यापि उपलब्ध नाही.  इजिप्‍त (मित्र-मिस्त्र-मिसर), असिरियाकडे जें उपलब्ध असेल त्याचा संबंध भारताशीं नाही.  आर्यांच्या आगमनानंतरही पुष्कळ शतकें अखिल भरतखंडांत द्राविड भाषा पसरली होती.  पैशाची, बलूची उर्फ ब्राहुवी, सिंधी, बंगाली वगैरे प्राचीन व अर्वाचीन राष्ट्रें किंवा भाषाही मुळात द्राविडी होत्या.  बलुचिस्थानांतील हल्लीची ब्राहुवी भाषा वगळली तर बाकीच्या प्राचीन द्राविडी भाषा उत्तर हिंदुस्थानांतील अर्वाचीन देशी भाषांत निरुक्तरूपाने व दक्षिण भारतांत उघड रूपाने अद्यापि विद्यमान आहेत.  पण ह्या भाषांतील वाङ्‌मयावरूनही अस्पृश्यतेच्या उत्क्रमाविषयीं नीट पुरावा मिळविणें अद्यापि सुगम झालें नाही.  त्यानंतरच्या इतर सांताळादि भाषांची तीच स्थिति.  ह्यापुढच्या पाली आणि प्राकृत भाषांचें कांही ग्रंथ रोमन लिपींत आणि सिंहली लिपींत असल्यामुळें त्यांच्यांतूनही हा पुरावा शोधीत बसणें फार मुष्किलीचें आहे.  म्हणून तूर्त येऊन जाऊन संस्कृत वाङ्‌मयावरच विसंबून राहणें भाग आहे.  त्याचा आता विचार करूं.

'आर्य' ह्या नांवाचा एक विशिष्ट मानववंश नव्हता.  युरोप आणि आशियांत राहणार्‍या कांही मानववंशांमध्यें एक सामान्य भाषा रूढ होती असा गेल्या शतकांत शोध लागल्यावरून त्या भाषेच्या सर्व शाखांना 'आर्य' हें नांव पाश्चात्य भाषापंडितांनी दिलें.  त्या शाखांचा मूळ संबंध हल्ली ज्या ज्या आशियांतील व युरोपांतील जातींशीं पोहोचतो; त्या सर्व जातींना देखील 'आर्य' हेंच नांव कांही पाश्चात्य मानववंशशास्त्री दडपून देतात.  पण हें नामाभिधान चुकीचें आहे.  हिंदुस्थानांतील ह्या भाषेला संस्कृत असें जें नांव पडलें आहे तें तर अगदी अलीकडचें, पतंजलीच्या नंतरचें; म्हणजे फार तर दोन हजर वर्षांपूर्वीचें आहे.  त्यापूर्वी तिला वेद आणि अवेस्ता ह्या ग्रंथसमूहाची भाषा किंवा 'छांदस' ऊर्फ 'झेंद' भाषा असें नांव असे.  ह्या प्राचीन आर्य किंवा छांदस भाषेंत जें वाङ्‌मय आज उपलब्ध आहे, त्या वैदिक आणि अवेस्तिक अशीं नांवें आहेत.  ह्या वैदिक वाङ्‌मयांत संहिता, ब्राह्मण, आरण्यकें, उपनिषदें, सूत्रें इतक्यांचाच समावेश होतो.  ह्यांच्या काळाला प्राचीन अथवा प्रागैतिहासिक काळ असें म्हणतां येईल.  ह्यापुढे श्रीगौतमबुद्धाचा उदय (इ.स.पूर्वी ५६७ मध्यें) झाला.  तेथून ऐतिहासिक काळ चालू झाला.

१८९८ सालचा रोजनिशीतील उतारा

(महर्षी विठ्ठल रामजी शिंदे पुण्यास शिकत असताना त्यांनी लिहिलेल्या डायरीतील एक उतारा पुढे दिला आहे.  या काळातही अस्पृश्यांसंबंधी काही एक कार्य करण्याची त्यांची तळमळ दिसून येते.)

२२ मे १८९८

आज आमच्या बिऱ्हाडी बारामतीचे रा. रा. कळसकर, तेथील 'महाराष्ट्र व्हिलेज एज्युकेशन सोसायटी' चे स्थापक आले आहेत.  त्यांचे साहस, उद्योग व स्वार्थत्याग ऐकतच होतो. ह्यांचे स्वतःचे भाषण ऐकून तर ह्यांनी म्हार, मांग ह्या अतिनीच जातींविषयी किती किती कळकळ दाखविली, त्यांनी काय काय केले; पण आणखी कितीतरी करण्यासारखे आहे हे सर्व मनात येऊन मला स्वतःची मनःपूर्वक लाज वाटली व तिटकारा आला.

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*महर्षी विठ्ठल रामजी शिंदे यांची रोजनिशी, पृ. २८.
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A Mission for the Depressed Classes : A Plea

A MISSION FOR THE DEPRESSED CLASSES A PLEA*
(By Mr. V. R. Shinde, B.A.)
I do not wish to go into the historical origin of the Depressed Classes in India; nor should I relate, even if I could, the sad tale of their sufferings which is as old as Hinduism itself. It is again hardly needful to say that the term Depressed Classes does not include the comparatively blessed human beings, herds of whom are still defiantly standing outside the pale of civilization in India and are partaking with beasts and birds in the romance of the natural life. The Depressed Classes of India are unique on the face of the earth and in the history of humanity. They have their distinct place and function in the body politic of civilized India though the most unenviable one. By a strange sociological action they have been riveted at the outer gate of civilization from which they can neither proceed in or recede away. In Sociology, it is said, the unfit races become extinct as the unfit species in Biology. But these ill-fated people in India seem to be deprived of the very freedom of extinction; for they have been granted from days of the old legislators and builders of the Hindu Society a place at the very bottom of the hierarchical structure of castes and thereby a sort of fitness enough to live and propagate, with their own rights to the situation on which no one will trespass. Tradition tells us "In the time of Sidh Raj (1094-1143) the king ordered that a Dhed named mayo should be beheaded in the Sahashra-Ling tank, at Patan in order that it might hold water." This tradition aptly illustrates the great sacrifice of the whole of this unlucky race so that the great tank-of- thousand-signs of caste may hold water in India. The least effort to breathe a life of freedom in these slaves of ages need to raise them from their prostrate condition, is likely to shake the whole structure above them. No wonder then such a risk has never been even entertained till now.
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(*Indian Social Reformer, 1906, also published in form of a booklet, in August 1906)
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A Brahmo friend in South Canara, who is trying hard to befriend these people, wrote to me a few months back, "Panchamas of this place are a miserable class. They are as a class day labourers taking as a rule one meal a day and relieving their hunger at midday by drinking toddy. They own no lands and are mere tenants-at-will under unsympathetic higher-caste landlords. "This friend has been maintaining for some years past a school for the children of these people at a heavy cost; but whatever education he may give to these children of misfortune, he is not likely to wash away the stain of low caste from their faces and the greatest difficulty he feels in his work is to find for his pupils even the humblest opening in life out of their degraded situation. He therefore writes in utter despair “all my attempts to get even a single youth appointed as a peon have failed. Even the European officials do not like to incur the displeasure of their native subordinates. Once a sympathetic District Judge passed an order on a Pancham candidate's application for a peon's post that the first vacancy occurring in the department should be given to him. A vacancy did occur but the peons in the department about a hundred in number, made it a common cause to oppose the poor Pancham youth, went in a body to the Judge's bungalow and prostrated themselves before his honor, begging that they should not be disgraced by admitting into their ranks such an untouchable creature. “Such is the deliberate depression these people are undergoing from times unknown, and without the slightest sign of revolt.

Yet this evil, however acute in its incidence and long standing in its history might not claim the serious attention of a practical patriot who is bent upon the advancement of the country at large, if the victims were a few individuals or groups of individuals in this or that corner of this great country. But the Census Reports* have long revealed beyond doubt the appallingly vast numbers of these classes in every part of India. Estimating roughly the total population of India to be 300 millions there are more than 45 millions of these belonging to the Depressed Classes. In every seven Indians therefore, including coolies as well as kings, there is one wretched untouchable creature that hardly dares come within speaking distance except to do the meanest service to the rest.
Table (For PDF Click here)

No other caste in the country even approaches in number the total of these miserable out-castes. A clear seventh of this great section of humanity in the world is thus arbitrarily condemned as unfit to take part in any decent and clean service of mankind. Apart from the sin and shame of the situation, what an economical blunder perpetrated through ages down! Foreign invasions, political revolutions, religious reforms and social evolutions have rolled over this great continent and yet on this day of the 20th century not one of these 45 millions of untouchables can be openly touched without “pollution”!!
We thus see the profound depth of this national evil and this national sin, and also its extent both in history and in the country at present.
THE CHRISTIAN MISSIONS
While thinking on this subject one should never forget to do honor to the Christian Missions in this country by expressing one's genuine thanks for what they have done for these people. Christianity, inspite of its superannuated dogmas and the occasional defects in the spirit and method of its propagation is yet far more a living religion and a giver of the bread of life, than any other. If we take for example the district of Ahmadnagar, we see its marvelous results. Nearly one fifth of the population of the District town of Ahmadnagar are Christians, and more than 90 per cent of these converts must have come from the Depressed Classes in the district to claim the educational facilities and enjoy the blessings of civilized life in the city. This elevation of these people it must be admitted is not an unmixed blessing, for it introduces into the body politic an alien element disturbing the growing unity of the Nation, although the higher caste Hindus have none but themselves to thank for this disturbing element. The Christian Missions however are under the inevitable disadvantage of being foreign : and even these people lowest as they are in the scale of the Hindu Society show a remarkable reluctance to accept the betterment at this cost, unless under a dire stress of material want.

THE STATE
Also affords special encouragement for the education of the Depressed Classes. But the educational system whether under the control of the Government of the Municipalities is after all an inadequate means for the actual elevation of these people, in as much as such a system is in its very nature bound to be purely mechanical and impersonal. In the report of the Director of Public Instruction of Bombay for the year 1904-05 there is a candid confession, “The Inspector while pointing out that considerable progress has been made in providing for the education of these special castes, points out that too often little care is taken, especially by Municipal Boards, to see that the teachers of schools are competent. With the opening of a free school, the Board feel that their duty has been done, but in time and with the encouragement of Scholarships the castes may provide their own masters which will be a great gain to the communities." But to do all this efficiently, is required a personality behind the machinery, full of initiative purpose, benevolent enterprise and wakeful supervision, or in a word, of missionary fire — which is naturally out of question in the case of a merely official agency. No wonder then that we find so meagre a result in proportion to the power and resources of these agencies and that there is yet hardly one boy attending school in every hundred of the depressed population in the Bombay Presidency. "In the Census Report of 1901 a list is given of 31 castes which are regarded as unclean. The total number of persons belonging to them is not shown but the largest group consisting of Dheds, Mahars and Holias contains about 11/3 million persons." The total number of pupils of these castes in the Presidency attending school in 1905 was 15,058.

THE EDUCATION OF THE DEPRESSED CLASS IN THE BOMBAY PRESIDENCY IN 1905
Table 2 (For PDF Click Here) 
The situation is now clear before us. More than forty-five millions i.e., more than 1/3th of the population of this vast country is depressed beyond any immediate hope! Not only the habitual material poverty but the moral degradation and above all the incubus of social disabilities make these people on the whole worse than the worst section of the civilized humanity in any part of the globe. Who fill up the gangs of dacoits in the ever recurring Indian famines? Who supply the cheap market of prostitution in large cities and especially near great military stations? Some slums in the western countries may equal these people in this material and moral wretchedness but who will equal them in their inexorable social disabilities? In spite of the power and benevolence of Christianity and the British Government, only 183 pupils are attending the secondary schools out of 11/3 Million in the Presidency and not a single soul has yet passed that stage of education to the higher one. But the real painfulness of the problem does not lie in the paucity of pupils of this community but in the iron bar of caste which shuts even these few from all fair opportunities in life, so long as they care to remain Hindus! It seems therefore at first sight a hopeless task! These people might be left to their own fate and any new attempt appears to be out of question! But it was not my object to drive one to this dreary conclusion. On the other hand the situation before us will, I trust, inspire all living sons of India to a new attempt.

WANTED A NATIVE MISSION
What is wanted therefore is not merely a machinery of education however grand, but a real mission i.e., an organization in which the personal element presides over and energizes the mechanism; and secondly, which is still more essential, a mission which is not exotic but indigenous or in other words a mission which is bent upon working an evolution but not a revolution, as Christian Missions are, in the religion, traditions, and social life of these people. In this respect I may appropriately allude to the most satisfactory result of the four Olcott Pancham Free Schools in Madras, started about ten years ago by Col. Olcott, the President Founder of the Theosophical Society and having at present on their rolls a total of 629 boys. The Lady Superintendent in her last year's reports says, "In the detailed statistical report for the school year of 1905 the total per cent of passes in the Government examination for the Lower Primary Department of our four schools collectively was shown to be 95 per cent or 20 per cent above the average of all the schools in the Presidency." What personal effort can do is still more clearly seen when one reads in the Lady Superintendent's reports. "! personally took the responsibility of sending two little girls who had completed the fourth standard to a Government School teaching the higher grades. They have both just completed the First Form with great credit to themselves. The parents of one of these girls were making arrangements for her marriage last year. Now after the experience of this year, the girl refuses to marry just yet (she is only thirteen) and is eagerly anxious to continue her education." Here is a mission working on evolutionary and not revolutionary lines.

IN CONCLUSION
The question may be asked if what is being done in Madras for the Punchamas may not be as well attempted in Bombay for the Mahars and others. Here, let us confine our attention to the situation in our own presidency.* The operations may possibly be best begun from the capital city. The city of Bombay in my humble opinion is the fittest centre for such work. Here there is the Prarthana Samaj already doing whatever is in its power by way of night schools for these people. There is also another active body of liberal principles viz. the Presidency Social Reform Association, which will do well to co-operate with the Samaj in this matter. In a paper read before this Association and published in the Indian Social Reformer of 10 December 1905,1 described the work of some Associations among the Depressed Classes themselves inspired with the most hopeful and healthy spirit of self-help.

With some personal experience among the Depressed Classes of this city, I have every hope that with a little encouragement from the higher castes a similar association may be started here. A secondary day school with a small free boarding house for the mofussil low caste students, will serve as a good nucleus of a regular mission for these classes. The teachers of this school may be so selected and trained that they would also do the pastoral work among the homes of these people. And what are only school premises on week-days may be turned on Sundays into a place of morning worship of the most simple unsectarian character in which the pupils and the people in the neighborhood may take part, and of evening lectures on moral and other subjects of general interest: on public holidays the same premises may be utilized as a centre for the meetings of the Association of the depressed communities in the neighborhood, who will be constantly encouraged by the school authorities towards efforts of self-improvement. Further particulars of the mission-work need not be detailed here, for it will develop only after an actual beginning is made. The Prarthana Samaj of Bombay is the only Liberal Religious body in this Province that can if it will undertake this noble mission and carry it to its ultimate consummation viz. restoring at least such of these depressed souls, as are capable, to their rightful though long-withheld place in a renovated Hindu Society. But the Prarthana Samaj being an extremely small body is unable to bear the tremendous financial burden of such a mission. It is therefore the duty of every philanthropically and patriotically disposed Indian to render all possible help to the Samaj so that it may undertake the much needed enterprise. Even a mere man of business in this great industrial and commercial city of Bombay, will realize his own duty as well as interest from an economical point of view of this problem of elevation of the depressed who constitute no less than nearly one tenth of the whole population, and a considerably larger portion of the labouring population of this city. An intelligent if not a charitable glance at the following figures will reveal to him the piteous and pathetic state of circumstances which suffer such large number of human beings in the city to remain age after age in a condition materially so degraded and socially so disabled.
Table (For Pdf click here)
The City of Bombay

Mahars: 40,647;   Mochis: 12,622;    Chamars: 5,950;
Dheds:    6,149;   Mangs:   2,499;     Bhangis: 4,932;
Dhor:         818;   Other low castes:    9,397.

The total population of the city – 9,82,00
The total numbers of the Depressed ..... 83,014
The total number of pupils of the Depressed Classes attending schools in the city - 300 nearly.

The total number of schools - 4

कबीर सोई पीर है, जो जाने पर पीर।
जो पर पीर न जानई, सो काफिर बे पीर।।
He alone is good, who understands the distress of others: he who does not understand the distress of others is void both of faith and goodness!

Kabir

APPENDIX

APPENDIX A
THE D. C. M. SOCIETY OF INDIA
Table 1 (For see the PDF Click here)
APPENDIX B

The Depressed Classes Mission Society of India
Rules of Constitution

1. Name — The Society shall be called “The Depressed Classes Mission Society of India.”

2. Object — The object of the Society shall be to maintain a Mission which shall seek to elevate the social as well as the spiritual condition of the Depressed Classes viz., the Mahars, Chambhars, Pariahs, Namsudras, Dheds and all other classes treated as untouchable in India, by
(1) Promoting education,
(2) Providing work,
(3) Remedying their social disabilities, and
(4) Preaching to them principles of Liberal Religion, personal character and good citizenship.

3. Religious Work — The religious work of the Society will be based on the recognition of the fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man. Beyond this, the Society, as such, shall not take any dogmatic or sectarian position.
4. Missionaries — Any person who at the invitation of the Executive Committee agrees to devote himself to the work of the Mission and is accepted as such by the General Body shall be deemed a Missionary of the Society.

5. Board of Spiritual and Social Ministry — To minister to the spiritual and social needs of the Depressed Classes in India there shall be a separate Board consisting of all Missionaries and three other members to be annually elected thereto by the Council from among themselves. This board shall have a charge of all the spiritual and social institutions and organisations of the Mission, such as the Congregations, Sunday Schools, Young Peoples’ Clubs etc., and shall be subject to the rules and the control of the Executive Committee of the Society.

6. Membership of the Society — The General Body of the Society shall consist of:-(a) Patrons :—(1) That is, persons who make donations of five thousand rupees or more to the funds of the Society. (2) Persons of distinction accepting the Patronship at the special invitation of the Executive Committee of the Society.
(b) Life Members :—(1) Those who pay a donation of Rs. 1000 or more, or an annual subscription of Rs. 100 for 12 years. (2) Those who have rendered not less than five years' continuous service; is Missionaries of the Society.
(c) Members: — Those paying an annual subscription of not less than Rs. 25.
(d) All Missionaries of the Society ex-officio.

7. Any person who wishes to become a member of the Society shall be proposed and seconded by two members. The application shall be brought before the Executive Committee as its next monthly meeting. If it is accepted the applicant shall be admitted as a member on payment of his subscription as laid down in rule 6. Provided that the Executive Committee may in special cases exempt a member from payment of the whole or part of the fees.

8. Officers — The Society shall have a President, a Vice-President, a General Secretary, an Assistant General Secretary and a T reasurer.

9. The General Body — The General Body of the Society shall consist of the officers mentioned in rule No. 8 and all the members of the Society.

10. The Executive Committee — The executive authority shall be vested in the Executive Committee consisting of the officers mentioned in rule no. 8, and seven other members of the Society to be elected annually by the General Body of members in the month of February. The Executive Committee so constituted shall have power to initiate measures and to do everything necessary or desirable to further the aims of the Society, subject to the control of the General Body.

11. Meetings — The General Body of the Society shall meet at least once every year in February to adopt the annual report and the balance sheet, and pass the annual budget, or when any twelve members of the Society sign a requisition to the President of General Body who shall thereupon convene a special meeting of the Geneal Body.12. The Executive Committee shall meet at least once every month.

13. Incorporated Branches — The General Body may start new branches or sanction the conversion of existing affiliated bodies into branches in order to further the objects of the Society with due regard to the financial resources of the Society.

14. The incorporated branches shall send to the Executive Committee for its approval a Budget of its estimated expenditure for the next succeeding three months; for any financial obligations incurred in excess of such estimates without the express sanction previously obtained of the Executive Committee of the Society, the Society shall not be responsible. The incorporated branches shall also send a quarterly statement of accounts and also a report of its work.

15. Affiliated Bodies — Subject to the approval of the General Body the Executive Committee may affiliate existing bodies doing work similar to that of the Society, provided these bodies agree:-
(1) To work in a way not inconsistent with the aims and ideals of this Society.
(2) To submit a duly adopted annual report of their work and accounts so as to reach the General Secretary before the 1st of February, every year.

Subject to these conditions of affiliation the affiliated Bodies shall be independent in the conduct of their affairs, and the Society shall not be responsible for any financial obligations incurred or to be incurred by them.
16. The Board of Trustees — There shall be a Board of three Trustees elected by the General Body to take charge of all the immovable property of the Society and such of the funds as may be from time to time assigned to the Board by the Executive Committee as Permanent Endowments. The Executive Committee shall not hold in its possession more than two thousand rupees beyond the estimated amount of the annual expenses. All sums in excess of the above limit shall be assigned to and held by the Trustees.

17. Quorum — Twelve members shall constitute the Quorum of the General Body and five of the Executive Committee : provided that if a meeting of the General Body has to be adjourned for want of a Quorum six shall be deemed to be the quorum at such adjourned meeting.

18. No alteration shall be made in the objects and constitution of the Society except with the consent of five-sixths of the existing members of the Society.

APPENDIX C
Deputation to the Governor
An important deputation of the Depressed Classes Mission Society waited upon H. E. Sir George Clarke the Governor of Bombay at Ganeshkhind on the afternoon of the 25th of August 1911. An address was presented to His Excellency setting forth the work and needs of the Mission and particularly inviting His Excellency to become patron and asking for special government aid in various directions, chiefly with regard to educational facilities and funds.

The members forming the deputation were Mrs. R. P. Paranjpye, lady missionary in Poona, Dr. Harold Mann, president of the Poona Branch, Mr. H. A. Wadia, barrister, member of the Funds Committee, Mr. D. K. Godbole, B. A., Prof. D. K. Karve, B. A., and Mr. V. R. Shinde, B. A., General Secretary. The deputation was received in the Reception Room.

Mrs. Paranjpye, in opening the proceedings said: — You’re Excellency, I must first of all heartily thank your Excellency for so graciously receiving this Deputation on behalf of the Mission, which as Chairman of the Ladies’ Committee of the Mission in Bombay, Mrs. Stanley Reed most truly observed the other day, “is working for the amelioration of the most degraded people and under conditions the least attractive." I must express regret on behalf of the Deputation at the absence of Lady Muiri Mackenzie (owing to her departure) who was to be its most appropriate head, and I cannot help bringing to mind one of our most cherished memories, i.e., the late Miss Clarke — equally dear to high and low in this province. But in this world hope, although for a time held back, always predominates over despair and depression, and we are all, the so-called higher classes and the depressed classes, most cheerfully looking forward to the auspicious advent of a lady who will fill up the spaces left vacant by the above ladies and illumine the darkening horizon by occupying the social throne by the side of your Excellency. With these preliminary words, I beg to submit the representation trusting that your Excellency will bestow on it your best thought and sympathy.

Mr. V. R. Shinde, the General Secretary of the Depressed Classes Mission Society, then observed that the laying of the foundations of this society is practically and largely due to the sympathy, directly and indirectly, shown by your Excellency; and as for the first and most important point for which your Excellency’s favourable consideration this Deputation humbly asks — viz., your becoming its patron, I trust with all the hope in me, it will, if granted, most effectively open the doors yet closed of sympathy from the higher and wealthy quarters. As to our work it was never our aspiration to provide instruction on a wide scale to children of the lower classes. It is problems which even the Government with its mighty resources yet finds not very easy to solve. Ours is only to try to find out and train men for work among these depressed classes. In this connection I allude to the small boarding­house managed by the Society at Parel, in Bombay, and the scholarship scheme contemplated. The boarding house and scheme are capable of a most efficient concentration, as well as the widest expansion of the work of the Society. One of the most pleasing sights I have ever seen is that of the boys and girls of the boarding school at Parel, hitherto discarded as the vilest creatures, but now eating their food, playing their games, reading their lessons, and saying their prayers under the parental care of higher class missionaries of the Society. The scholarship scheme, if accomplished, will bring most promising boys and girls from the masses to this central boarding house. I therefore feel sure that the help rendered to this part of our institution, and towards this scheme, will not only be as highly appreciated as it is urgently needed by the Society, but will be associated with the name of one of its greatest supporters, the late Miss Violet Clarke.

The address of the Deputation
The so-called depressed classes, the Deputation pointed out, who form the outcast population of India, have lived and are living in a condition of ignorance and depression which would hardly be believed by any one who had not intimately studied their conditions. Until quite recently, the deputation said, the feeling of religious impurity which divided them from the main mass of the Hindu population was so intense that it was almost impossible to arouse any interest in their condition, or to give them an opportunity to utilize the powers, intellectual or otherwise, which they possess. Not only have they been a Helot class but a Helot class religiously impure, cut off from the contact and interest of the remainder of the people, and they are not a small body of people, though they exist in larger numbers in Bombay and Madras, than in other parts of India. The magnitude of any question regarding them may be seen from the following numbers: — Total population of India, 294,361,053; depressed classes, 53,206,632, percentage 18. Total population of Bombay Presidency 25,468,209; depressed classes, 3,479,084; percentage, 12.

Up till the present the only opportunity of rising out of this Helot condition has been furnished by three agencies. In the first place Christian Missions have taken a noble part in refusing to acknowledge
any distinctions of caste or anything in the nature of a pariah class, and have done much to educate such of them as have come under their influence. In the second, Mahomedanism has also received and welcomed into full membership, any member of any class without distinction of caste, and thirdly the British Government has established the principles of equal treatment of all classes without distinction, which has given an opportunity under which a small but constantly increasing number of the depressed classes has attained to positions of credit and even of distinction. In recent years this attitude on the part of the Government has been somewhat modified, more especially in connection with the admission of members of the depressed classes to the army and the police.

A Hindu movement, one of whose basal principles is the non­recognition of caste, is that of the Brahmo and Prarthana Samajes and hence, as a necessary conclusion, these have always and nobly, upheld the cause of the depressed classes. But still they have not concentrated attention on this particular problem of social reform. Out of those who have come under their influence, however a number of men have been specially impressed with the intense urgency of the problem of the elevation of the depressed classes, and in 1906 the Depressed Classes Mission Society was founded in Bombay. The objects of this society, as set forth in its constitution, are as follows:—

The object of the Society shall be to maintain a Mission, which shall seek to elevate the social as well as the spiritual condition of the depressed classes, viz., the Mahars, Chambhars, Pariahs, Namsudras, Dheds and all such other neglected classes in India by means of: (1) promoting education; (2) providing work; (3) remedying their social disabilities, and (4) preaching to them ideals of liberal religion, personal character and good citizenship.

Although all the members of the Managing Committee of the mission are members of the Prarthana Samaj, still as yet it is in no way formally connected with that body. It is open for any one to become a member of the Society and also to be elected on its committee. The society working under these conditions has been able to obtain a very large amount of public sympathy and support, and a number of the leading members of the various Indian communities have taken a prominent Part in its organisation. The Government of Bombay have been from the beginning very sympathetic and several of its prominent officials, including Collectors and Judges, have undertaken offices in its branches.

Work of The Society
The organisation and work of the society are fully described in the reports etc., accompanying the present representation, but they may be Summarised as follows: The headquarters of the society are in Bombay and it has three institutions as follows: (1) Parel Middle School — Provision is made to teach six Marathi and four English standards. There are seven teachers and 175 pupils on the roll. There are special book binding and sewing classes; (2) Deonar Primary School — Two teachers and forty-seven pupils. Four Marathi standards. These supplies a want long felt by the municipal colony of nearly 500 Mahars near Chembur; (3) Madanpura Primary School —Four teachers and 150 pupils. Five Marathi standards; (4) Kamathipura Gujarathi School — This is newly started for Bhangis and is practically the first of its kind in Bombay, except those conducted by Christian missionaries. It is exclusively supported by the kind help of a friend. Even in this city great difficulty felt in securing teachers for this school, there being great aversion for the Bhangis, specially among the Gujaratis. There is one teacher and fifty-one pupils on the roll; (5) Sunday schools — One is at Parel and the other at Madanpura. Selections from Ramayan, Theistic hymns from the Vedas and the Maratha Saints such as Tukaram and Ramdas and moral stories are taught to the boys and girls every Sunday morning; (6) Bhajan, Samajes — One is at Parel and the other at Madanpura where grown up people meet every Sunday for Theistic worship, which they conduct themselves; (7) Co-operative Leather Works aided by the Society under the management of Mr. Sashibhusan Ruth, an expert in tanning, and another German expert in the improved method of boot making. A new enterprise is made to provide work on the principle of co-operative production. For the present a small shop factory is started in Kalbadevi Road with a capital of Rs. 2,000; (8) Nirashrit Sadan — Two young men and three Ladies have solely devoted themselves to the work of the Mission. The ladies visit the poor in their homes, nurse the sick, rescue the helpless and organise sewing circles and women’s meeting. The men manage the mission centres. About twenty promising boys of the Parel School are lodged and 17 of them are also boarded under the direct care of missionaries who reside in the school house. These missionaries are supported by a friend independently of the finance of the society.

Efforts throughout India
Outside Bombay similar work has been organised in a number of centres. Thus for instance in Poona (which is the only branch absolutely under the control of the Central Society in Bombay), there is one day school, one night school, a Sunday school, a Bhajan Samaj, a library and a debating club. The number of pupils on the roll of the school is about 200. Beyond this there are centres affiliated to the Society in Manmad, Igatpuri, Indore, Akola, Amraoti, Dapoli, Mangalore, Madras and Mahableshwar. In summary the Society has under it, eleven centres,
fifteen secular schools with over one thousand pupils, six Sunday schools, five Bhajan Samajes or Theistic congregations, four industrial institutes and seven missionaries. But when we remember the five crores, the submerged sixth of India how humiliatingly small appears the work.

Unfortunately owing in the one case to the departure from the Presidency and in the other to illness, Lady Muir-Mackenzie and Principal paranjpye are unable to be actually present to support the representation, but the special points on which the deputation would ask favourable consideration are the following :—

Request to the Governor
(1) That His Excellency would be graciously pleased to become a Patron of the Society.

(2) That the Government of Bombay would be pleased to give an annual grant-in-aid to the parent society — the amount of total expenditure for the year 1909 was,
Rs. 7,357-11-51/2 and that for the months ending June 30th 1910, Rs. 2,837-0-6.

(3) That the Government of Bombay would be pleased to contribute one-third to the Depressed Classes Scholarship Fund, which the Society intends to institute. The Society has already set apart Rs. 5,000 from its funds for this purpose and will award scholarships to promising students attending its schools. If this fund be sufficiently increased further scholarships will be awarded from its proceeds to deserving pupils attending the secondary schools recognised by the Government in the six districts of the Central Division of the Bombay Presidency, as an effective means to facilitate the free attendance of these pupils in such schools.

(4) That His Excellency would be pleased to permit this fund to be called the Miss Violet Clarke Memorial Scholarships Fund.

(5) That the Government of Bombay would be pleased to issue instructions to the Educational Department to take special measures to facilitate the attendance of the Depressed Classes pupils in secondary schools of the Government and to draw a more detailed report of the progress of the education of these classes for the information of all that are interested in the problem.

(6) That the Government of Bombay would be pleased to lay before the municipalities the desirability of putting forth renewed efforts to start new schools for these classes, and to see that the old schools are properly attended.

Sir George Clarke’s Reply
Field of Operations Immense
The Governor spoke as follows in reply: — Ladies and Gentlemen I am glad to welcome you here to-day and to impress upon you the deep interest I take in your movement for the elevation of the Depressed Classes. If I am unable at this stage to promise you all that you ask for, I am quite sure that good will comes of our meeting. I have looked through the annual report with much interest and I find in it a record of useful work accomplished and also hope for the future. I am inclined to demur to the statement that the Mission has not received “any help whatever from the Government or any favour from the official world." such a statement is not quite correct and accuracy is of the first importance in all that is published by a body such as yours. In the first place Government is actively helping your cause in many ways. We deeply feel our responsibility towards the depressed classes — depressed by ancient customs unknown in other countries — and both our revenue and our educational officers do much to ameliorate their position. In the second place I am glad to remember that a substantial direct addition to your funds resulted from efforts which were strongly supported by the “official world.”

The field of your operations is immense. You have against you forces of long standing which render difficult alike your efforts and those of Government. The cause which we have met to promote is no less than the conferring of the elementary rights of citizenship upon our fellow human beings who are banned by no fault of theirs. Until that cause conquers there can be nothing worthy to be called an Indian nation. Many missionary bodies are labouring strenuously in this cause, and I have not the least doubt that the right will ultimately prevail; but it is necessary, in India especially, to exercise infinite patience, and above all to be most careful not to create anatagonisms which may stimulate reaction.

Government Assistance
I turn to the specific requests which you have laid before me. While I sympathise fully with your objects, I do not think it possible for me to be patron of your Society at this stage, I regard a patron as somewhat in the position of a Director of a commercial undertaking with responsibilities, which in such a case as this I should not be able to discharge unless I were able to watch over your proceedings for which I have no time. I trust, as long as I remain in India, to be able to give you assistance from time to time; but more than this I cannot undertake.
You ask that Government should give you an annual grant-in-aid; but before this can be considered I suggest that you should forward a statement through the Director of Public Instruction defining the objects of your expenditure whether, for educational or other purposes. I need not remind you that the Municipal Corporation of Bombay is responsible for primary education in the city and you should look first to the Schools Committee for aid in this respect and let Government know what aid the Corporation, which is most anxious to develope primary schools, is able to provide. In the districts, the case is different and I can promise you that Government will give sympathetic consideration to an appeal for help for educational purposes as we do in the case of other bodies which do good work among the backward classes. I may remind you that it might not be proper for Government to give aid from public funds for some of the objects of your mission estimable as these objects may be.

Promise of Help
In regard to the question of scholarships, the grant-in-aid Code does not contemplate Government assistance to private efforts in this direction. In every district in the Presidency we give six scholarships for three years, two of which are reserved for the backward classes and in addition three High School scholarships are provided for four years, one of which is given to these classes. You will see, therefore, that we are already doing something in the direction in which you rightly wish to move. Now I do not desire to take a stand on the letter of the Code, and if you will send particulars of your scholarship fund, the rules you propose, and the names of the Trustees in whom it is vested we will consider your claims for help. You will I am sure agree that Government must be satisfied as to the conditions under which scholarships will be granted before being committed to expenditure. It is most important that there should be a supply of teachers for the depressed classes, and this in time may be obtained by the help of well bestowed scholarships. In this connection, I may say that I think your position would be strengthened if you register yourselves as an association and thus regularise your proceedings. My daughter was specially interested in the welfare of the depressed classes and I warmly appreciate and approve your kind thought of associating the scholarship fund with her name. I am quite sure it is what would have given her great pleasure if she had been spared.
School Facilities
Your request that Government should “issue instructions to the Educational Department to take special measures to facilitate the attendance of the depressed classes pupils" at the Government schools, raises more difficult questions. I must refer you to the recent Government letter to the Thana Branch of the Mission from which it will be seen that efforts are made to promote the attendance of these unhappy children. I do not think that more can be done to remove existinobstacles which Government deplore as you do. We are faced by stringent caste rules which operate to keep these classes in a state of perpetual depression, and it would be contrary to wise policy and most unlikely to further the progress we desire if we were to seek to override those rules. To bring about the social changes which are necessary to give to the depressed classes their rights as men and brothers must be the work of individuals and of Indians especially, not of Government. A very important part of the activity of your Society lies in this direction. If you can collect a band of earnest missionaries in this great cause, you will, in time, though perhaps a long time, remove the ban from the depressed classes and open to them the increasing number of primary schools in the presidency on terms of common humanity. At the same time if members of your Society will personally undertake the teaching of children of the depressed classes when opportunities arise, much good would result. Government cannot in all cases maintain separate schools for the children of the depressed classes, but such schools are provided already where the number ol such children is sufficiently large, and Government are considering whether further assistance with the view of promoting the establishment of special schools for low-caste children can be given. The last report shows that 18,349 pupils of these classes were under instruction, and there had been an addition of 1,200 since the previous year. These figures, though small, are not without encouragement. The annual report of the Director of Public Instruction contains about a page of information in regard to these questions. If you will state what further details you consider desirable an attempt will be made to supply them. I think that in some municipalities special provision is made for the education of the depressed classes; but your wish that more should be done will not be lost sight of.
And now, I hope that you will go away with a sense of encouargement. As your Society develops and its organization becomes more complete, I have no doubt, that Government will be able to assist you; but I attach special importance to the impression which you may be able to make upon Indian opinion which will certainly, in years to come, be willing to accord rights to the depressed classes. Education is a valuable means of imparting selfrespect and of enlarging the horizon of thought; but I hope you will not confine your efforts to literary education alone. The depressed classes already render most useful services to India; but the supply of handicraftsmen is inadequate, and it is important that they should acquire a sense of the dignity of all hand labour, and not be induced to regard clerical work as the ideal. I cordially wish success to your efforts to raise classes which claim our warmest sympathy and whose present depressed condition retards the progress of India.

APPENDIX D
No. 1577 of 1910
Educational Department,
Bombay Castle, 26th August 1910.
From,
L. ROBERTSON, Esq., I.C.S.,
(Secretary to Government)

To
THE SECRETARY, DEPRESSED CLASSES MISSION, THANA.

Sir,

1. I am directed to acknowledge the receipt of your letter dated 22nd December 1909, in which you make certain suggestions with the view of ameliorating the condition of the depressed classes.

2. In reply I am to say that it is a standing order of Government that schools maintained from Public Funds should be open to all classes without distinction of caste or creed and that all low caste pupils should be admitted free. Where the population of depressed classes is sufficiently large, special schools are maintained for them. These schools are placed in charge of such teachers as are likely by their caste and temperament to mix freely with, and create a taste for education in the depressed classes. Great difficulty is, however, experienced in securing teachers for such schools, and every endeavour is made to encourage promising low caste boys by scholarships and prizes to continue their study in order to qualify themselves as teachers. In places where the number of the low caste children is too small to justify the establishment of separate school houses for them, they are admitted to the ordinary school in accordance with the standing order mentioned above, but owing to caste prejudices they have to sit separate from other pupils outside, or in the Verandah of the school-building, and in such circumstances, the master is unable to give the low caste pupils the attention they require, even if he were willing to do so. This treatment must discourage the attendance of children of the depressed classes even although the payment of school fees is not demanded either in ordinary schools or in special schools maintained for them. No order of Government can alter this state of things which is due to caste prejudices and susceptibilities Officers of Government do all in their power to induce low caste children to attend schools, and in many instances they succeed in bringing a number of them to school, but discouraged by masters and villagers alike, the attendance in many cases soon ceases.

3. With reference to suggestion in paragraph 5 of your letter that fit low caste persons should be encouraged to take to Government service, and that a few peonships in each district and department should be reserved for them, I am to state that orders already exist for the due admixture of caste in Government service, and the Governor-in-Council does not consider it necessary to make pronouncement such as you desire.

4. As regards the suggestions in paragraph 6 that instructions should be issued to all Government servants to take an interest in the working of the Local Branches of Depressed Classes Mission, I am to state that the Governor-in-Council while fully sympathising with the objects of the Mission, does not consider that there is any need to issue any special instructions. Government officers, more especially European officers — are already alive to the necessity of raising the condition of depressed classes. The visitors books of Primary Schools throughout the Presidency testify abundantly to the interest which district officers take in the educational welfare of the low castes. Their attendance is generally a subject of special inquiry and comment. But in too many cases the influence of Government officers fails to make headway against the deadweight and traditional indifference. Government is considering whether special assistance may not be given with the view of promoting the establishment of special schools for Mahars and other low-castes.

5. In view of the difficulty of finding teachers for low caste pupils, I am to suggest that Members of the Mission might turn their attention to the practical side of the question and themselves set an example to others by devoting some part of their leisure to the good work of teaching a few classes among the untouchables.

6. I am also to suggest that, there is a wide field open to the activities of the Members of your Mission in endeavouring to change the traditional view of the untouchables taken by your fellow countrymen of the higher castes. It is not to be expected that a class which is habitually regarded with indifference and contempt by its neighbours will acquire the self-respect so necessary to progress.

7. I am to add that the Governor-in-Council trusts that in its educational efforts your Mission will not confine itself to purely literary work. In addition to the ordinary handicrafts in which a deficient supply of skilled workmen is a constant cause of complaint, there are other avocations, such as domestic service and sick nursing, for which the lower castes are peculiarly fitted.

In addition therefore to a purely literary training the Governor-in- Council trusts that you will endeavour to implant in your adherents a sense of the dignity of labour and the habits of probity, discipline and obedience which are essential to well ordered progress.

I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your most obedient servant,
(Sd.) L. ROBERTSON
(Secretary to Government)

True copy.
SUNTOJI RAMJI LAD
(Secretary and Treasurer)
-----------------
No. 2584 of 1910
Educational Department, Bombay Castle,
20th December 1910.

From
L. ROBERTSON, ESQ., I. C. S.,
(Secretary to Government)
To,
THE SECRETARY, DEPRESSED CLASSES MISSION, THANA.

Sir,
With reference to the latter part of paragraph 4 of my letter No. 1577 dated the 26th August 1910, I am directed to state for the information of your Mission that Government have instructed the District Local Boards to utilize a part of the new grants made to them in the current year for opening additional primary schools in providing facilities for the education of low caste children as far as possible.

2. In the Northern Division two low caste schools were opened last year, and it is expected that five more will be opened this year from the new grants made to the boards. In the Central Division six low caste schools and ten low caste classes were opened last year, and about seventeen more will be opened this year. In the Southern Division ten such schools and three classes were opened
year and tweleve are proposed to be opened this year. In the last year the total number of pupils belonging to the depressed classes increased from 18,349 to 22,062.

3. Having regard to the fact that the chief difficulty felt in connection with these schools is the provision of suitable teachers, Government are disposed to think that these figures represent creditable progress in this direction.

I have the honour to be Sir,
Your most obedient servant,
(Sd.) L. ROBERTSON
(Secretary to Government)

True copy.
SUNTOJI RAMJI LAD
(Secretary and Treasurer)

APPENDIX F

The 4th Anniversary of the D.C.M.
The celebrations of the fourth Anniversary of the D.C.M. began in accordance with the programme fixed by the Executive Committee, on Thursday the 16th of March 1911, the Death anniversary of St. Tukaram. A spacious pendal was erected opposite to the four Improvement Trust Chawls A, B, C, D at the Morland Road, Madanpura. Mr. K.A. Kelusker delivered a lecture on Tukaram, at which Mr. L. V. Kaikini of the Servants of India Society presided. The next evening, 17th inst. at 9 p.m. Mr. V. R. Shinde conducted divine service and preached a sermon on the hymn of Tukaram नाम मंत्र आहे सोपा। अविश्राम जाळी पापा।। On Saturday morning at 8.30 Mr. Shinde with a few boarders of the Parel School conducted Bhajan at the residence of Mr. Kondaji Ramji, President of the Somawanshiya Samaj. In the evening at 7 p.m. Mr. G. K. Devdhar, M. A., of the Servants of India Society delivered a lecture on St. Eknath in connection with the death anniversary of that saint and the Hon. Mr.S.D. Garud of Dhulia presided. At 10 p.m. the same evening Mrs. Baijabai of Saswad gave her first Kirtan. Mrs. Baijabai is the daughter of the well-known Kirtankar the late Mr. Dhondiba of the Chokhamela community (one of the depressed classes usually going about performing Kirtans i.e. musical services among the masses of the Maharashtra). This young and gifted lady who had already established her name in the districts easily drew by her sweet melodies thousands of men, women and children of the Depressed population residing in the surrounding chawls, who had till now remained unmoved by the invitations of the Mission with all its advertisements, notices and placards.

Sunday the 19th inst. was the anniversary of the Somawanshiya Mitra Samaj. Mr. Kondaji Ramji conducted a Service in the Pendal at 10 a.m. In the afternoon at 6 p.m. a crowded public meeting was held under the presidency of Sir N. G. Chandavarkar. Mr. F. T. Brooks and Mr. J. J. Vimadalal of the Theosophical Society addressed the meeting in English and Gujarati respectively and Mr. Shinde in Marathi. Mr. Kondaji Ramji explained briefly the movement of raising funds for a building of their Samaj. Sir Narayan then feelingly made a few observations of advice and encouragement in Marathi. The whole proceedings were quite appreciated by all the classes that had assembled and the meeting was altogether a great success. At 10 P. M. Mrs. Baijabai gave her second Kirtan which was listened to with rapt attention by more than 3,000 people. On Monday the 20th inst., was
celebrated the 1st anniversary of the Mahila Samaj i.e. Women's Meeting, under the presidency of Lady Laxmibai Chandavarkar. The platform was packed up with a number of ladies from the higher classes among whom were
Mrs. Jamnabai Sakkai, Mrs. M. R. Jayakar, Miss Kirtikar,
Mrs. Bowen, Mrs. and Miss Yande, Mrs. Thackur, Mrs. L. Ranaday. Sisters Janabai Shinde and Kalyani Sayad read reports of the work of the Nirashrit Sadan done respectively at Byculla and Parel. Mrs. Sakkai and Mrs. Yande then addressed the Meetings. Mrs. S. Vaidya and Miss T. Kelkar then gave some songs which were followed by short addresses by Mrs. Sakkai and Mrs. Yande in Gujarathi and Marathi respectively and by a short Kirtan by Mrs. Baijabai. The president’s speech concluded the proceedings.

On Tuesday the 21st inst. the pendal was packed up with guests when their Excellencies Sir George and Lady Clarke arrived a few minutes before 5-30 P. M. (S. T.). They were received at the gate by the Hon. Sir N. G. Chandavarkar and other members of the Executive Committee and escorted to the dais amid loud cheers. The proceedings began by a hymn of prayer and a song of welcome by the children of the Parel School.

Sir Narayen Chandavarkar, in a brief speech, welcomed their Excellencies. In feeling terms he alluded to the severe loss sustained by the Society by the sad and untimely death of Miss Clarke, whose help and sympathy with the Society were deeply appreciated. It was the greatest misfortune of the people of this Presidency to have lost their sincerest friend, who had their welfare at heart. She came among them as an angel and encouraged them in the advancement of the cause of this mission. They had learnt much from the example and life of His Excellency, who had in every manner tried to help them and elevate their lives. They knew that the sympathy and counsel which he so freely gave them emanated from his heart. When His Excellency retired from this country they would lose a true and sincere friend whose acts would redound not only to his credit but to the credit of Englishmen who were doing their best to uplift the depressed classes in this country.

The children then gave a dialogue and a recitation, the comical little farce of the School Inspection was particularly cheered by the audience. Mr. Shinde, the Secretary, then read the report, after which Her Excellency Lady Clarke gave away the prizes.
Governor’s Speech
PROSPECT OF REAL NATIONHOOD
His Excellency the Governor in addressing the assembly said Ladies and Gentlemen, — of the many and ever increasing movements which are stirring the minds of the people of India, none can be more important than that represented by the Depressed Classes Mission Society. There are some which might with advantage be abandoned it their activities could be turned in the direction in which this Society is striving to advance and it may well be that their objects would be more rapidly attained if they devoted themselves to the cause of the Depressed Classes. Does not that cause go to the very root of the social evils of India? What prospect of the raising of real nationhood can exist until those evils have been removed? It is unfortunately true that there are caste distinctions in Western countries; but no one can follow the progress of the last half century without being impressed by the fact that the feeling of brotherhood is steadily growing and that the sense of duties to and of responsibilities for the poor and the needy is visibily broadening and deepening. In India the conditions differ from those in all other countries because we have here nearly 60 millions of outcaste people — people not merely poor or unfortunate, but regarded and treated as beyond the pale by the castes above them. I will not attempt to analyse the causes which have led to this deplorable result, and have in the process of years, produced a physical repugnance to these classes and a belief that personal contamination follows from association with them. To a great extent the wrongs of the depressed classes arise from accretions upon ancient and purer faiths. The gospel of Buddha is clear like that of Christ. "Let him that has recognized the truth,” said the great Indian Reformer, “cultivate good-will without measure toward the whole world, above, below, around, unstinted, unmixed with any feeling of making distinctions or of showing preferences.” “Let us love one another; for love is of God" was the teaching of Christ.

Those words embody the great principle which the Depressed Classes Mission must strenuously seek to inculcate. Its object should be not only to elevate the depressed classes, but to change the attitude of mind which has caused them to be depressed, and thus to win back for them their inheritance as fellow human beings.

TYRANNOUS CUSTOMS
In one respect there has been advance in recent times. As Swami Vivekananda stated in a lecture given at Madras, “The days of exclusive privileges and exclusive claims are gone, gone for ever from the soil of India, and it is one of the great blessings of the British Rule." So much British rule could do for the depressed classes; but it cannot remove inherited dislikes or antagonisms nor can it secure sympathy, or abolish the social disabilities which tyrannous customs have imposed upon helpless people. Government, as I said at Poona in August last, “deeply feel their responsibilities towards the depressed classes and both our Revenue and our Educational Officers do much to ameliorate theirposition." My reply to your deputation was officially circulated with a request that the attention of Municipalities might be drawn to your plea for the provision of additional facilities for the education of these classes within Municipal limits. My dear daughter was deeply interested in these questions, and during her short life in India, as you know; she did all that she could to help your cause.

No one can follow the movement of thought in India without seeing that the cause of the Depressed classes is advancing. The existence of this Society and the endeavours which it is making are plain proofs of progress. It is an Indian Society working for Indians, and we may feel sure that it is helping indirectly to mould opinion and thus to produce effects which cannot be calculated in figures, or embodied in reports.

A DOUBLE MISSION
As I have said it has a double mission to accomplish — to educate public opinion and to arouse sympathy for the wrongs of the depressed classes on the one hand, and to promote the education of these classes on the other hand. My great predecessor Mountstuart Elphinstone felt some reluctance in undertaking the education of these classes, not that he thought it undesirable or unnecessary, but because as he wrote in a remarkable minute dated March 1824 : ‘They are not only the most despised, but among the least numerous of the great divisions of Society, and it is to be feared that if our system of education first took root among them, it would never spread further, and that we might find ourselves at the head of a new class superior to the rest in useful knowledge, but hated and despised by the castes to whom their new attainments would always induce us to prefer them.” That was the view of a great statesman-Governor just 87 years ago in the circumstances with which he was confronted. If, he argued, we educate the depressed classes, we shall bring education itself into disrepute. How great a change has passed over India since those days. Then it was thought that the people must be constantly led into the paths of Western learning, the greatest care being taken lest their susceptibilities should be aroused. Now we are faced by a loud demand for the extension of education at any cost and with far too little regard for its quality and suitability to the needs of the people. Now also we see a growing desire, of which this Society is a striking proof, that the depressed classes should have their full share.

MEMORIAL TO MISS CLARKE
The fourth annual report shows steady progress. The Society now controls five schools, four in Bombay and one in Poona, and work is going on at the affiliated centres which will bear fruit in due season. I cannot here enter into the details of the report which should be carefully read by all who are interested in your great cause; but I must no the establishment of a permanent scholarship fund as a memorial to my daughter. That is a step which would have glanddened her heart, it she had been spared, and I am sure that it will provide help and encouragement to the neglected children in whose welfare she was deeply interested. It is clear that if more funds were available you could greatly extend this branch of your activity; but I think that you are very wise in directing your “principal attempts patiently towards educating the public opinion of the higher classes as well as to work up the depressed classes to a sense of their own duties in this respect.” As you know the Government schools are open to all alike without distinction but the children of the depressed classes are too often prevented by that tyranny of custom to which I have referred from reaping the benefits of those schools. Wherever these children are relegated to the verandah, or sit in a place apart and neglected by the teachers, they cannot be expected to progress. Nor can their parents desire to send them to places where they are treated with injustice and disdain. Government maintains special schools in some cases for these poor children; but we cannot duplicate primary education all over the Presidency. Nor is this desirable; because it does not touch the root evil and it helps to perpetuate the cruel customs which must be broken down if India is to advance towards nationhood. Your report tells me that already public meetings can be held at which “the untouchables may freely mix with the higher classes and take their seats openly and on relations of equality and mutual respect.” Nothing can be more encouraging than this, and your Society is to be warmly congratulated on the new possibilities which such a change holds out. The more meetings of this character cart be held, the sooner will be the attainment of the great object which we have at heart. Friendly contact of this kind will dispel prejudices and inspire a sense of brotherhood. The higher castes have nothing to lose by kindliness to the untouchables and must themselves benefit from their recognition of the claims of our common humanity. The untouchables must gain in self-respect which will powerfully assist in promoting their advancement.

Returning for a moment to the progress of education, I note in the report of the Director of Public Instruction that the total number of pupils from the depressed classes in our schools increased by 3,713 in the last year under review, that there are 21 Mahar teachers and one Chambhar teacher in the Poona district, that the Pandharpur School is under a trained Mahar, that in Bombay a Chambhar boy passed the Vernacular final examination for the first time in the history of the city, and that the Inspector was struck by the advance made by the local and Municipal Boards in providing for the needs of these classes. I hope these facts will seem encouraging to you, as they do to me. I trust that you will work on with the certainty that results are already forthcoming and will rapidly multiply as the years pass. India has need of the loving service — time, thought and pains given to others — which is far more common in other countries than here. It is such service that you require and that would be more valuable to you than increased of funds. As I pointed out to the students of the Fergusson College it is open to them to assist in your missionary work, and in Bombay also there are many people who could spare time, to teach evening classes, or at least to help your cause by inculcating, and practising kindliness to the depressed stratum of the Hindu community.

MESSAGE OF SYMPATHY
I have now only to say that my wife and I have come here to try and to give help and encouragement to the important movement which you represent. Lady Clarke has already given away many prizes since she came to India, but none with greater pleasure than those which she has distributed this evening. We were both deeply touched by the beautiful message of sympathy and good wishes sent to us from the public meeting of women of the depressed classes of Bombay presided over by Mrs. Yashodabai Thakur on the occasion of our marriage. That message etablished a link between us and them which cannot be broken, and while we are privileged to live among you, we shall always take a living interest in the work of a Society which holds out the promise of an India in which there shall be no untouchable classes and universal sympathy based on the recognitions of the brotherhood of humanity and shall everywhere prevail. (Applause.)

A vote of thanks to Their Excellencies was accorded on the motion of Prof. Bhandarkar in English, seconded by
Mr. Kondaji Ramji and supported by Mrs. Ranade, in Marathi. The proceedings then terminated after a song of thanks from the Children and three enthusiastic cheers from the audience to Their Excellencies.

At 10 P.M., Mrs. Baijabai gave her last and most stirring Kirtan. By this time nearly every man and woman of the Mahar and Chambhar caste in Bombay had heard about her powers of Speech and song. Before 10 o’clock nearly 5,000 people from the docks and factories of whom no less than 3,000 must have been women with babes dozing in their arms had scraped themselves some how into the Pendal. Thousands had then to be sent away for want of space which naturally caused a great commotion. But Mrs. Baijabai, who was the woman of the day, commanded the vast and rowdy audience and kept it spell bound for three hours till 1 A. M. and thus concluded this years celebrations. The best thanks of the Mission are therefore rightfully due to Mrs. Baijabai who so effectively sent home the message of the Mission to the Masses for whom it was so long working. What is most encouraging, Mrs. Baijabai herself discovered her own place in the noble work of the Mission and readily promised to visit Bombay every timeof the Mission anniversary and do her part in ministering to her poor lellow-beings.

APPENDIX A TO

APPENDIX A

THE DEPRESSED CLASSES MISSION SOCIETY
Middle School, Parel

(REPORT FOR THE YEAR 1908)

Situation — This School was originally opened at Parel, in the Morarji Walji’s Bungalow near the Elphinstone Road Station, on October 18th, 1906, in the interest of the children of the depressed classes. It was thence transferred first to a chawl near the Globe Mill and afterwards to its present habitation opposite the Elphinstone Road station in November 1907.

Admissions & c — The school opened in January 1908 with 123 pupils on the roll of whom 18 were girls. In the course of the year no fewer than 335 new admissions were made, thus bringing the total on the register to 458. Of these 294 left the school, leaving thus 164 pupils on roll on the 31st December 1908. Of this number 65 belong to the touchable and higher classes and 99 to the depressed ones. The number of girls on roll at the end of the year was 23. The average daily attendance for the whole year was 101.

4. Range of Education given — In last June English was begun to be taught in the school, thus making it a middle school teaching up to English Fourth Standard. Besides the education imparted in the usual subjects of the curriculum of studies the school teaches book binding, to the advanced pupils; Sewing is taught to girls and drawing is a compulsory subject in the upper standards. Physical education is carefully attended to, provision being made for drill and cricket, in both of which the students take active interest. I have to express my sincere thanks in this connection to Mr. Madhav Ramji Khedekar and Mr. Ambaji Marayya for the honorary service they render in teaching drill to all the Classes of the School.

5. The Annual Transference Examination of the School was held just before the Divali holidays, in October. Altogether 147 pupils were Presented for the examination. Of them 119 passed under all heads.

The examination was conducted by Mr. Moro Prabhakar Khare, Head Master of Municipal School at Worlee with the help of his Assistants. To all of them I beg to express my sincere thanks.

6. The annual Inspection — Mr. H. S. Sukthankar, Assistant Deputy Inspector of Marathi Schools, Bombay, held the annual inspection on 19th November. He expressed his satisfaction with the work, discipline and tone of the school. I quote below extracts from his report. The grant in aid received by the school in 1907 was Rs. 138. The amount was increased last year to 185 which is nearly the maximum obtainable under Chapter III. Application for transferring the school for registration as primary from an indigenous one has been made and we may expect to secure more grant next year. Mr. Sukthankar’s report referred to above is as under :—

"The school teaches Joint Schools Committee’s standards. St. IV did fairly well on the whole. The work of St. III was on the whole good. The dictation of St. II was fair and copybooks very fair, while arithmetic and vernacular were good. The results of St. I were on the whole fairly satisfactory. The Infant class has on the whole been fairly well trained... Book binding, needle work and embroidery work have been lately introduced in this school and the work done by the pupils was satisfactory... Discipline and conduct of students : Good. The teaching staff is sufficient and fairly competent. Supervision... Good.”

7. Religious and moral instruction is a special feature of this school. Instruction of a systematic character in the Theistic faith of worship is imparted and morality is taught by means of simple stories which the children love being told. Every day, before the regular work commences, the children are assembled together and are taught to recite a hymn from the Sulabh Sangit specially prepared for their use.

8. Visitors to the School — Among those who visited the school during the year under report and thus showed their practical interest in its work were Lala Lajpatrai of Lahore, Dr. R. G. Bhandarkar, Mrs. Ramabai Ranade, Mr. G. K. Deodhar of the Servants of India Society, Prof. Mallik of Bankipore, Mr. G. D. Madgavkar, B.A., I.C.S. Sessions Judge, Broach, Mrs. Manekbai Bahadurji, Mrs. Laxmibai Ranade, Prof. V. P. Dalai, M.A., B.Sc. of the Elphinstone College, Mr. H. Stanley Reed, Editor, Times of India and a large number of ladies and gentlemen. The children of the school are deeply grateful to Mrs. Ramabai Ranade, Mr. H. Stanley Reed and R.B.A.R. Talcherkar who were kind enough to distribute sweetmeats to them. I beg also to express my sincere gratitude to all these and other visitors for visiting the school and encouraging the pupils and the staff in their work.

Special provision — In this school provision is made for bathing and washing. The children in our school come from the dirtiest quarters of the town and have absolutely no notions of cleanliness and hygiene. The dirty children are bathed in the school and they are also made to     wash their clothes. Soap is supplied to them in plenty and they are made to realise practically the advantages of a life of cleanliness and neatness. Every attempt is made to discourage slovenly habits and to imbue the little children with the idea that cleanliness is a virtue which is worth practising. The result of this practice are visible in the tidiness observed in the pupils whose dress and habits are in marked contrast with those of other children who have not been yet brought under the influence of the school.

What the School has done and what It wants to do — The Parel School has been in existence now for over two years. During this time no fewer than 400 pupils of the depressed classes have come under its influence and about 300 of them have left the institution after acquiring a smattering however little, of the three Rs. The School staff has attempted without exception to throw as much light of useful knowledge into the lives of these little ones. They have been shown the value of clean and moral living and have been taught to regard life as a precious gift from God and not a thing to be despised and wasted. All that we have done for the poor children is, we are aware, only a very small part of what could and ought to be done for them. More indeed could be done for the improvement of their future life and prospects, but the pity is, they do not stay with us long enough. If they did so, what we desire to do is to train them so, as to completely wipe off the stigma of low-caste life attaching to them. The object which the School wants to achieve is to put the low-caste children on an equal footing with those of the higher classes. With careful and regular training, with education in hygiene, morality and religion we hope to achieve it. We thank God for His help in the discharge of our duty to the depressed classes and we pray to Him to be with us in the year just begun and to enable us to perform our work with love and humility.
V. S. SOHONI
(Hd. Master, Parel School)

APPENDIX B

REPORT OF THE
Deonar Kachrapatti Day School
(FOR THE YEAR 1908)

This school was opened on the 1st of November 1907. It is situated close to the chawls for the depressed classes labourers employed in connection with the removal of the refuse of the city of Bombay to Deonar near Chimbur two miles away from the Ry. Station, Kurla.

The School meets in a thatched cottage erected by our philanthropic citizen Mr. Haji Yusaf Haji Ismail, who was kind enough to pay all its expenses and also to distribute clothes to the children of the school. But for this help of Mr. Haji Yusaf, the work of the school would have been seriously hampered for want of proper accommodation. Our best thanks are therefore due to Sheth Haji Yusaf as well as to Mr. S. M. Edwards I.C.S. the then Municipal Commissioner for having enabled us to start this School.

During the year under report 110 boys and 5 girls were admitted into the School of whom 109 belonged to the Depressed classes. The pupils are all drawn from the children of labourers belonging to the Kachrapatty. The average daily attendance was 25.

Application has been made to the Inspector of schools, Thana District, for the registration of the school for grant-in-aid. In response to it, the Inspector Mr. R. G. Apte, B.A. visited the school and was pleased with all he saw. He has promised to recommend the application for grant.

In connection with this school, special mention must be made of the name of Mr. Amritlal V. Thakar, L.C.E. who first drew the attention of the Committee of the Mission to the need of a School, felt for a long time by the low caste labourers at Deonar Kachrapatti and who helped the Committee both pecuniarily and otherwise in establishing School. He still takes a very keen of interest in its working and management and renders all possible aid to the Mission in general and the Master in charge of the school, to make it an institution of real use to the children of the depressed classes. The flourishing condition of the school is in itself an indication of Mr. Amritlal's interest in it.
V. S. SOHONI
(Inspector of Society's Schools)

APPENDIX C

REPORT OF THE
Agripada Day School
(FOR THE YEAR 1908)

Situation — The Agripada Vernacular School was opened on the 1st of June 1908 in the Dagdi Chawl near the Byculla Club, Agripada. Subsequently as the number of pupils increased it was removed to the Improvement Trust Chawl C. This and the adjoining chawls are tenanted by the low classes and the transfer of the School therefore has resulted in supplying a long-felt want of these people.

Attendance & c. — The school was opened in June with about two dozen children, but the number increased so rapidly that in about two months it reached the figure of 70. After initial outface to Agripada the admissions showed a steady increase and by the end of December the total number on roll stood at 114. In all 292 pupils were admitted during the seven months from June to December while 178 left the School leaving 114 on roll as mentioned above. The average daily attendance was 54. Of the 292 admissions only one was a Maratha, the rest being depressed classes children.

The annual Transference Examination of the School was held in December before the Christmas holidays with results which speak for themselves.
                                                          St. II     St. I     Infant class
Children presented for Examination      7          16            41
Children passed the Examination          7         16            34

Sunday Moral Class — This Class met during the months the school was open on every Sunday morning. It was conducted by V. S. Sohoni. The average attendance of this class was 32.

The school has been registered by the Joint Schools Committee for grant in-aid under Chapter III of the Code and we may expect to receive a grant next year.
V. S. Sohoni
(Inspector of Society's Schools)

APPENDIX D

THE DEPRESSED CLASSES MISSION

Charitable Dispensary
(From 12th November 1906 to 31st December 1908)

There is no charitable dispensary within an area of one mile around the Mission house, except one private dispensary and one Hakim. If there be any dispensaries in some of the mills, they provide medicines only to those millhands, who attend work and not to their families. Nearly all our patients belong to the backward and depressed classes, whose habits are very dirty and who do not show any inclination to take medicines at the right time. The large number of injuries which are received by workmen from irons & c. and the consequent ulcers might be easily cured if properly attended to at once. But the poor people neglect the wounds which sometimes develop into worst types of gangrene. The many diseases of malarial fever and of stomach affections are due to the low level and defective drainage at Parel. Large quantities of water accumulate in several wide areas and remain stagnant. The mud slowly dries throughout the rainy season, gives a most offensive smell and also breeds a tremendous crops of mosquitos which are the constant source of malaria. Visits to the houses of the poor people benefit them very much. Furniture, instruments and the services of a good compounder are badly needed.

Since the establishment of the Municipal Dispensary in the locality the number of attendance of the patients have gone down and my health also at present being not in a good state. I have at present temporarily discontinued attending; but if arrangements be made to provide the necessary funds, I shall offer my services free as before with the greatest Pleasure.

STATEMENTS OF PATIENTS TREATED
(DISEASES TREATED)
Table 1(To see the tables click here)

The above statement will, I hope, convince the reader of the necessity of such a dispensary for these people and also enlist the sympathy of the owners of the several mills and railways whose employees are so much benefitted by the many activities of the Mission.

From the expenses it will be seen that the Dispensary has been conducted with the utmost frugality. To make it efficient a permanent annual income of five hundred rupees is required necessarily.

Friends of the poor are earnestly solicited to make up the Annual Rs. 500.
SANTOOJI RAMJI LAUD,
(Rd.) Hospital Assistant,
Bombay Med. Est.

Bombay Rd.

Thana

THE APPENDIX E
REPORT OF THE
Nirashrit Sewa Sadan D. C. M.
(For the 20 months from May 1907 to 31st December 1908)

History — The depressed classes Mission was started in Bombay on the 18th Oct. 1906 with the object of elevating the low caste people by (1) promoting education (2) providing work (3) removing social disabilities and (4) by preaching to them the ideals of the Universal religion, personal character and good citizenship. Till the establishment of the above mentioned Sadan the last three objects of the mission could not be effectively carried out.

With the experience of the first six months’ work the Secretary of the Mission found that the objects of the Mission could not be fulfilled unless there was a body of self sacrificing persons who would wholly devote themselves to the mission under the discipline of a proper guide. Fortunately however the Secretary was soon enabled by the help of a generous philanthrophist who promised one hundred rupees, every month towards the expense of the workers, to secure two educated young ladies and two gentlemen all devoted to the Mission.

With these four as Missionaries the institution called the "Nirashrit Sewa Sadan” The Depressed Classes Mission Home was started on the 22nd May 1907. It is now lodged in a building which contains the Mission School opposite to the Elphinstone Road Station B. B. & C.I.Ry. Two more ladies have joined the Sadan since and are being trained there for the Mission work.

Objects — (1) The object of the Sadan is to train such of the high caste young persons as may be found disposed to devote themselves to some useful and charitable work among the neglected classes " specially unmarried young ladies and homeless widows.

(2) To maintain and provide work for such devoted people, after being trained in the Sadan, in connection with the Depressed Classes Mission or similar benevolent activities for the poor.

Work — Schools — The increasing number of the Depressed Classes Mission Schools in Bombay and Poona is due to the work of the Sadan.

The spiritual side of the Mission Schools is looked after by the Sadan. In all the Day Schools of the Mission the Sunday classes are held regularly every Sunday Morning. The average attendance of the children in the Sunday School at Parel which is conducted by Mr. V. R. Shinde and Mrs. Janabai Shinde, is about 50. Some selected hymns from the Prarthana Sangit are taught to the pupils and explained and lives of saints are read to them. Book binding is taught to the boys in the Parel School by Mr. Sayad Abdul Kadir. A sewing class is organized in which sewing and embroidery is taught. Some poor women of the low caste people and the girls in the School attend this class. Clothes and caps are made and sold. The profit realized in this work is given to the poor women who attend the class. The sewing class has received one knitting machine as a present from Harison Patent Co. of Manchester and a sewing machine from Mrs. Bahadurji and Mrs. Rao.

The Bhajan Samaj — There are meetings held on Saturdays in which lectures on Moral and Social subjects are delivered, Keertans performed and readings given from the works of marathi Saints. On the 19th January 1908 a Bhajan Samaj was started in the Sadan. Every Sunday evening are held Bhajan and Divine service in the Bhajan Samaj. Many Boys from Day school and Night school at Parel and many people living in the neighbourhood attend the Divine services, regularly. On holidays, special meetings and social gatherings of men and women are held in which light refreshments are served. During the period under report there were held 9 lectures, 4 keertans, 5 Bhaktivijaya readings, 5 social gatherings and regular weekly Divine Services.

Excursions — On the opening day of the Bhajan-Samaj some boys from the Parel day school and all the boys from the Deonar school were taken to the Victoria gardens and light refreshment was given to them there. On the last Tabut day a large number of the students of the night schools were taken to the Elephanta caves at Gharapuri. They took with them their tiffin and there was a very happy Preetibhojan.

Collection of clothes — More than 1500 clothes, old and new, were collected and distributed among the needy. The clothes prepared in the Mission sewing class are also distributed among the poor and deserving boys of the schools of the Mission.

Saturday and Sunday Baths — In order that the children should acquire the habit of cleanliness the Missionaries give them Saturday and Sunday baths. Though there were many difficulties raised by the parents of the boys in connection with these baths still they were continued as long as necessary and they proved very effective.

Home Visits — Members of the Sadan visit the homes of these miserable people. They give them moral and religious talks and persuade them to send their children to school. Particular attention is paid to create and encourage the habit of cleanliness among them and to improve their domestic habits. Mrs. Venubai who is trained as a midwife in the Ayurvidyalaya pays sick visits where they are needed.

Boarders — There were three boarders in the Sadan. One was studying in the Wilson High School and the other in the St. Xaviour College. The third was a rescued waif. The first one went to his native place on account of ill health and the second has now joined the Furgusson College.

Moffusil Work — The Secretary of the Mission on his missionary tour visited Poona where he realised the necessity of social and religious work among the depressed classes of that place and soon succeeded in starting a Bhajan Samaj there. A Sunday class also is held every Sunday morning and a free library has been opened. Mr. Sayad in his last tour visited the low caste school at Jamkhandi, Gokak, Kolhapur and Poona.
SAYYAD ABDUL KADIR
(Manager)
Nirashrit Sewa Sadan,
Elphistone Rd., Bombay

APPENDIX F
REPORT OF THE
Somawanshiya Mitra Samaj, Byculla
(FOR THE YEAR 1908)

Under the auspices of the Depressed Classes Mission this Samaj was started on the 24th of March 1907.

The objects are — (1) To promote moral and religious reform among the Depressed Classes so that they will elevate themselves from their degraded condition.

(2) To promote the spread of education among these communities by inducing the parents to send their children to school.

Rules —
(1) Every member should attend the weekly divine service and sermon.
(2) He should abstain from all intoxicants.
(3) All should treat one another as brothers.
(4) No member should bear any malice or hatred or show any disrespect to any religion or caste.
(5) No smoking or chewing or any such other ungentlemanly conduct shall be allowed during any meeting.
(6) No speech in any meeting shall be made in a taunting or insulting spirit.
(7) Persons    intending to be members shall apply to the president and be admitted by a vote of the majority.

The Samaj first used to meet in the Dagadi chawl, Morland Road, Byculla. After the opening of D. C. Mission School in the Improvement Trust Chawl No. 3, the Samaj began to hold its weekly and other meeting in one of the school rooms by permission. Till 31st December 1908 there were about 70 members. During the year 1908 there were 52 weekly meetings at which the leading members of the Samaj preached by turns. Mr. V. R. Shinde was occasionally invited to visit the Samaj when he preached at these meetings and made several suggestions as to the progress of the body. The attendance at these ordinary meetings was from 25 to 50.

Public meetings — On the 4th October 1908, public meeting was held under the presidentship of the Hon’ble Mr. Justice Chandavarkar when two of the members of the Samaj spoke in support of the resolution thanking H. E. the Governor and Miss Clarke for their sympathy to the Mission. A fortnight afterwards another public meeting was invited by one of the members Mr. Appaji S. Pawar, when Mr. V. R. Shinde, presided and four of the members of this Samaj addressed the audience which mustered about 400 strong, on education, social reform, temperance and religious reform. The members of this Samaj also attend the Divine Services in the Prarthana Samaj Girgaum and the Monthly Social Gatherings of all the Hindu Clubs newly organized by the Social Reform Association of Bombay.
KONDAJI RAMJI MASTER
(President)
Khadda, Nesbit Rd.,
Mazgaon, Bombay.

APPENDIX G
DEPRESSED CLASSES MISSION SOCIETY OF INDIA
POONA BRANCH
(Incorporated)

First Half-yearly Report
(June 1908 — December 1908)

It was about the month of April 1908 that owing to an earnest appeal from some of the leading men of the Mahar community of Poona Cantonment that Mr. V. R. Shinde, B.A., General Secretary of the Depressed Classes Mission Society of India, had, after a visit of inspection to the intended centre of Mission work, to think seriously of opening a branch of the above Mission in Poona and place me, in spite of my unworthiness and inability, in charge of it. But the inevitable problem of funds scared him away for two months from setting his hands to the plough. However, Mr. Shinde’s assistant Mr. Sayyad Abdul Kadir, came down from Bombay after the former’s return, and through sheer Perseverance by means of which he was able to secure promises of support and sympathy, opened, on 22nd June, a Day School with a few pupils in a rented upper story of a Marwari’s house in Centre Street of Poona Camp in the midst of the low-caste population. There was no school room furniture at all. A table and a chair were lent by the low caste men. The pupils sat on the floor. All the same a beginning was made. More pupils came in as days passed on; and in July when the School got into some shape, nearly a hundred names were on the roll. Of course, this rapid influx of school children was not steady and many who came in to experience a novelty soon fell off. So, to begin with, we employed only one teacher Mr. Ningappa Shankar Aidale a mahar from Pandharpur where he was a Municipal School Teacher. He was engaged on Rs. 10 a month and he took charge of all the pupils in the School. Mr. Sayad took advantage of the newly created enthusiasm among the people, and before leaving Poona, opened a Night School and a Reading Room also in the same place.

The whole business and subscriptions amounting to Rs. 10 per mensem only were entrusted to me, and Mr. Sayyad returned to Bombay. I had, therefore, to first look for the sinews of war — the wherewithal needed to continue the work. Personal appeals, and appeals through correspondence and in newspapers for pecuniary aid, resulted in my obtaining Rs. 177 in the month of July, Rs. 100 was the generous donation of Mr. H. A. Wadia, Bar-at-law, and Rs. 30 each was from W. T. Morison, Esq., I.C.S., Commissioner of Poona, and Prof. E. A. Wodehouse, M.A., of the Deccan College. With this amount I was able to purchase some school-room furniture, tables, chairs, benches and black-boards. In the middle of July Mr. A. V. Gurjar, a Brahman Matriculate who was an Assistant in the Parel Day School of the Bombay Mission, was sent as Head Master of the Poona Camp Day School on Rs. 15 per month. The monthly expenses now came up to nearly Rs. 50. No school fees were or are charged.

In my desperate efforts to obtain funds, I ventured to approach His Excellency Sir George Clarke, the Governor of Bombay, through a letter dated 19th July 1908. To my great delight and surprise, after the lapse of a few days during which His Excellency seems to have been instituting enquiries into the facts and persons connected with the Mission, I received the following communication dated 12-8-08 from the Private Secretary to His Excellency :—

“Sir,

With reference to your letter of the 19th ultimo, I am desired to inform you that H. E. the Governor considers that your Mission is worthy of support, and he wishes it all success.

As regards a subscription I am to inform you that H. E. has permitted Miss Clarke to get up a Concert next month in aid of the funds of your Mission and it is hoped that a considerable surplus should be available for the purpose.”....

This communication was a source of no small encouragement to all the people connected with the Mission work at Bombay and other places. Nothing shall stand as prominent in the early annals of the Poona Branch as the great impetus given to it by the part played by the Head of the Bombay Presidency in permitting his daughter to organize a charitable Concert to aid its work. The Grand Orchestral Concert came off in the month of September when Poona was in season and when the station was full of visitors. Being under the kind patronage of H. E. the Governor, Major-General Alderson C. B., Commanding Poona Division, and the Maharajas of Baroda and Kolhapur, it proved nothing short of a great success in every way. The net income of the event was Rs. 3467-13-6 which was handed over to the President of the Head Society at Bombay. The value of the Concert lies not only in the substantial addition it brought to the funds of the Society but also the fact that the work of the Society has been brought prominently before the public by the Ruler of this Presidency and his benevolent daughter taking a sincere interest in its success, and by their also bringing it within the scope of the practical sympathy of some of the Maharajas and Chiefs of this Presidency. For among those whose contributions to her Concert were acknowledged by Miss Clarke were :-
H. H. The Maharaja Gaikawad of Baroda - Rs. 500
H. H. The Aga Khan - Rs. 500
H. H. The Maharaja of Kolhapur - Rs. 200
H. H. The Chief of Bhor - Rs. 200
H. H. The Thakore Saheb of Amod - Rs. 100
H. H. The Thakore Saheb of Kerwada - Rs. 100
H. H. The Nawab of Sachin - Rs. 103
The Chief of Ichalkaranji  - Rs. 25
The Chief of Dharampur - Rs. 10

Soon after the Concert Mr. V. R. Shinde, visited Poona and organized a public meeting of the Depressed Classes of Poona and the surrounding villages, in which a Resolution was passed thanking H. E. the Governor, and Miss Clarke for the practical sympathy evinced by them in the humble work of ameliorating the down-trodden condition of those classes. It was also resolved at that meeting "to set apart the proceeds of the Concert as the nucleus of a fund for the purpose of erecting buildings now so very necessary for the promotion of the objects of the Mission, to be styled, if permitted, 'Miss Clarke Memorial Buildings,' (The permission has since been graciously granted).

In the months of August, September and October, I was fortunate in the pecuniary help I received—at least it was encouraging enough to make me think of giving a permanent shape to the work of the Poona Branch. In addition to some subscriptions and minor donations, Sir Jacob Sassoon bestowed Rs. 500 upon it, the Chief of Mudhol sent Rs. 100 through Dr. R. G. Bhandarkar, and Sardar Nowroji Padumji, Mr. Bomanji Dinshaw Petit and the Hon. Mr. R. A. Lamb contributed Rs. 50 each.

On 1st September, the Poona Prarthana Samaj Night Schools, two in number, which were started by Mr. V. R. Shinde in this City in 1905 and of which I was the Secretary were at my request transferred to the Poona Branch of the Depressed Classes Mission Society, the Poona Prarthana Samaj resolving to pay Rs. 4 a month towards the maintenance of those Schools. One of those Night Schools which was situated in Budhwar Peth and was attended by poor Maratha day-labourers has since been removed to Mangalwar Peth where it is attended exclusively by low-caste men.

In the same month i.e. in September, at the formal invitation of the Central Committee at Bombay, the following gentlemen accepted the following Honorary offices :—

Hon. Dr. F. G. Selby, M.A., L.L. D„ C.I.E. - (President)
Mr. A. K. Mudliar, B. A. - (Secretary)
Mr. Arjun B. Mudliar - (Treasurer)

The Institutions now under the management of the Poona Branch are :—
The Camp Day School.
The Camp Night School.
The Camp Reading Room.
The Ganj Peth Night School.
The Mangalwar Peth Night School.

In connection with the Institutions in the Camp, a Sunday Class is conducted with as many children as willingly attend, and, whenever convenience permits, a Bhajan (Musical Service) is conducted on Saturday nights for adult males by Mr. L. M. Satoor of Kirkee.

In October while plague was at its height, Mr. G. K. Deodhar, Secretary of the Poona Plague Relief Committee, organized illustrative lectures in the vernacular on inoculation for the benefit of the poor and ignorant people of  the low-caste community in the Camp Day School and in the Ganj Peth and Mangalwar Peth Night Schools. Also the Camp Day School had a conversational Class on “Cleanliness” one afternoon with Mr. G. K. Deodhar, M. A. of the Servants of India Society. It was unfortunate that the surprise visit of Mr. W. T. Morison, the Commissioner, and Mr. G. Carmichael the Collector, of Poona to the Camp Day School should have fallen on a day when the School was closed on account of plague.

With regard to the teaching staff, educated men among the Depressed Classes fit to do the teaching work are very rare, and Brahmans and high caste men are loath to teach low-caste schools especially in Poona. Still, during the period under report we have not been lacking in teachers. I stated above that Mr. A. V. Gurjar, a Brahman teacher in the Parel School, Bombay, was sent here as Head Master of the Camp Day School.

He had to be relieved of his services in September and in his place another Brahman Matriculate, Mr. G. N. Babras was appointed. This gentleman, during the plague days of October, took ill one afternoon in the school and went on leave to his native place and has not been since heard of.

All the institutions were closed in the month of October on account of plague and were not reopened within the period of this report except the Camp Day School which was reopened on 1st December and soon after located in Sachapir Street in a bungalow costing Rs. 30 a month.

A few statistics may be given in connection with the Camp Day School. As the Camp Night School worked tentatively only for three months, and as the Night Schools in the City had to be closed on account of plague very soon after they were taken charge of, statistics in connection with those Schools are not given.

POONA CAMP DAY SCHOOL

Total No. of Admissions - 161
Average No. of Pupils on the Roll - 89
Average Daily Attendance - 47

Classification of Pupils according to Standards    :—

Infant Class - 73
I Standard - 22
II Standard - 7
III Standard - 3
Total No. of Pupils on the Roll in Dec. 1908 - 105

Classification of the above according to castes    :—

Mahars - 104
Dhangar - 1
Total - 105

A Statement of Receipts and Expenditure and lists of Donors and Subscribers as well as teachers in the schools are appended.

Thus in brief is the Report for a short period of work. It is an account of the beginning of a hitherto totally neglected piece of national work in the centre of orthodoxy in the Deccan. But it does not give any idea of the difficulties we had to undergo and the anxieties we constantly feel on the score of finances. Consecrated lives are needed for this labour of love and righteousness and the work in Poona is entrusted to one who regrets that owing to his private vocation and his private circumstances, he is not able to devote that amount of energy and time which is needed for the achievement of some of the objects of the Mission. Still he hopes, that with co-operation and sympathy from friends will be able to accomplish something in the new year 1909; and he will consider his work abundantly blessed if as many of the patriotic citizens of Poona as possible will encourage him with counsel and money. The scope — the field-for labour is large. The labourers are few and the funds are less. Primary education is not the whole and sole object of the work undertaken. But humble activities for the social and moral elevation of the depressed classes form a more important part of our programme. And if only the hearts of the people can be moved to help us with their mite, we will be enabled to give effect to some of our objects.

To those who feel like sympathising with us the invitation is freely given to visit the centres of our work in the Camp and in the City of Poona. They also who so much as care to come and see what we do will be co-workers in our cause.

With this report goes a deep sense of gratitude to all those generous hearts who thought our work worthy of their sympathy and support.
A. K. MUDLIAR
(Hon. Secretary)
Vithal Cottage,    
Raste's Peth,    
Poona City. 20-2-09.

DEPRESSED CLASSES MISSION SOCIETY OF INDIA — Poona Branch
THE STAFF OF TEACHERS - POONA SCHOOLS
DEPRESSED CLASSES MISSION SOCIETY OF INDIA - Poona Branch

List of Donors - 1908
Table 2 - (For see the all pdf files click here)

APPENDIX H

A REPORT OF THE DEPRESSED CLASSES MISSION

Manmad Branch
(Affiliated)
From its opening on 11th May 1907 — to 31st December, 1908

The general Secretary of the Mission visited Manmad, delivered in Marathi a lecture on “Our duty to the Depressed Classes" and opened a Night School on the 11th of May 1907.

The total number of pupils on the roll is, at present 34, the average attendance being 28.

The pupils are classified according to their castes as under.
Mahar -                24
Mang -                  3
Khatic -                 3
Chambar -              2
Mahrata -               2
Total -                  34

MINOR INSTITUTIONS

Bathing — The teachers in charge of the school take all their pupils, every Wednesday and Saturday to the local river where the latter bathe, wash and swim. The institution has effected such a marvellous change in the external appearance of the students that many people are astonished at first to find them so unexpectedly clean and joyful.

Exercises — Atyapatya and Khokho Clubs have been opened. Students as well as young men from the Maharwada take great interest in these popular games. They are played every evening on the extensive ground just near the school. Cricket and Football will also be soon introduced.

Temperance League — The students have formed themselves into a league with their Head Master for its President and two senior students for Joint Secretaries. Every member is pledged not to drink in spite of his parents, for the fact that the parents ask or even compel their sons to drink is of very frequent occurrence amongst these people. The parents themselves have been exhorted on this point and they have given their word that they will not henceforth ask or compel their sons to     drink. If a student is found violating the rule of the League, he is punished with an exclusion from Atyapatya and Khokho for as many days as in his discretion the President may choose to fix. The League has done much good and has been found working very well for the last 5 months.

Anniversary — The first anniversary of the school was celebrated with great enthusiasm and joy. After having passed the day in Bhajan, Lectures, Matches etc. a fruit party was given, in the evening, at a very pleasant place on the river Ponjana.

Excursions — Grown up students of the school, accompanied by their teacher, Mr. Jadhao, and the Branch Secretary, made an excursion to the celebrated fair of Nanawati at Chandor. Thakore Mansinhaji kindly procured for us bullock-carts and all of us enjoyed the trip very much.

The needs of the Branch :

The want of a day-school for these people is every day felt here. Being a considerable Railway Junction, Manmad has for its residents many Depressed Classes people serving as labourers to the Railway Companies. Should, therefore, a day school be opened here, it is expected that nearly 100 students from the Depressed classes would join it. It is certainly a very heart-rending spectacle to see so many young ones of our species, whiling away their time in useless games, wandering, stealing, or accustoming themselves to many other dirty habits only because their fathers can not afford to pay for their books and schooling. But in order to meet the expense of a day-school with 100 pupils, the income must be at least 50 Rs. The present income of this branch is not even half as much. So the opening of a day school here wholly depends on the generosity of large-minded philanthropists. A building is very urgently needed for the school as the town people are loath to rent any place in the town for this Purpose.

STATEMENT OF ACCOUNTS
(From 11th May 1907 - to 31st December 1908)
Table (To see the table click here)

In conclusion I beg to thank all those that have helped us in our humble labours for the so called lowcastes.

MOHANSINH MOTISINHA
(Hon. Secretary)
Manmad    
District Nasik

APPENDIX I

Igatpuri Branch
(Affiliated)

Igatpuri is an important railway centre. On account of the railway workshops there is a large population of workers belonging to the Depressed Classes. Many members of these communities are engaged as domestic servants by Europeans and because of the good wages they earn in that capacity they are financially better off than their brothers elsewhere. There is a government school here for the higher classes in which “low class” children do not find admission. The need of a school for these children of whom there is a large number is greatly felt. There is a Depressed Classes Association with a membership of 58, working at Igatpuri for the social uplifting of the community. The association arranges lecture series, Bhajans, temperance, demonstrations & c. for the benefit of the Depressed Classes. Their greatest need however is that of a well managed day school which it is hoped will be soon supplied.
— ASST. GENERAL SECRETARY

APPENDIX J

THE DEPRESSED CLASSES MISSION SOCIETY OF INDIA

Akola Branch
(Affiliated)
For the year 1908

On his Missionary tour in May 1907 in Berar, Mr. V. R. Shinde delivered two public lectures, one in Akola and another at Amraoti and created general sympathy for the Mission. He also visited the late Janoji Free Boarding for Mahar students at Akola and addressed a meeting of the depressed classes. People gathered together specially for the occasion from the neighbouring villages.

In July 1908 Mr. K. P. Bhalekar was sent from Ahmednagar as agent of the D. C. Mission, Bombay, to work in Berar. He organized a local committee consisting of — Rao Saheb Vishnu Moreshwar Mahajani, (President), Rao Bahadur Devrao Vinayak Digambar, (Vice President), Narayan Waman Harkare Esq., S. C. Hosally Esq., Bar-at- Law, (Honorary Secretary).

In consultation with whom he was authorised to work.

(1) Akola Night School — This institution in Akola is really independent of this Mission for it was started before this mission came into existence and is supported by Rao Bahadur Deorao Vinayak, the two Mahajanis and other gentlemen. Its accounts are not incorporated with those of the mission. The school was started in February 1908 in a building lent by the Mahars of the Maharwada.

The Head Master is Gopalrao. Hd. Master of the Municipal School No. 2 Akola, whose salary Rs. 8 per mensem is paid by the Mahajanis. The lighting charges are paid by Dr. D. K. Kolatkar. A fund was started for building a permanent house for the school and Rs. 200 were collected. A few gentlemen by public subscriptions name Rao Bahadur Vinayak and the firm of Savant Ram Rampertab gave besides gols, rafters and corrugated iron sheets. It is gratifying to observe that the mahar families have set an example of self help and self-sacrifice by contributing one anna per family every week. The site for the building was given gratis by Government; and the building was completed in October and occupied in November 1908.

There are at present 25 pupils on roll. About 20 attend every night They are taught for two hours. The school was visited on four or five occasions by Messrs. Hosali, Harkare and the Mahajanis and by the Deputy Inspector. The progress made has been found to be satisfactory. The pupils are all mahars and their ages range from 12 to 20.

(2) The Paras Night School — Contains about 25 boys and the average attendance is about 18.

The school was started by Messrs. Hosali and Parchure who pay all the expenses. It was opened in a Madhi of the Mahars but steps have been taken to allow the school to be held in the old Mahar school building belonging to the District Board. It was visited three times by the above gentlemen, but the progress made was not very satisfactory. The pupils are all mahars and their ages range from 10 to 25. The teacher is a mahar who is paid Rs 4 per mensem. The school was inspected by the Inspector of Schools who has promised to help the institution.

There is a Mahar Boarding House at Akola started by the late Mr. Januji Mahar. It contains 12 boys who are fed gratis by Mr. Januji’s widow, instructions to that effect having been left by him before he died. These boys are superintended by Messrs. Hosali and Harkare. Out of these boys two attend the High School and the rest attend the Anglo-Marathi school. It may be added that these mahar boys freely mix with the other Hindu boys in the two schools.

These boys and the boys of the night school attend Divine Service every Sunday in the house of Mr. Hosali, when besides singing hymns, sermons are given on moral and religious subjects by Messrs. Narayan Rao Harkare and Hosali. The principles of pure Theism are taught to the boys with great care.

(3) Mission Agent — Mr. Bhalekar who was sent from Bombay visited few places in Berar and collected subscriptions. He gave lectures in various places and reported that the gentlemen of Amraoti were ready to start a Mahar school like the one at Akola.

As regular reports were not received from Mr. Bhalekar, no formal meetings of the committee were held. Of the subscriptions collected by Mr. Bhalekar no portion was actually sent to the Secretary. It would appear that he, Mr. Bhalekar collected only as much as was sufficient to pay his salary and other expenses. As he has resigned nothing need be said as regards his relations with this branch of the mission.

The condition of Mahars in Berar is not as bad as in the Bombay Presidency. They are not considered so untouchable here as in the older province. They serve in the local factories and pretty freely mix with the other Hindus. Though sometimes the prejudice against them is strong.

There is some chance of similar schools being started in other places also; but we think that the work should be left to local men.

STATEMENT OF ACCOUNTS
Mr. Bhalekar sends the following statement of Accounts and report of his work.
Table
 (To see the statement click here)

A local committee was formed at Amraoti with Messrs. Kane and Bhangle. A night school was started in the Nagpurpatil (Amraoti). Another night school was started at Thugaon.
H. S. HOSALLI
(Hon. Secretary)
Akola, Berar.

APPENDIX K

REPORT OF THE
Central India Committee

OF THE
Depressed Class Mission

(Affiliated)
(From 24th April 1907 to 31st December 1908)

On the 24th April 1907 Mr. V. R. Shinde with the help of some gentlemen at Indore started the mission and appointed a committee called Central India Committee of the D.C.M. Society of India.

The following members were elected on the committee :—
Professor Gokhale (Holkar Coll.) — Vice-President.
Mr. S. T. Dravid B.A., LL. B.
Mr. V. B. Tilloo.
Dr. Atmaram.
Mr. Lakshman Rao Khanvilkar — Hon. Treasurer.
Mr. Ramchandra G. Mitbawkar — Hon. Secretary.

The Committee started a school on the 5th of May 1907. Some attempts were made to bring Mahar boys; but their parents do not care for the education and engage them in menial services.

There are 10 chamar boys, 5 Bhoi and 1 Khatik, 1 Bania and 3 Chamar girls in the school.

3 boys are reading in the Marathi 3rd standard
5  „      „     „     „    ,,    2nd    ,,
13  „  (10 boys and 3 girls)  Marathi primer & c.

Average attendance in the school is about 12. Altogether 3 meetings of the Managing Committee were held to consider as to how to induce Mahar boys to attend school and to open a night school.

The amount of donation promised is Rs. 520; but the actual sum received is Rs. 255-10-3.
Receipt                  Expenses
Rs. 255-10-3         141-1 Pay of teacher.
                            50   Sent to Bombay.
                            21   House rent & sundry.
                            43 Balance in hand.
                             ________
                            255-10-3

R. G. MITBAWKAR
(Hon. Secretary)
Brahma Samaj, Indore

APPENDIX L

DEPRESSED CLASSES MISSION SOCIETY OF INDIA

Madras Branch
(Affiliated)

Mr. Shinde during his short stay in Madras was able to organise a public demonstration meeting in connection with the All-India Theistic Conference in the Memorial Hall under the presidentship of Rao Bahadur Adi Naranayya and as a result of the sympathy created a small Committee to carry on the work of D. C. Mission in this City was formed. This committee have started work in one of the biggest Pariah villages in the suburb of Madras, and have opened a day school with a teacher who is a High Caste Hindu for the youngsters, and a night school is proposed to be opened at an early date for the grown up men who are mostly day labourers. A school house is being constructed, but in the meanwhile the teacher is holding his classes under the village trees. He has been able in this short time to gather about 40 children including boys and girls and the Mission has every hope of successful work here. Besides this, two gentlemen have offered small plots of land for constructing schools in two other villages, but for want of workers and means to carry on the work the Committee have not yet accepted these kind offers, but it is earnestly hoped that as their resources increase the Committee will be able to extend the work into other villages. The Committee have secured the services of Swami Brahmananda as a whole time worker and they will shortly send another young man to Bombay for being trained there in the D. C. Mission work. The Committee have already received letters of sympathy from several persons as well as a few pecuniary contributions. Now that the D. C. Mission Society have taken up in earnest this long neglected work of elevating the depressed classes in our country, we believe that our leading men will support them with all possible help. All contributions should be sent to Mr. H. Balakrishna Rao, B. A., B. L. Hon. Treasurer, D. C. Mission, 97 Anna Pillai Street, G.T., Madras.

V- GOVINDAN
(Hon. Secretary)
D. C. Mission Society, Madras Branch

S.I. Brahma Samaj,     
97 Anna Pillai Street,
G. T., Madras.
APPENDIX M

THE DEPRESSED CLASSES MISSION SOCIETY OF INDIA

Mangalore Branch
(Affiliated)

The Depressed Classes of India, constitute fully one-fourth of the total Hindu population, and more than one-sixth of the entire population of India. But for the proselytising work carried on through many centuries by Islam and Christianity, their number to-day should have been still larger.

They are very important in our social policy, for they are strong and hardy, and constitute the bulk of our agricultural labourers. They possess a hereditary skill in certain manual arts and industries and we could not get on without them.

The disgraceful condition in which we have kept them through long ages is a great blot on our civilisation and religion. By treating them worse than dogs, we have belied the ancient Indian teaching of the oneness of the Life Divine and all its manifestations.

It has been truly said that we, who make grievances of our disabilities in South Africa, should first set our own house in order and do justice to that large section of our own countrymen whom for ages we have grievously wronged.

The problem is nowhere more acute than in the South Canara District. Khan Bahadur M. Azizuddin Saheb Bahadur, Collector of South Canara, in the course of a recent speech, remarked : “I have not come across, anywhere on the East Coast, anything like the persecution of the depressed classes that exists here."

Work among the depressed classes was started at Mangalore in 1897 in a very modest way. In that year Mr. K. Rang Rau, a local pleader, started a school for Panchama children at his own expense and with the help and encouragement of a few European gentlemen. The children were provided not only with free education, but also with a simple midday meal. The school prospered, and many boys were sent out from year to year with a decent primary education.

During the visit of Mr. V. R. Shinde to Manglore, in November 1907, this work hitherto carried on by one individual, was organised under the Depressed Classes Mission, of which four representative Hindu gentlemen of the town became members of the Local Committee with Mr. Ranga Rau as Hon. Secretary.

The Mission is now conducting the following institutions:-

1. A day school with 78 Panchama pupils — 66 boys and 12 girls — and manned by two teachers. These pupils, besides free education, are supplied with clothing, books, etc. and a daily midday meal.

2. A boarding house, with eight grown-up scholars, who live permanently on the school premises for general education and industrial training. It is hoped that boys trained in this way under close supervision will when sent out, have a leavening influence on their community.

3. An industrial institute, in which six fly-shuttle looms are worked at present. The object is to encourage some of these unfortunate people to make weaving a domestic industry.

To meet the cost of establishing and running the industrial institute, it was resolved to raise Rs. 2,000 in forty shares of Rs. 50 each — the subscribers to receive no interest or profits during the first five years, and a moiety of the profits during the next five years, and to have their money returned to them at the end of the tenth year. Only 17 shares have so far been subscribed.

The Secretary also sent out appeals for pecuniary help, to all parts of India. Response came readily from distant parts, from Bombay, Hyderabad, Multan, Rawalpindi, Lahore, Agra, Calcutta, and other places far away, one generous donor anonymously giving Rs. 700. Help unsolicited was received from England also. But South Indian donations are yet few and small.

The total receipts from all these sources have amounted to about Rs. 2,500. This amount has already been spent and work cannot be continued satisfactorily unless it receives a more adequate share of Public patronage.

The school costs Rs. 50 a month, including the free feeding. The cost would have been greater, but for the enthusiastic service of a band of young men, members of the local Brahma Samaj, who regularly go from house to house and collect doles of rice for the scholars.

The efforts of the Mission to give Panchama boys and girls an intel­lectual, industrial and moral training, have so far been successful. The fission has a further scheme for working among the grown-up people. Seven-and-a-half acres of land have been purchased, and fourteen acres will shortly come in possession as a gift from the Government. The committee propose to parcel out this land among about sixty Panchama families, on a permanent lease for nominal rent and help them with small advances for building huts. In this way, a small Panchama colony is to be established, the people having their own little holdings for garder cultivation. As funds permit, it is proposed to extend the colony.

This scheme, when completed, will greatly facilitate the work of the Mission. These people, who live apart and are subject to incessan persecution at the hands of the higher castes, will have the immense benefit of living close together, on their own holdings. Their childrer can be more easily got together for school instruction, night classes car be more easily worked for the grown-up people. And all the people can be more easily trained into habits of temperance, cleanliness, economy etc. Altogether, their intellectual, material, and moral
up-lifting can be more easily accomplished.

The colony will be formally opened shortly.

It is hoped that the work sketched above, which has been carried on hitherto under great discouragements, will appeal to every one, of whatever nationality, with human sympathies, and particularly to every, patriotic and public spirited Indian.

Seven centuries ago, Panchama kings ruled in Canara. To-day, the Canara Holeya is the lowest of the low — despised and cursed of men To uplift this race is noble work. They are numerous in South Canara- about two and a half lakhs, or a fifth of the total population.

We are all members of one another, and each part of the work must respond in sympathy to the rest. Work such as is being carried on at Mangalore has not yet been started in other parts of South India. It ought to be. But meanwhile, every friend of the cause should contribute his mite towards the work at Mangalore.

Friends can help the Mangalore Depressed Classes Mission in any of the following ways :—

1. By purchasing one or more shares in the industrial institute (Rs 50 per share).
2. By making a donation or an annual contribution to the Mission
3. By lending money, not less than Rs. 100, without interest, re payable by ten
    annual instalments.
4. By giving rice, clothes or building materials.
5. By purchasing articles made in the institute.
    Any contribution, however small, will be thankfully received.

Contributions may be sent to Mr. K. Ranga Rau, Hon. Secretary , D. C. M., Court Hill, Mangalore, who will also be happy to furnish any information called for.

V. Raghunathaya
(President, D. C. Mission, Mangalore)
Temple View,
Mangalore. 21-11-08.

APPENDIX N

THE DEPRESSED CLASSES MISSION SOCIETY OF INDIA

Dapoli

A promising field for the activity of the Depressed Class Mission lies at Dapoli in the Ratnagiri District, which has a considerable proportion of the communities whom the Mission seeks to benefit. Among them are some Mahars and Chamars who have served as Commissioned Officers in the Military and have followed other occupations in different parts of India, and now live in Dapoli on the pensions and other means earned by them. The more enlightened among them have always felt the degradation of their class but had not until lately taken steps for their improvement. On 16th November last a meeting was held in the maidan under the presidency of Mr. Sayad Abdul Rahiman Kadri a leading Musalman pensioner residing in the town and was attended by several prominent members of the "untouchable" Classes and their sympathisers of other caste. It was resolved that organized efforts should be made to rescue the depressed classes from their present undesirable condition and to induce the younger members of these communities to take advantage of the educational facilities which exist in Dapoli. Prominent mention was then made of the interest taken in depressed classes by His Excellency the Governor and Miss Clarke, who have patronised the concert held at Poona in aid of the Depressed Classes Mission and who have generally shown their sympathy towards the objects of the Mission. A Committee was formed to collect donations and subscriptions and to apply them to the elevation of the depressed classes. It held three meetings up to the end of the last year. Printed leaflets explaining the objects of the movement and appealing for help were prepared and are being circulated and methods were laid down for acknowledging receipt of amounts recovered and spent, and for Sporting the work done and progress made by the Committee, to its supporters. Attempts are being made to secure the sympathy and co- operation of the prominent residents of the Taluka and appeals for help have been responded to not only by the more intelligent and well-to-do members of the depressed classes but also by the leading members of other communities. On the arrival of Mr. M. C. Gibb, Commissioner S. D. in the town, a deputation waited upon him to explain the objects of the Society and he was pleased to express his sympathy and make a contribution in money.

A movement which aims at elevating the condition of the depressed classes has ample and strenuous work before it. But its scope can be widened only with the enlargement of funds for which it has to depend upon sympathetic and charitably disposed ladies and gentlemen in and out of the District. The Committee has begun operations by finding out boys of the school-going age who idle away their time without aim and ambition and sow the seeds of further degradation, and by encouraging them to attend school. These boys have to be helped with clothes, money, books and papers according to their requirements and some arrangements may have to be made in course of time to provide for their board and lodging. The Mahar and Chamar members on the Committee showed zeal and earnestness in the mode of work and the result has so for been to raise the number of the “untouchable” students of the local Marathi School from 16 to 35. A Chamar boy who was for some time a student of the Mission High School and had left off his studies has been induced to renew his attendance. It is hoped that sustained effort on the part of the Committee will result in rescuing several children of the depressed classes from their present listlessness and in increasing their attendance in the local Vernacular and English schools. 'The existence at Dapoli of a Mission High School of a long standing under European Management provides special facilities which are not to be found in most Taluka stations and makes it possible for the Society to pursue its objects in a manner easier and cheaper than it would have been under different circumstances.

The promoters of the movement are aware that in the work which they have set before themselves, some difficulties may arise, owing to ancient customs and prejudices which prevail in the Mofussil in a more aggravated form than in an advanced city like Bombay. But they propose to meet them in a spirit of conciliation and leave it to time and general spread of education to accomplish what can never be achieved by resistence. Any other course is sure to alienate the sympathy and co­operation of the higher classes upon which the institution must at least in its infant stages so largely depend. The majority on the Committee consists of Mahar and Chamar gentlemen of local influence and their earnestness is shown in the practical work of the movement, in the contributions they have gathered from their own people and in drawing the attention of the humbler members of their communities to the benefit of education. The spirit of harmony and good will which inspires them is shown by the sympathisers they have secured among the higher classes. The Committee has an educated Musalman as their chairman and two Brahmins of different sects, one of them, a pleader, working as a member and the other as Secretary. The largest donation promised to the Society comes from a leading Brahmin Banker of the town. The co-operation which the movement has thus secured is encouraging as it provides the Society with the initial guidance and business experience which enable it to work along right lines and which the Mahars and Chamars however earnest and enlightened are at present unable to find in their own communities.

Number of pupils supported by the society in the :—
Table : (To see the table click here)

WAMAN A. WARTI
(Hon. Secretary)
Government Medical Dispensary,
Dapoli, District Ratnagiri.

APPENDIX O

THE DEPRESSED CLASSES MISSION SOCIETY OF INDIA
(D. C. M.) Est. 18th October 1906

(RULES OF CONSTITUTION)

1. Name — The Society shall be called “The Depressed Classes Mission Society of India."

2. Object — The object of the Society shall be to maintain a Mission which shall seek to elevate the social as well as the spiritual condition of the Depressed Classes, viz. The Mahars, Chambhars, Pariahs, Namsudras and all such other neglected classes in India by means of —
(1) Promoting education,
(2) Providing work,
(3) Remedying their social disabilities, and
(4) Preaching to them ideals of Religion, personal character, and good
     citizenship.

3. Missionaries — Any person who at the invitation of the Executive Committee agrees to devote himself to the work of the Mission and is accepted as such by the Council of the Society shall be deemed as Missionary of the Society.

4. Board of Spiritual and Social Ministry — To minister to the spiritual and social needs of the Depressed Classes in India, there shall be a separate Board consisting of all the missionaries and three other members to be annually elected thereto by the Council from among themselves. This Board shall have a charge of all the spiritual and social institutions and organisations of the Mission, such as the congregations, Sunday Schools, Young People’s Clubs etc. etc.

5. Membership of the Society  — The General Body of the Society shall consist of :—

(a) Patrons :— (1) Persons who make donations of five thousand Rupees or more to the funds of the society (2) or persons of distinction accepting office at the special invitation of the Council of the Society.

(b) Life Members — (1) Those paying a donation of Rs. 1000 or more (2) Persons who have rendered not less than five years’ continuous service as Missionaries of the Society.

(c) Members — Those paying an annual subscription of not less than Rs. 25.

(d) All Missionaries of the Society ex-officio.

6. Any lady or gentleman, other than a Missionary, satisfying the conditions in the above Rule No. 3 shall be admitted as a member of the Society on being duly proposed and seconded by two members of the Executive Committee, and accepted by that Committee.

7. Officers — The Society shall have a President, a Vice-President, either of whom shall also be the Chairman of the Council of the Society, a General Secretary, an Assistant Secretary, a Treasurer, a Minister and an Assistant Minister, both of the latter being Missionaries.

8. The Council — There shall be a Council to elect the Executive Committee and to advise on the affairs of the Mission, its branches and affiliations. The Council shall consist of ten members of the Society in addition to the Officers mentioned above, who shall be members of the Council ex-officio.

9. All the Officers of the Society and not less than three-fourths of the non-official members of the Council, shall be either duly admitted members of any of the Brahma or Prarthana Samajes in India or those who shall have declared their sympathy with the ideals of the Theistic Church consisting of these Samajes in India, in a prescribed form.

10. The Officers and members of the Council shall be elected in the annual meeting of the General Body of the Society to be held in the month of February each year, and shall be eligible for re-election in subsequent years.
(N.B. Any vacancies during the year shall be filled up by the respective bodies themselves).

11. Executive Committee — The Executive authority shall be vested in an Executive Committee consisting of the Chairman of the Council, General Secretary, the Assistant Secretary, the Treasurer, the Minister, the Assistant Minister, and three Missionaries or failing one or more of such, other members to be elected annually by the Council immediately after their being elected for the new year. The Executive Committee so constituted shall have power to initiate measures and to do everything necessary or desirable to further the aims of the society.

12. Meetings — To elect a new Council and to adopt the annual report, the general body of the Society shall meet at least once every year in or about February, and at such other times when the Council desires or is requisitioned to convene a special meeting of the general body. Any twelve members of the society may sign a requisition to the Chairman of the Council who shall thereupon convene a special meeting of the General Body.

13. The Council shall meet at least once in every quarter of the year, to adopt the quarterly report to be presented by the General Secretary and to advise and suggest measures to the Executive Committee in order to further the aims of the Society.

14. The Executive Committee shall meet at least once every month to conduct its work and shall duly record its proceedings.

15. Branches — The Council may start new branches of the Society or sanction the conversion of the existing affiliated bodies into branches, in order to further the objects of the Society. Such branches shall be managed by a Committee of consisting of members of those branches, which shall act under the general control of the Executive Committee.

16. Affiliated bodies — Subject to the approval of the Council the Executive Committee may create new affiliations or affiliate existing bodies doing work similar to that of the Society provided these bodies agree :

(a) To work in a way not inconsistent with the aims and ideals of the Parent
    Society.
(b) To place two members of the Council (to be annually elected by that body)
    on their Committee to represent the Society.
(c) To contribute 5 per cent of their income to the funds of the Society.
(d) To submit a duly adopted annual report of their work and accounts so as to
    reach the General Secretary before the first of every February.

Except for these conditions of affiliation the Affiliated Bodies shall be independent in the conduct of their affairs.

17. Associated Bodies — The Council may associate with the Mission any other body if in its opinion the sympathy and co-operation so secured are calculated to further the aims of the Mission.

18. Board of Trustees — There shall be a Board of three Trustees elected by the Council to take charge of all the immovable property of the Society and such of the funds as may be from time to time assigned to the Board by the Council as Permanent Endowments. The Council shall not hold in its possession more than two thousand Rupees beyond the estimated amount of the annual expenses. All sums in excess of the above limit shall be assigned to the Trust.

18. Quorum — Twelve members shall constitute the quorum of the general body; six, of the Council and three, of the Executive Committee.

19. No alteration can be made in the objects and constitution of the Society as defined herein in Rules 2 (Objects) Rule 3 and 4 (Missionaries and Board of Spiritual and Social Ministry), 8 (Council) and 11 (Executive Committee).

APPENDIX P

D. C. M. SOCIETY OF INDIA

Donations
(from 18 October, 1906 — to 31 December 1908)
Table (To see the list click here.)