History of movemnets -35

America.—Unitarianism or the modern gospel of freedom, sympathy and large-heareted fellowship seems to have found a still warmer home in the breezy, liberty-loving, unconventional land of America than the prestige-bound Old Country.” Channing, Parker and Emerson are the three names enough to send a thrill of new life into a heart of very stone. In 1794, Dr. Priestly went to America and his influence was felt there- About the beginningof the 10th centnry there was a great commotion among the Ministers of the Congregational Church in America at the spread of Unitarian sentiments among that body. The conflict raged till 1815 when soon many Unitarian Churches were formed. “The preaching of Dr. Channing was most remarkable in its power and influence. He was listened to by thousands and his sermons were printed and circulated by tens of thonsands. His works have been printed and reprinted in almost every European language.”*

In 1825, Drs. Channing and Gannet formed the American Unitarian Association, on the day pre­vious to that on which the B. & F. Unitarian Asso­ciation was started in London. The American Unitarian Year Book for 1911 gives a list of 503 Churches and 540 Ministers. American Unitarianism shows comparatively a greater vitality both in extent and in intent in as much as the movements in England such as the “Domestic Missions,”  “Postal Mission”, The Triennial Conference, &c., and the Unitarian Mission in Japan take their rise from an impetus from America; while lastly the International Council of Liberal Religious Thinkers and Workers which has been meeting since 1901 after every two years in America and the different countries of Europe, is essentially an American idea so suc­cessfully being realized by the zealous Secretary Rev. Charles Wendte of Boston.

Universalism—Like the Arya Samaj to the Brahma Samaj in India, Universalism is a sister-movement to Unitarianism in America, baaed upon the doc­trine of Universal salvation or that all mankind is doomed to be saved as opposed to the calviniatic doc­trine of the elect. The first Universalist sermon was preached in America on September 30th, 1770, by John Murray, who emigrated from England. In 1793, a creed was drawn up by the Rev. Abiel Sargent of New Jersey and was adopted by several Universalist Churches. Its language is unambiguous Unitarianism. The most rapid and general spread of Unitarian view among Universalists was due to the Rev. Hossa Ballon who avowed himself a Unitarian in 1795.

In 1870 the great Murray Centenary Convention met at Gloucester, where John Murray had this first parish in America. It was the last gathering of the Universalists that the world has yet seen. The Mur­ray Fund was reported as having reached in cash and good pledges the total of 135,000 dollars. The income is used in the aid of Theological education, the distri­bution of literature, Church extension and Missionary cause. In 1882, Rev. T. B. Thayer made a stirring address before the Massachusetts Convention on Foreign Missions Dr. Perin’s spirited canvass collect­ed a fund of 60,000 dollars for the Japan Mission and in the spring of 1890, Dr. Perin landed in Japan as the first Missionary. There are now five ordained native Japanese Ministers. A new Church edifice was erected in Tokiyo in 1903, and the Blacbmer Girls’ Home was also opened in that year. The Statistical recapitulation on page 80 of the Universalist Register is as follows :—Parishes 922; families 54,609; Churches 843: Sunday Sohools 845; Church Property 10,741,030; Young Peoples’ Organizations 238.

Africa—Free Protestant Unitarian Church, Hent Street, Cape Town, (1869-73). Minister, Rev. Ramsden Balmforth. The Church at Grant Reinet had no Minister in 1806.

Australia—South Australia—Rev. John Reid, M. A., Queen Street, Norwood, Adelaide: Victoria— Rev. R. H. Lambley, M, A., 49 Denham Street, Haw­thorn, Melbourne: New South Wales—Rev. George T. Watters, Yelverton, Ridge Street, North Sydney.