When the baneful effect of immorality and dissipation that had crept into our society, was being keenly felt and the villa­gers having lost sight of true religion became degenerated by impious and unhealthy habits, the Atmonnati Sabha came into existence at Andul. The main object of the Institute is to help the local men in their attempts to get rid of supersti­tion, to prosper in the true path of religion and to remove the real wants of the locality.
1. Attempts have been made to improve the local Public Library and to stock it with books on sound morality, with a view to remove superstition and ignorance from the mind of the villagers.
2. A hospital for the poor is being established for the treatment of the poor men of the locality, who for want of funds and proper treatment are made victims of untimely death.
3. It is also under contemplation to start a Poor Fund with the object of alleviating to some extent, the misery of those who are suffering from dire starvation.
Arrah. District Shahabad. Estd. 8 July 1880; Arrah New Dispensation Brahma Samaj. Arrah, P.O
Secretary:—Mr. Anukul Chandra Mittra, Arrah P. O., E. I. Ry.
Members:—5 ‘Aflnsthanick’ Men 4, Woman 1.
Meetings:— Once every. Sunday evening in Bengali. Anniversary is celebrated in the 3rd week of January, the special feature of which is a whole day utsav.
Bankipore. Behar. Established. 24 May 1866. Bankipore (New Dispensation) Brahma Samaj.Moradpur, P. O. Bankipore
Secretary:—Dr. Pares Nath Chatterjee, L. M. &  S.,Moradpur, P. O. Bankipore.
Members: — 50 Brahmos (20 Men, 20 Women, 40 Boys and girls.) Weekly Divine Services are conducted in Bengali; occasionally in Hindi. The Samaj has a Mandir of its own.
Ordained Minister:—Baboo Prokas Chandra Roy, Moradpur, P. O. Bankipor.
Institutions— (1) Aghore Nari Samiti  is a literary and Philanthropic Society for ladies. Secretary Mrs. Hem Kusum Mallick.
(2) Aghore Paribar is a boarding institution for young women. Brahmaism is also taught. There are 12 inmates of -which 1 is a teacher and 11 are pupils. It is managed by Mr. and Mrs. Gouri Prasad Mazoondar.
(3) Bidhan Boarding is a, Brahma Boarding House for both Brahma and Non-Brahma boys; intended to break down caste exclusiveness and to teach spiritual worship.

The publications of the Samaj are:—

1. Kesub Chandar Sen. 
     Baboo Debendra Nath Sen, M. A.
2. National character as
a factor of National
  Do. Do.
3. Jesus not God but a    
great man
Baboo N. C. Mitra, M.A
4. The Doctrine of The average monthly collections of the Samaj are Rs. 12 only. Do. Do.

Bankipore. (Behar.) Established1896. Bankipore Brahma Congregation (Sadharan Brahma Samaj).
Secretary:—Mr.W. M. Das, Bar.-at law, Bankipur.
Assistant Secretary:—Mr. Satis Chandra Chakravarti, M.A., Moradpur, P. O. Bankipur.
Members:—60 Brahmas.
Meetings:—Weekly divine service on Sunday mornings.
Mandir:—No permanent place for public congregational worship the Sandhanashram is being used for the purpose.
Missionary and Minister: —Mr. S. C. Chakrawarti,  M. A.
Institutions: — 1. Rama Mohan Roy Seminary with a boarding house.
2. Night School.
3. Sunday Theological Class in the Seminary. The Samaj was started on the removal to this place of the Arrah branch of the Sadhanashram.

Bankura. (Established 1881.)
Bankura Brahma Samaj. Bankura, Bengal.
Secretary:—Mr Mahes Chendar Gosh, B. A., Bankura.
Members:— l6; ‘Anusthanic’ (Male 2, Female 3, Children 3; Non-Anusthanic 8)
Sympathisers:—About 10.
Meetings:—Weekly devotional meetings on Sundays in Bengalee. Maghotsav and Ram Mohan Roy’s anniversary are also celebrated.
Mandir:—The Samaj has a Mandir of its own, consecrated in 1888. It has also a Mission house attached to it.
Institutions.—1. A Library.
2. A Free Night School for the ragged.
3. A Homeopathic Dispensary where medicines
are distributed gratis.
The annual collections made without any regular monthly subscription system amount to nearly Rs.200. The charges for the year Rs.130 only.


It was not a religious community but only a congregation of worshippers many of whom gradually fell off after the death of the Rajah in England. Maharshi Devendranath had been greatly influenced by the personality and teachings of Rajah Ram Mohan Rai. Before he formally joined the Brahma Samaj of the Rajah he had started a similar insti­tution called the Tatwabodhini Sabbha in 1839. The further development we relate in the words of the Maharshi himself as translated by his son from his autobiography. “This was the first (3rd) anniversary of our Tatwabodhini Sabha and this was the last. After this event, in 1764 (1842 A. D.) I joined the Brahma Samaj....I thought to myself that as the Brahma Samaj had been established for the worship of Brahma, our object would be the more easily attained by amalgamating the Tatwabodhini Sabha with it. With this view I paid a visit to the Samaj on a Wednesday…… After this experience I took upon myself the task of reforming the Brahma Samaj (P. 21)....When I first visited the Brahma Samaj noticed that the Vedas were recited in a private room from which Shudras were excluded. As the object of the Brahma Samaj was to popularize the worship of the Brahma, as it was expressly mentioned in the Trust Deed that all men should be able to worship Brahma without distinction of caste. I was deeply grieved to find the reverse of this in practice. Again I saw one day that Ramchandra Vidyawagish colleague, Ishwar Chandra Nyayaratna, was trying to esta­blish from the Vedi of the Brahma Samaj, the fact of the incar­nation of Ramchandra, the king of Ayodya. This struck me as opposed to the spirit of Brahma Dharma. In order to counteract this, I arranged that the Vedas should be read out in public and forbade the exposition of the doctrine of incar­nation from the Vedi. (P. 26).... One day I was sitting in the printing office, thinking that there was no religious unity among the members of the Brahma Samaj... Some came really to worship, others came without any definite aim—whom should we regard as the true worshipper of Brahma? Upon these considerations, I decided that those who would take a vow to renounce idolatry and resolve to worship one God, these alone would be regarded as Brahmas (P27)....We fixed upon the 7th of Paush 1765 as the day for initiation into the Brahma Dharma. A Vedi was set up on which Vidyawagish took his seat, and we all sat round, a strange enthusiasm was awakened in our breasts. Today the seed of Brahma Dharma would be sown in the heart of each of us—and we hoped that in the fulness of time it would sprout up and become a tree everlasting...On hearing this exhortation of mine and seeing my singleness of purpose, Vidyawagish shed tears and said “Such was the aim of Ram Mohan Rai, but ho was not able to realise it. After all this time now his desire has been realised. [After this Maharshi and twenty others were initiated in the Brahma Dhram...Within the month of Paush 1707 Shaka, five hundred persons took the vow, and were enrolled as Brahmas I thought to myself itwould be a good thing, if one could organize a Mela for them every Paush, in some open place outside the town. With this object in view, I invited them all to my garden house at Goriti on the 7th of Paush 1767….. At the conclusion of service (that day) Rakhaldas Haidar proposed that “It is fit and proper that Brahmas should discard the sacred thread. As we have all become worshippers of the one and only God, it is better not to have any caste distinctions. The Sikh community, worshippers of Alakh Niranjan, having all become one nation by giving up caste and adopting the surname of “Singh” obtained such strength of unity, that defeating such a dauntless Badshaha of Delhi as Aurangzeb himself, they founded an independant kingdom.” When Rakhaldas Haidar’s father heard of his son’s proposal to renounce the sacred thread, he immediately tried to stab himself.” This reforming tendency eventually reached such an extent that even Maharshi Devendranath had to recoil from. When Keshub Chandra, the leader of the progressive party, at length seceded from this Samaj and started “The Brahma Samaj of India” in 1807, the Maharshi then gave his own church the name of “Adi Brahma Samaj.”
Calcutta. Estd. II Nov. 1867.
(2) The Bharat Varshiya Brahma Samaj (Brahma Samaj of India) New Dispensation, 89, Machuabazar Street, Calcutta.
Secretaries:—Prof. Benoyendranath Sen, M. a., 41, Machuabazar Street, Calcutta and Dr. D. N. Mullick, 11 William’s Lane, Calcutta, General Secretaries. Rev. Bhai Baikunthnath Ghosh Secretary, Apostolical Dubar, Rev. Bhai Brajagopal Niyogi, 64/2 Machuabazar Street, Secretary of the congregation.
Members:—100 of the local congregation.
Meetings:—1 Sunday evening service, 1 conversational meeting, in Bengalee.
Mandir:—Opened in August 1869 (7 Bhadra 1991 Shaka).
Anniversary:—The 11th of Magh about 24th of January is celebrated during two weeks. The peculiar feature is that the opening day of the Utsav is the day for celebrating the advent of the New Dispensation and the harmoney of scriptures.
Ministers:—1. Eev. Bhai Gour Govind Roy.
2. Rev. Bhai Girshchandra Sen,
3. Rev. Bhai Kantichadra Mitra,
4. Rev. Bhai Pyarimohan Choudhari,
5. Rev. Bhai Baikunthanath Ghosh, 3, Ramnath Muzumdar Street, Calcutta.,
6. Rev. Bhai Trailokynath Sanyal, 82, Upper Circular Raod,
7. Rev. Bhai Amritlal Bose, Manik Bose’s Ghat Street, Calcutta,
8. Rev. Bhai Promothlal Sen, 82, Harrison Road, Culcutta,
9. Rev. Bhai Brajagopal Niyogi
10. Rev. Bahi Umanath Gupta, 81, Upper Circular Road, Calcutta.
Journals:—1 Dharmatatwa, a Bengalee Fortnightly. Rs. 3 edited by Rev. Gour Govind Roy.
2. The World and the New Dispensation an English Weekly edited by Rev. Promotholal Sen and Prof. T. L. Vaswani. Rs. 4 a year.
3.Mahila, a Bengali monthly edited by Rev. Brijagopal. Niyogi and Miss C. Niyogi.
4.Prakriti a Bengali Monthly for boys and girls, edited by Mr. D. N. Sen, M. a.
Fund:—There is a Mission Fund. The regular monthly sub­scriptions are not more than Rs. 25. The annual total income is about one thousand rupees.
Institutions:—1 Victoria Institute for female education with one department for popular lectures to Zanana ladies and another for senior students and one girl school.
(2) A Sunday school for boys.
(3) A Sunday school for girls.
(4) A Night School for Workmen and the Depressed Classes.
(5) A Brahma Relief Fund.


Behala. Dist. 24 Purganas. Estd. 21 May 1853. The Behala Brahma Samaj, Behala near Calcutta.
Founder:— The late Babu Bacharam Chatterji.
Secretary:—Babu Kaliprasan Mukerji, Behala.
Members:— 20, Non-anusthanic.
Meetings:—Sunday evening service in Bengalee.
Mandir:— There is a fine building with a big compound, consecreted on 14th Nov. 1861.
Ministers:— Babus Kaliprasanna Mukerjee, Ashoknath Cbatterjee, Sidhinath Chatterji and Chintamani Chatterji; of whom the last is a Minister of the Adi Brahma Samaj.
Anniversary: — The peculiar feature not observed anywhere else is Parayen viz. reading of certain chapters from the Brahma Dharma Granth in chorus.
Institution:—One Middle Vernacular School with a fine building.

Benibun. (Pirpur.) Dt. Howrah. Pirpur Brahma Samaj, Post Office Uluberia, Dt. Howrah.
Secretary:—Dr. Accowri Sinha Roy, Pirpur, Uluberia P. O.
Sympathisers:— 60.
Meetings: —One weekly divine service, one ladies meeting and a Sunday School. All conducted in Bengalee.
Mandir:—The Samaj has a Mandir of its own.
Institutions:—One Primary School for girls aided by Go­vernment. Every member has to pay a subscription of not less than one anna a month. N. B.—Benibun and Pirpur Samaj are one and the same.

Bhagalpur. Behar. Estd. 22nd February 1864. Bhagalpur Brahma Samaj, No 14, Wace Road, Bhagalpur.
Secretary:—Baboo Nibaran Chandra Mookerjee, m. a., b.a. 18, Wace Road, Bhagalpur .
Members. Anusthanic:— 13 Males, 14 Females, 36 Children.
Non-Anusthamic:—3 Males, 2 Females.
Sympathisers:- 4
Meetings:—Divine Services on Sunday evenings in Bengalee generally, and occasionally in Hindi for the benefit of the Beharis.
Mandir:—The Samaj has a pretty little Mandir of its own in a quiet corner consecrated in February 1880.
Minister:—Baboo Hari Sundar Basu.

Boalia. District Rajshahi. Established 1866. Boalia Brahmo Samaj, Boalia, Rajshahi.
Secretary:- Mr. Braja Lal Das—Head Tauzir-Navis, Rajshahi.
Members:— 4 Anusthanic Families:- 4 men, 4 women, 11 children, 11 Non-anusthanic families.
Meetings:—Weekly Divine Service, occasional lectures and special divine services in Bengalee.
Mandir:—The Samaj has a pacca Mandir called the “Paribarik Brahma Mandir” established by the late Mr. Krishna Jiban Saba in 1866 and improved by his brother Mr. Krishna Kanta Saba with the additions of Pathshala and a large well for water supply.Divine Services are also held at thePathashala on Saturday evenings.

Ministers: — 1. Baboo Nabin Kumar Datta M. A. Professor, Rajshahi College.
2. Hara Kumar Guha, Superintendent, Agricultural Model Farm, Rajshahi.
3. Ram Lal Upadhyaya.
4. Braja Lal Das.
Funds —1. Charitable Fund consisting of 2 Government Pro­missory Notes of Rs. 200 and any other annual donations received for the purpose of distributing charities at the anniversary of the Samaj.
2. General Fund to meet current expenditure of the Samaj collections are received monthly from every member. No fixed rate of payment.
A special feature of the anniversary is that charities are dispensed to the poor in the form of new rugs, clothes and coins.

Brahman Baria Dt. Tipperah, Bengal. Estd.1901. The Brahman Baria Upasana Samaj Brahman Baria, Dt. Tipperah Bengal.
Secretary:—Mr. Rama Kanai Dutta, Government Pleader, Brahman Baria, Tipperah.
Members on roll:—12. Anusthanic Brahmas 20.
Meetings:—Devotional Services every week in Bengalee.
Mandir:—The Samaj has a Mandir of its own consecrated in 1901.
Publication.—"Naba Brahma Upasana.”
Institutions.—There is a philanthrophic society attached to the Samaj, composed of boys and is called “Sevak Sabha.”

(1)The Burdwan Adi Brahma Samaj, was established 50 years ago through the exertions of Messrs. Nobin Krishna Palit and Chandra Sekhar.
Mandir:—Has a pucca building for its Mandir.
Member:—A single Brahma.
Meeting:—Divine Service Wednesday evening.
(2) The Burdwan Sadharan Brahma Samaj, Estd. 1901.
Secretary:—Mr. Binod Bibari Basu, Burdwan.
Members:—1. Amtsthanic Brahma.
2. Non-anusthanics.
Mandir and Meetings:—There is a small building consecrat­ed in 1901 where divine services are held on Sunday evenings in Bengalee.

Calcutta. Estd. 23 January 1830 (IIth Magh) (1) The Adi Brahma Samaj, 55, Upper Chitpore Road, Calcutta.
Founder—The Great Rajah Ram Mohan Rai.
Secretary—Babu Ravindra Nath Thakur.
Meeting—One weekly service in Bengalee & Sanskrit.
Mandir—Consecrted by Rajah Ram Mohan Rai on the 11th day of the Hindu month Magh, 23rd January 1830, which day is observed by all Brahmas & Brahma Samajes and is also Gazetted as a holiday for Brahmas by the Government of Bengal.
Ministers—Babus Satyendra Nath Thakur, Ravindra Nath Thakur, Priyanath Shastri, and Chintamani Chatterji.
Journals:—Tatwabodhini Patrica—Editor, Baboo Satyendranath Thakur; Asst. Editor Baboo Chintamani Chatterji.
Mission Fund:—Nearly Rs. 3,000.
Institution:—Santiniketan Ashram at Bolpnr.
Brief History:—Rajah Ram Mohan Rai founded the Brahma Sabbha on the 22nd August 1828.


“They (the Baranagar Brahmas) had several such meetings during the year at Baranagar, Bon-Hugli and Uttarpara, the three places being contiguous to one another. It is high­ly gratifying to observe the interest evinced by the ladies of some of the families not actually attached to the Brahma Samaj, for such prayer meetings. The eagerness with which they received the tidings of Brahma Dharma, was really very hopeful.”

We cull the following from the Annual Report of 1884:— “Several working men are members of this Samaj and Baranagar being a flourishing manufacturing town several Night Schools have been established for the spread of mass educa­tion in different localities. Here, as in other places, the working classes generally have immoral habits, but efforts are being made by our much esteemed friend Babu Sasipads Banerjee to elevate their moral status. His efforts have not been without  result, some of them have joined the Brahma Samaj.” The same year (1881) three monthly leaflets (2000, each) were issued for free distribution.

Two special services are mentioned to have been held during the year at the time of the Durgapuja and the Christmas holidays, and a boat excursion to the Konnagar Brahma Samaj is said to have been made. The Baranagar Sankirtan party formed chiefly of the members  of the Working Mens’ Club, joined the excursion. We are glad that the Mandir scandal of the Baranagar Brahma Samaj was afterwards removed and that there was no occasion for raising a separate building for the Samaj, Babu Sashipada Bannerji could persuade the proprietor of the land to make over the land by a deed of conveyance and on the 16th March 1887 a regular trust deed was executed and registered. Thus after several years of struggle, peace was established in the Baranagar Brahma Samaj.

Since the year last mentioned, the work of the Baranagar Brahma Samaj has gone on, quietly and steadily. The principal change in the life of the Samaj has been the removal of Babu Sasipada Banerjee and his family to Calcutta and the absence of close participation on his part in its activities. Family bereavements, succeeding one another with rather an unusual quickness and the growing infirmities of age have made it impossible for him to work as energeti­cally during the last few years in connection with the Samaj as he was enabled to do during the earlier years of its exis­tence. But his love for his native place and the early scene of his activities is as warm as ever, and even now he joins in the Samaj movements and gives advice and encouragement to its present workers. Lately he has placed the Baranagar Institute, now called the Sasipada Institute, in charge of a committee and made a handsome donation to its funds. He has also placed the Working Men's movement on a permanent footing by financing its funds and ensuring the regular holding of meetings and the delivery of lectures on Universal Religion in connection with it. In the mean­time a young and energetic Brahma nearly related to Mr. Banerjee, has enthusiastically taken up tho Samaj work and iscarrying it on with zoal steadiness. Babu Basanta Kumar Chowdhry, M.A., B.L., a native of the village is now the moving spirit of the Samaj, and leads the little band of Brahmas who are keeping up the renovated religious life of the village. There is a Sankirtan party in connection with the Samaj, con­sisting of a number of working men, among others, who go about the neighbouring villages, singing the holy name of God, and to whose Sankirtan procession a special day is set apart in the programme of the Maghostuv celebrated by the Sadharan Brahma Samaj, in Calcutta. May the Lord keep up and foster the zeal of this new band of workers and esta­blish His Kingdom firmly in the village on which His bles­sings have been so bountifully showered.


“It must be observed that hardly any native, and certainly no Englishman, could hope to wield the same influence over the poorest classes of the natives as that exercised by a man of Mr. S. Banesjee's position. The despised outcast feels himself vastly honoured when a Brahmin, in the teeth of all tradition and time-honoured custom, not only enters his poor hut, but actually eats with him, and chats with him as “a man and a brother.” There must be an eloquence in these ‘angels' visits more potent than that of words. The poor Sudra will hardly require much argument to convince him of the utility of sending his boy to school, nay,  even of becoming a pupil himself. Witness, for example, the forty years old standing side by side with urchins of five or six, and doggedly spelling their way to the Temple of Learning through the door of Mr. Sasipad Bannerjee's night school in Barahanagar.”

We take the following from the report of the Baranagar Brahma Samaj written by Pandit Siranath Sastri and incor­porated in the Annual Report of the Sadharan Brahma Samaj for 1878.  (Miss Collect's Year Book 1880). "Almost all the public institutions of Baranagar originally owe for their existence more or less to the influence of the local Brahmas, especially to that of Babu Sashipada Baunerjee. The “Social Improvement Society,” the “Public Library” and the “Night School" under the management of the Jute Mills Company at Baranagar all came into existence through the exertion of the Brahma Samaj’ of the place.

“They have also a District Savings Bank for the special benefit of the Poor at Baranagar and this Bank was opened here by Government through the efforts of Babu Sashipad Bannerjee, though the Jute Mills Company have been looking after its management from the very day of its opening. “We have not the pleasure of recording much on the head of Anusthan in connection with the Samaj as only one or two of its members are Anusthanic (Practical or thorough-going) Brahmas. However, three Brahmo Marriages took place under its auspices and all of them were inter-marriages and widow-marriages. It might be mentioned here that the wife of the leader of this Samaj was the first Hindu lady who went to Europe in company with her husband. In the matter of Charity they regularly give alms to the poor and really needy on the day of their monthly worship, and Babn Bany Madhub Paul, one of its members, bears all the expenses there of Besides this, they have other occasional acts of Charity.

“The Baranagar Brahmas had a very beautiful place of wor­ship of their own, but it has been wrested from their hands under circumstances very unpleasant to relate. One of their numbers who is the proprietor of the land upon which the building of their Samaj was erected, insisted, unfortunately after the erection of the building, upon having the Samaj made a branch of the Brahma Samaj of India, to which they declined to give their assent on principle. “The proprietor remained deaf to reason, in spite of all their remonstrances and entreaties. The piece of land had been given only orally and not formally and duly conveyed, and they had to give up all hopes of their Samaj ever get­ting possession of its own building.

“At present the Baranagar Samaj has, properly speaking; no place of worship of its own. Its Prayer meetings are now hold in the hall of the ‘'Baranagar Institute" built for public benefit through the noble exertion of Babu Sashipad Bannerjee, with pecuniary aid chiefly from the late Miss Carpenter and his other friends in England. “There is no regular constitution in the above Samaj, though the members have been striving to have one ever since they lost their former place of worship. The number of its mem­bers is about twenty-five (25). This number includes the members of the Bon-hoogly Upasana Samaj which has been amalgamated with it. This Upasana Samaj was established by Babu Nagendranath  Bhaduri.”

The Baranager Brahma Samaj inaugurated family prayer meetings in the year 1879 as we find from the Sadharan Brahma Samaj report for that year :—