Cox’S Bazar. Chittagong. Estd. 23rd July 1899.
The Cox’s Bazar Brahma Samaj, Cox’s Bazar, Chittagong, P. O.
Secretary:—Jogendra Nath Sen, Pleader, Cox’s Bazar.
Members: — 8.
The Services are conducted in Bengalee. The Samaj had a Mandir but it was demolished.
Cuttack. (Orissa). Estd. 1st July 1869.
(1) Utkal Brahma Samaj, Cuttack (Orissa). Secretary:—Babu Viswanath Kar, Balu Bazar, Cnttack.
Members:—18 men, 14 women, 30 children.
Meetings:—Two devotional meetings in the week conducted sometimes in Uriya and sometimes in Bengalee.
Mandir:—The Utkal Brahma Samaj and the Adi Brahma Samaj have a pucca building in common.
Ministers:—1.Rai Madhusudan Rao Bahadur, who has been Minister for the last 30 years.
2. Babn Viswanath Ear, additional Minister, from July 1906.
Institutions:—Sangat Sabha. 2. Libraries. 3. Cnttack Town Victoria High School. 4. Sunday school.
(2) Utkal Adi Brahma Samaj.
Secretary:—Babu Priyanath Ohose, Ganga Mandir, Cuttack.
Meetings:—Divine Service is conducted on Wednesdays.
Dacca. Estd. 13thDecember 1846.
(1) The East Bengal Brahma Samaj, Dacca.
Secretary:—Babu Bhuban Mohan Sen, B. A., Wari, Dacca.
Members:—110 Members: 103 Men,7 Ladies.
Out of these 65 reside in Dacca of whom are 25 anusthanic Members. Of those residing outside Dacca 28 are anusthanic. The women are all anusthanic.
Sympathisers: — About 70.
Meetings:—The total number of devotional and other Meetings is four. The language in which these meetings are generally conducted is Bengali.
Mandir:—The Samaj has a Mandir of its own, one of the biggest in India, opened in December 1869.
Preachers:—Babu Bhuhan Mohan Sen. Babu Girish Chandra Muzumdar.
Institutions: — 1.Students’ Association.
2. Mahila Samiti.
3. Sunday School.
5. East Bengal Brahma Conference.
6. Mission House.
Funds: —The minimum subscription for a member is Rs.3 per annum. Subscriptions are raised monthly. The Samaj possesses a permanent Income ofabout Rs. 300 a year as rent of roadside land, which is likely to increase in course of time. There are, a few permanent funds deposited in Post Office Savings Bank, interests only of which can be spent for charitable purposes every year.
History:—On the 6th December 1846 Sunday, about 6 years after The Tatwa-bodhini Patrica was Started in Calcutta by Maharsi Devendra Nath Tagore under the editorship of the renowned Pandit Akhoy Kumar Dutta, which spread a current of thought on Brahmism throughout the length and bredth of Bengal, a meeting was held at the house of Babu Braja Sunder Mittra in Dacca to discuss the opening of a Brahma Samaj at Dacca. Braj Sundar Mitra was a Native of the Dacca District, then an Asst. Superintendent in the Excise Department. His co-adjutor, another Assistant Superintendent of the Excise Department, Babu Indar Chandra Basu, and his friends Babu Govinda Chandra Basu, Deputy Magistrate and Babu Narottam Mallick Sadar Ameen (Munsiff) who were natives of Hooghli and places close to Calcatta and who had a personal knowledge of the movements of the Brahma Samaj then in full swing in Calcutta, were present at the Meeting. Babu Ram Kumar Basu of the Dacca District another Deputy Magistrate and Babu Biswambhar Das of Dacca Town, a clerk in the Excise Department were also present at the meeting. In this meeting it was decided that a Brahma Samaj should be started at Dacca. Accordingly on the following Sunday, the 13th December 1846 the first prayer meeting of the Dacca Brahma Samaj was held at the house of Babu Braja Sunder Mittra. This was the beginning of the Dacca Brahma Samaj.
Owing to the persecution by the orthodox Hindus following immediately after the opening of the Samaj, for nearly four years, the meetings of the Samaj were held at the residence of different members, sometimes secretly at different parts of the town. For 2 years out of this period the Samaj was under the protection of Babu Biswambhar Das mentioned before, an influential citizen, resident of Bangla Bazar. In 1850 the Samaj again assembled, publicly, at the residence of Babu Braja Sundar Mittra where it continued to be held for7 years. In 1857 the Samaj was transferred to the new residence of Babu B. S. Mittra purchased at Armanitola. Here it continued for 12 years, i.e., until about the close of 1869 when the present new Mandir was opened.
These 12 years, viz. from 1857 to 1869 were a period of great activity in the life of the Dacca Brahma Samaj and in the influence it exerted over the whole of Eastern Bengal. During this period almost all the influential educated people of the Dacca District, almost all of rank and position joined the Dacca Brahma Samaj. The rooms of the Armanitola house, lent to the Samaj by Babu Braja Sundar Mittra were found too small for the congregation; and in August 1866 a committee was formed for erecting a spacious Mandir for the Dacca Brahma Samaj to be hereafter called the East Bengal Brahma Samaj. The committee consisted of the following:—
Babu Abhoy Chandra Das, Personal Assistant to the Commissioner. —President.
Babu Ram Kumar Basu, Deputy Magistrate.
Babu Kailas Chandra Ghosh, Head Master, Dacca Collegiate School.
Babu Baikuntha Nath Sen, Deputy Inspector of Schools, Dacca.
Babu Akhoy Kumar Sen Deputy Inspector of Schools, Dacca.
Babu Gupi Mohan Basack, Head Master, Pogose School.
Babu Umesh Chandra Dass, Clerk, Commissioner’s Office.
Babu Radhika Mohan Roy, Zamindar, Treasurer.
Babu Dina Nath Sen, Teacher, Collegiate School, afterwards Inspector of Schools, Eastern Bengal, Secretary.
Cox’S Bazar. Chittagong. Estd. 23rd July 1899.
Contai. Dt. Midnapore. Estd. April 1870.
Contai Brahma Samaj, Contai, Bengal.
Secretary: - Babu Tarachand Bera, Contai.
Members: - 29 Anusthanic. 13 Non- anusthanic.
Meetings: 1. Regular Divine Service on Sunday.
2. Regular Sangat Sabha on Wednesday.
3. Meeting of the Mahila Samiti (Ladies’ Association) on every alternate Saturday. All meetings are usually conducted in Bengalee.
Mandir:—The Samaj has a pucca mandir of its own consecrated in 1886.
Institutions :—( 1) Sangat Sabha holds its Meeting every Wednesday.
(2) There is a Lady’s Association held every fortnight.
Minister:- Babu Taraka Gopal Ghose, b. a.
Celebrations.—The Maghostav and Bhadrostov are observed as also the death anniversaries of Raja Ram Mohan Roy and Babu K. C. Sen.
Funds:—Each member has to pay a minimum subscription of Rs. 8 a year. The Samaj earns an annual income of Rs. 60 from land which was given over by Babus Rathakriahna Maiti and Tarachand Pal. Collections are also made for the Utsav.
There are three funds(1) Samaj Fund. (2) Building Fund. (3) Utsav Fund.
The Contai Samaj has the four following Prayer Unions in the different villages near Contai, affiliated to it:—
1. Prayer Union of Chandiveti.
Secretary:—Babu Narendra Nath Sasmal, Chandiveti. Deulbar B. P. O. via Midnapore,
2. Prayer Union of Duhagara.
Secretary:—Babu Radha Krishta Maity, Duhagara, Basantia B. P. 0. via Midnapore.
3. Prayer Union of Bhabunichak.
Secretary:—Babu Biswambhar Dinda, Bhobanicliak, Deulbar B. P. O. via Midnapore.
4.Prayer Union of Balia.
Secretary:—Baboo Kshetra Mohan Maity, Balia Sankarpur, Deulbar B. P. O., via Midnapore.
Cooch-Behar. Estd. 1870
(I) The Cooch-Behar Brahma Samaj.
Asstt. Secretary:— Babu Rajani Kanta Chakravati.
Meetings:—Weekly divine service in Bengalee.
Mandir:—The old Mandir was demolished by the earthquake at1897. A new one was constructed at a cost of Rs. 1,800 most of which was contributed by Rai Bahadur Kalika Das Dutt, C. I. E., President of the Samaj.
History:—Rai Kalika Das Dutt Bahadur who was from childhood under Brahmo influences came here in 1869 as Dewan. In 1874 Babu Bijoy Krishna Goswami, the late Missionary of the Bharata Varshiya Brahma Samaj visited the place at the instance of Rai Kalika Das Dutt Bahadur, C. I. E., the present Dewan of Cooch-Behar and Rai Jadu Chander Chakravarti Bahadur, the Retired Civil and Sessions Judge of Cooch-Behar established a Brahma Samaj here with about fourteen sympathising members. They built a thatched house for worship, which was burnt after two years. After this the Samaj service was stopped for 4 years until the building was reconstructed. In 1878 the Cooch-Behar marriage took place. In 1886 another Samaj the present New Dispensation Samaj of Cooch-Behar was established at the instance of the Maharaja and the Maharani of Cooch-Behar.
Cooch-Behar. Estd- 15th August 1886.
(2) Cooch-Behar New Dispensation Brahma Samaj, Cooch-Behar.
President:—H. H. the Maharajah Sir Nripendra Narayen Bhup Bahadur, G. C. I. E., C. B., of Cooch-Behar is the head of the Church.
Secretary:—Kumar Gajendra Narayen (senior), Bar-at-law, Savitri Lodge, Cooch-Behar.
Members:— Anusthanic 58, Non-Anusthanic 12 total 70. Sympathisers, 40.
Meetings:—Five meetings are held every week in Bengalee.
Mandir:—The Samaj has a building of its own, the finest in the whole of India consecrated in April 1887.
Minister:—1. Babu Durga Nath Rai, Resident Minister. 2. Babu Troyloco Nath Das, Lay Minister.
Institutions:—1. Brahma Niketan.
2. Brahma Library. 3. Sangat Sabha. 4. Arya Nari Samaj, H. H. Maharani takes active part in it.
Funds:—The state grants Rs. 5,000 annually to this Samaj.
Celebrations:—The principal (Samaj) day is the 18th of April. The Samaj observes the 15th August and the Maghostav (11th day). These three days are observed as holidays throughout the State.Preaching to the prisoners in Jail every Sunday morning is one of the special features of the Samaj.
The Sadharan Brahma Samaj is the best organised and most widely reaching Missionary body of the Theistic Church in India. It took its rise. in the great historic schism in the Brahma Samaj of India, brought about by the Kuch Behar Marriage. Miss S. D. Collet has devoted nearly the whole of her Brahma Year Book No. III for 1878 to the masterly description of this schism, Pandit Shivnath Shastri has briefly summarised the history in the first part of this directory. It is therefore neither necessary nor yet quite safe to dilate upon the details here.
“The Samaj is an association, on the broadest constitutional basis, of Theists all over the world. Its object being the propagation of the principles of Brahmaism, we try to realise that object by founding new congregations and helping the existing ones everywhere. In order to bring these congregationinto closer union with ourselves we allow each of them to send a representative to our General Committee, which is the governing body of the Samaj, and which consists of (now) 65 members besides these representatives. The actual management of the affairs of the Samaj is in the hands of the Executive Committee consisting of twelve members elected by the General Committee, a representative of the missionaries and the office-bearers”—The 31st Annual Report (1808) of the Samaj.
Rules for the Guidance of Affiliated Samajes Under Sec. 35 of the Rules of the Sadharan Brahma Samaj. (Adopted by the General Committee at their 1st Quarterly Meeting held on the 6th April 1879.)
1. The minister should be an anusthanic Brahma of good moral character and member of the Sadharan Brahma Samaj. He must be formally appointed by the majority of the members of the local congregation.
2. The prayer-hall and other properties, if there be any, belonging to the Samaj, shall be entrusted to trustees formally appointed or committees and individuals specially authorized for the purpose.
3. The thanksgivings, prayers, sermons, hymns, &c., used in the prayer-house should be such as might keep intact the fundamental principles of Brahmaism and serve to promote love and devotion to God and good-will among men.
4. The congregational worship should be held at least once a week.
5. The rules for the formation of the local congregation will be framed by the affiliated Samajes according to special local circumstances. But in no case a person, whether male or female, less than 18 years of age and wanting in faith in the fundamental principles of Brahmaism shall be eligible to the membership of the congregation; the congregation must be composed of at least
The Bogra Brahma Samaj, Bogra Bengal
Secretary and Minister: - Dr. Pyar Sankar Das Gupta, L. M. & S.
Members:—Anusthanic—7men, 7women, 13 children,
Non-Anuathanic —19men, 11 women, 16children. Total 65.
Meeting:—Divine Service in Bengalee, every Sunday evening.
Mandlr: — A newly brick-built Mandir.
Publications:—The Secretary Dr. P. S. Das Gupta published 3 pamphlets named (1) Gargi (2) Ratnakar (3) Radha.
Funds.—The Samaj has got two holdings which cover its rent.
Cachar or Silchar. Estd. 28 August 1864.
The Cachar Brahma Samaj, Silchar, Assam.
Secretary:—Mr. Saroda Charan Nandi, Silchar, Assam.
Members:—1 Anusthanic. 13 Non-Anusthanic.
Meetings:—Weekly Services are held in Bengalee.
Mandir:—The Samaj has a Mandir consecrated, 25 May 1900.
Ministers:—1. Babu Madan Mohan Datta. 2. Babu Madan Sarada Charan Nandi. 3. Babu Madan Surendra Nath Datta.
Chlnsura. Dt. Hoogli. Estd. before 1860. Chinsura Brahma Samaj, opposite to the Police Lines, Dt. Hoogli, Bengal.
Secretaries :—Babu Nakulchandra Banerji, L. M. & S. Bhagalpore. Babu Jadunath Bose, Shambabu’s Ghat, Chinsura.
Meetings:- Divine Service every Saturday evening in Bengalee.
Mandir:—The Mandir was built about 1863.
Mninister: —Babu Erist Mohun Das, Secretary Brahma, Samaj, Urdu Bazar, Chandranagar.
(A) Spiritual :—(1). The Khasi Hills Mission is managed by Babu Nilmani Chakrawarti. It has under 9 Khasia Samajes—Mowblei Mawsmai, Nongthemwai, Mawlong, Sasurat, Mawkhor,Sholap, Dissoug, Mawstoh, where religious, educational and medical work is done.
(2) Sadharanashram does devotional work and that of training future missionaries. It was started and is being conducted by Pundit Sivnath Sastri, m. a. It has three branches.—at Lahore, Bankipore, and Dacca, besides the head quarters at Calcutta. The Lahore branch is under Bhai Prakash Dev assisted by Mr. Sitaram and Mr. Beharilal Vasudev. The Bankipore Branch is under Babu Satischandra Chukcavarti, M.A., who also conducts the Ram Mohan Roy Seuinary there. The Dacca branch is under Babu Gurdudas Chakabarti. Babu Indubhusan Rai who is now unwell conducted for many years a fifth branch at Allahabad. Pundit Sastri lives in the Ashram when he is at Calcutta. Service is held every morning. Wednesday evening there is religious discussion after prayers.
(3)Sevak Mandali (Lay Workers’ Association). In order to supplement the work of the missionaries of the Samaj, and also to utilise the services of the members of the Samaj in mission and other works, a body of workers under the name of Sevak Mandali ( Lay Workers’ Association) was organised at the beginning of the year 1903. Babu Govinda Chandra Dutta is its Secretary. At present there are 44 members working at different centres. It is proposed to reorganize the Association with a particular view to improve the mission work. The members of the Sevak Mandali edit Tattwakaumudi, contribute articles to the Indian Messenger and Sevak, and to some of the Bengali and Englishmagazines, conduct divine services, manage Sunday moral training schools and night schools and relives lectures, nurse and treat patients, distribute medicines and work in the following and other places and samajes:—Calcutta Congregation of the Sadharan Brahma Samaj, Brahma Sanmilan Samaj Bhowanipur, Devalaya (Calcutta), Baranagore, Konnagore Harinabhi,. Nimta, Suri, Cuttak, Bankura, Lahore, Shillong Sylhet, Dacaa, Dinajpur, Midnapur, Baniban, Deradhun Giridhi, and Deoghar. They also conduct divine services in families on the many occasions of domestic ceremonies.
(4)Working Men’s Miss ion. Babu Sasipada Banerjee made an endowment of Rs. 2,000 to the Samaj with the object that the proceeds of Rs.1,500 would be spent inpreaching practical religion and morality among the working men of Baranagar and interest of Rs. 500 would be spent in entertaining the working men during the Maghotsab after the men had taken part in a Nagar Sankirtan. In connection with the Baranagar mission Babus Jogendranath Kundu, Sitanath Dutt, Bhaba Sindhu Dutt, Sudhirchandra Banerjee and several other friends visited and preached among the working men by delivering lectures, and holding discourses, sanskirtans and family prayer meetings.
(5) Sunday Moral Training School, meets in the Mary Carpenter Hall. The number of pupils is 87.
(6) Sangat Sabha meets every Tuesday in the Prayer Hall to discuss spiritual and social topics.
(7) The Theological Society, founded in 1894 organizes lectures on, and also discusses questions bearing on Theology, Ethics and Sociology from eastern and western points of view.
(8) The Students' Weekly Service organizes lectures and services for the benefit of the students, who are also induced to do relief work among the poor and the distressed.
(9) Brahmabandhu Sabha discusses social questions.
(9) The City College—originally founded by Mr. Anand Mohan Bose on 6 Jan. 1879 and now made over to the Samaj, is affiliated to the Calcutta University according to new University Regulations and teaches up to the B. A. Standard. Attempts are being made to have it affiliated up to the B. sc. standard. 4 M. A.s & 72 B. A.s passed from it in 1908 according to old regulations. The number on the rolls was 1,325 as against 1,046 of the previous year. Principal. — Mr. Heramchandrar Maitra, M.A. The College is under the Control of an Association registered under Act XXI of 1860 and is managed by a Council consisting of 15 members.
(10). The Brahma Girls’ School, established in 1890, sent up two girls for the Entrance Examination: both passed, one being placed in the first and the other in the 2nd division. The number on the roll on the 31st Dec. 1909 was 150; of which 42 were boarders.
(11) The City School at Mymensing teaches up to the Matriculation Standard.
(12) Ram Mohan Rai Seminary, at Bankipore teaches upto the Entrance Standard.
Besides there are several Charity Funds, Relief Funds, &c.
Brief History:—Pandit Shivnath Shastri in the opening article of this book has dwelt upon the origin and progress of the “Brahma Samaj of India” Page 13, Part I. Babu Satyendranath Tagore in his preface to his translation of his father’s autobiography thus notea the later development of this Samaj, Page XVII:—
“The last stage of Keshub’s theological development is that represented by the formulation of the New Dispensation. In 1881 Keshub proclaimed this Dispensation, which besides a number of rites and ceremonies adopted from our own and other systems of religion. emphasizes the fundamental unity of all religions. Its creed as propounded by its founder is shortly:—
The Harmony of all scriptures and all saints and all sects.
The Harmony of Season and Faith, of Devotion and Duty, of Yoga and Bhakti.
The Church of Universal Brotherhood. No caste or sectarianism.
The following is an extract from the creed of the New Dispensation as set forth in the “Navsanhita:”—
‘I accept and revere the Scriptures, so far as they are records of the wisdom and devotion and piety of inspired geniuses, and of the dealings of God’s providence in the salvation of nations, of which record the spirit in of the God, but the letter man’s.
I accept and revere the world’s prophets and saints as far as they embody and reflect the different elements of divincharacter, and set forth the higher ideals of life for the instruction and sanctification of the world.
‘My creed is the science of God which enlighteneth all. My gospel is the love of God which saveth all. My heaven is the life in God which is accessible to all. My church is that invisible kingdom of God, in which is all truth, all love, and all holiness.”
Calcutta. Estd. 15th May 1878.
(3) Sadharan Brahma Samaj. 2II, Cornwallis Street, Calcutta.
The Sadharan Brahmo Samaj (Universal Theistic Church ) is an organization, not local, but having mofussil samajes affiliated to or associated with it and members all over India and if possible outside.
President:—Principal Herambchandra Maitra, m.a.
Secretary:—Babu Ramanand Chatterji, M.A.
Asst. Secretaries:—Babus Anandcharan Sen, B.A., Narendranath Bose, m.a.,b.l. and Nibaranchandra Ray, m.a.
Treasurer:—Dr. Pran Krishna Acharya, m.a., m.b.
Members:—More than 800. There is an immensely large number of Brahmas who though belonging to the Samaj are not enlisted as members.
Meetings:—Divine Services on Sunday mornings and evenings; Lectures in connection with the Students’ Weekly Service, Theological Society, Sangat Sabha, Brahma Bandhu Sabha, Sunday Moral Training Classes. Divine Service is held every day in the Sadhanashram. Services are usually conducted in Bengalee and lectures in Bengalee and English.
Mandir:—The spacious Prayer Hall was consecrated on 22nd January 1981.
Missionaries:—Ordained—Pandit Sivnath Sastri, M. A., Babus Nagendranath Chatterji, Navadwip Chandra Das, Sashibhusan Bose, Nilmani Chakrawarti, Kashichandra Goshal, Gurudas Chakravarti, Hemchandra Sarkar, m.a., Bhai Prakash Dev, Babus Kaliprasanna Bose, and Kedarnath Kalavi on probation.
The following workers of the Sadhanashram of the Samaj though not ordained missionaries, do mission work—Babus Jaysankar Roy, Amritlal Gupta, Adinath Chatterji, Satischandra Chakrawarti, m.a., Hemrendranath Dutt.
Organs:- (1) Indian Messenger, a weekly in English. Rs. 4 a year. Editor—Mr. Hemchandra Sarkar, m. a., 16, Raghunath Chatterji Street, Calcutta.
(2) Tattwa Kaumudi, a fortnightly in Bengali. Rs. 3, a year. Editor—Babu Lalitmohan Das, M. A., 82/1 Harrison Road, Calcutta.
(3) A pictorial monthly paper for children, published by the Sunday Moral Training School, Rs. 1-8 a year. Editor— Baboo Hemchandra Sarkar, M.A.
Subscription:—Every member has to pay to the Samaj a minimum subscription of Re 1 a year. If a member fails to pay his subscription for two years the executive committee may strike off his name.
Celebrations:—The Samaj celebrates its foundation day on the 15th of May (1878) everywhere; but the principle Utsav is celebrated during the month of Magh the 11th of Magh (January 23rd or 24th being the day on which the Brbma Samaj was founded by Rajah Ram Mohan Rai). Besides it celebrates the Bengali New Year’s day Utsav on the 1st Baisak and the Bhadrotsav on the 6th Bhadra being the day of introduction of public worship of God by Raja Ram Mohan Roy. The usual items of the proceedings are:—Divine Services, lectures, singing processions, preaching excursions, conferences, readings from religious books and prayers, alms givings, love feasts, garden and evening parties, children’s gatherings, anniversaries of the different institutions of the Samaj and the Annual Meeting of the Samaj.