Table 1 (See the List of Subscribers Click here)
3. AKOLA – Berar Opened 22nd June 1907
The weekly prayer meetings were held practically at one centre i.e. at Janooji Free Boarding House on every Sunday when in addition to recitation of hymns and prayers a few of Ramdas’ ‘Manache’ Shlokas were explained.
The Depressed Classes held three Bhandars (religious feasts) during the year, one at Thugaon (Amraoti District) another at Mana (Akola District) and the third at Akola, at different times. The movers taking advantage of the occasion invited sympathisers from higher castes with the cause who took part in the proceedings. With the assistance of the people some social and educational topics were discussed at these meetings and resolutions were passed, to guide the community. Besides these Bhandars, on the days of Shimga, Ramnavami, Janmashtami and the Coronation Durbar some members of the branch assembled Depressed Classes people at the Maharwada and Akot File Schools and addressed them on the importance of the day and on topics of cleanliness, abstention from intoxicating substances and on education. On the Coronation Durbar day sweets and medals were distributed'to the students and the school-house was illunimated. At the request of the President Dr. T. B. Bhanage, L. M. & S., Assistant Surgeon, Akola, who voluntarily used to give medical help to the inmates of the Janooji Free Boarding house explained in a meeting of the Mahar people at the Maharwada School the bad effects of drinking on body and mind and the advantages of plague inoculation with the help of Magic lantern.
The General Secretary Mr. V. R. Shinde paid a visit to Akola to collect funds for the Central Boarding in Bombay and to see the work of the Branch. He held a meeting in the Shriram Theatre and performed a Kirtan on the Arya Samaj ground. His Sister who accompanied him collected ladies of the Maharwada at the school and advised them on the duties of women.
Mrs. Ramabai Ranade during her visit to Akola at the end of November kindly saw the Maharwada School at work.
Mrs. Venubai Namjoshi of the Anath Balikashraro, Poona,
Shri Ramdasanudas of Hanuman Gada, Wardha, and Mr. N. A. Dravid of the Servants of India Society, were the principal visitors to the Mahar Wada Night School this year.
A new night school was opened in the beginning of the year in the locality called Akot File where one Mr. Bhikajipant Godbole voluntarily taught upto the end of October when the Committee resolved to make a monthly payment of Rs. 7. As fees in government schools were much increased during the year under report the Boarders were obliged to seek public help to a much larger extent than before and the following gentlemen kindly paid:
Table (to see the Table Click here)
Mr. Deviram Kondaji, District Nazir, paid the expenses of a suit and Mr. Tipnis paid one Rupee for the clothing of the Mahar boys in the High School to enable them to join in the procession on the Coronation day.
Mrs. Bendrabai conducted the Janooji Free Boarding House, Akola, which cost her Rs. 410. There are three boys who are in High School Standard V and one in the V. School and the remaining eight are studying in the Anglo V. School.
Income and Expenditure for the year 1911
Table 1 (to see the Table Click here)
4. AMRAOTI – Berar Opened 11th Jan. 1909
There are two Night Schools one in Rajpeth and the other in the Mahajanpura, both suburban places of the city of Amraoti. In the former there are 37 boys and the average attendance is 17. In the latter there are 15 boys and the average attendance 6.2. Mr. Bupana Dhor who has given his rooms for the Mahajanpura school bears the expense of lighting. Mr. Sly, the Commissioner of Berars presented 50 oranges for distribution among the boys.
Celebrations were duly held in honour of the Coronation in both the schools. Mr. Sharangpani addressed the gathering of Dhors assembled in the pavilion specially erected before the Mahajanpura school and distributed the Medals to the students; while Mr. R. V. Paranjpe, Bar-at-law, and Sub-judge distributed them at the Rajpeth School.
The Mahars at Thugaon have organized a Bhajan Samaj i.e. a Theistic Prayer Meeting consisting of about 20 members to promote religious and social reform. Services are held twice a week. They are having a small building of their own. In April 1911 they organized a large conference which was attended by about 2000 Mahars from nearly 80 villages and also by 20 ladies and gentlemen from the higher classes some of whom went specially from Bombay and Poona.
In all Government schools in Berars students of the Depressed Classes are admitted without distinction of castes.
Table (to see the Table Click here)
5. BHAVNAGAR — Kathiawad Opened May 1911
(1) An humble attempt is made to open here one school for the children of the depressed classes in Bhavnagar under the auspices of the D.C.M. Society of India. The place where the school is located is called New Dhedwada, which is nearly two miles away from the city, near Roovapuri. The situation of the school is in the heart of the place where these people live. The school is a small building in itself and is sufficient to accommodate the present number of boys and girls and is rented by the mission on a nominal payment.
There are 40 boys and 6 girls attending the school, out of which 28 are in the Infant Class and 12 have just commenced to read the Gujrathi Primer. The girls are in the Infant Class. At present only one teacher on Rs. 10 per mensem is employed, who is a Mahomedan having previous experience in this line and who has worked in a similar school at Amreli. The working time of the school is from 11 a. m. to 4 p. m.
The average attendance of the children is 29 which is rather low and is due to the fact that some of the boys have to go for work on daily wages.
The following are the statistics of the pupils accord to their castes:
Table2 (to see the Table Click here)
The Bhavanagar centre of the D. C. M. owes its existence to Mr. V. R. Shinde, General Secy, of the D. C. M. Society of India, who visited this place in his tour in Kathiawar during the first week of May 1911. He delivered an interesting lecture in the Samaldas College Hall on the 6th of May 1911 on the elevation of the Depressed Classes under the presidentship of Diwansaheb P. D. Pattani, C.I.E., who showed his full sympathy with this movement.
The boys and girls that take advantage of this school belong to the Dhed class. They are an intelligent class of people who have natural tact and capacity for weaving cloth used generally for wear and tear. They produce strong and durable cloth which is put up for sale in the market, proverbially known as Dhed Khadi. Many of them are wholesale dealers in this article. Their dealings are honest with their merchants. Some of them who have a liking for job work have joined the State Railway and have become good drivers and mechanics. Dheds, Mahars, and Bhangis in this Province do not mix with one another for any social function, not to speak of their untouchableness. When there is such a wide gulf between them, all efforts must be made to heal these differences by education.
The school that is opened here is taken advantage of by Dhed boys only. It is maintained by raising public funds and managed by a committee of the following gentlemen:—
Dr. P. Deb (President)
Seth Kuvarji Anandji (Vice President)
Mr. L. B. Vaidya (Secy, and Treasurer)
Seth Mahomedally Abdulally
Mr. Gulabrai G. Desai
Mr. Vithaldas G. Trivedi
Mr. M. R. Bhatt
Mr. B. G. Mody
Mr. Hiraji Zina
Mr. Ebrahim Jocsub
One of the grievances of the Dheds is the scarcity of water. There is only one well for the whole Dhedwada which is almost getting dried up. On one side the effects of famine are being keenly felt and on the other, scarcity of water. They are hemmed in from all sides with difficulties and untold miseries. This is a most pitiful condition requiring prompt attention from the city fathers. I have therefore addressed the Municipal Secretary and the President of the Corporation on this subject to remedy this evil and to provide the Dheds with pipewater, which work is already in progress.
As a protection from the effects of cold weather it was thought necessary to provide the boys with clothes and accordingly a circular was drawn and sent round to all the sympathisers and subscribers, who contributed their mite promptly to this fund called the Dress Fund for which the Mission is greatly thankful to them. These clothes are prepared out of khadi cloth nicely coloured in khakhi and they are comfortable and decent.
There are 135 houses in the new Dhedwada and the population thereof is 466. They belong to 33 different
sub-castes of Dheds.
The following is the list of the subscribers and Donors
Table 3 (to see the Table Click here)
1. Mancherji R. N. Ranina, Esq (10)
2. Sheth Mahomedbhai Osman (05)
3. Sheth Noormahomed Vazir (05)
4. Chaghanbhai Mavji, Esq. (03)
Total Rs. 23
The following is the list of other helpers who gave the school some materials.
2 Chairs By Mr. J. Gooddard, Telegraph Master.
1 Table by N. J. Rajkotwala, General Merchant.
1 Time-Piece by Chaganbhai Mavji, Esq.
Slates and Books were given to the boys on the day of the opening ceremony of the school out of the public funds.
On the Coronation day the state sent us so kindly 33 medals which were distributed to the boys in addition to which they also received sweets for which this Mission is grateful to the state.
The school must have a building of its own quite separate from the dwellings of these people. It must have a spacious compound where the boys can get some manual training. In these days of famine when relief works are started everywhere, if the state gives sanction for erecting such a school building it will have accomplished a twofold object, by helping the famine stricken and supporting the cause of education of the Depressed Classes. The sum required for this purpose will be small which may be granted without requiring a special sanction.
As an experimental measure the tendency of these people should be diverted towards agriculture and farming. They are no doubt good weavers but if some of them be trained in the line of cultivating and gardening, I have no doubt they will be useful in that branch also which is a great need at present. This can be done easily by alloting to them free lands and a loan of money with a small interest on the agricultural banking system which is being introduced in small villages for improving the lot of the cultivators.
Government have passed a resolution in their recent circular that a weaving class will be attached to some school for giving facility to the spread of industrial education with an expert to guide them who will be on his tours in those districts mentioned in the resolution. I think Govt, should be requested to give effect to the scheme among the Depressed Classes schools such as in Bhavnagar where these people follow that trade and if they are made acquainted with the scientific way in which to handle the new handloom machine they will grasp it in a short time.
L. B. VAIDYA
Hon. Secy. Depressed Classes Mission
3rd February 1912.
6. DAPOLI — Dist. Ratnagiri Opened, Nov. 1908
The annual prize distribution was held on the 24th April 1911 under the Presidency of Mr. Sayad Abdul Rahiman Kadri who distributed clothes and books to the children. The boy reading in the 5th English Standard passed that standard and was promoted to the sixth and two others were promoted from the 2nd and the 3rd in that school. Another boy Janu Pandu, aided by the committee studying at Guhagar felt discouraged by his failure in the Marathi Final Examination; but at the request of the committee, Mr. Narayen pillay the Depy, Sub-Inspector appointed him teacher at the lower caste school at Parule. Encouraged by this, he appeared for and passed in the Final Examination this year. A Chambhar woman is appointed teacher in the girl school of the S. P. G. Mission and is receiving a small aid from the Depressed Classes Mission, Bombay. Mr. V. R. Shinde, General Secretary of D. C. M. visited the centre in October last when he delivered a lecture, performed a Kirtan, visited the people at their homes and renewed the sympathy of the higher classes. The committee is thankful to Mr. Brander, I. C. S., The Collector, Mr. Whitworth and Mr. Anandrao Nair of Bombay for their practical sympathy.
S. A. R. Kadri
20th January 1912.
7. HUBLI — Distr. Dharwar Opened 7th Sept. 1911
(1) This Centre was opened on the 7th of Sept. 1911 by the help of Mr. V. R. Shinde, B. A., General Secretary, D. C. M. Society of India, Bombay. The following Committee was formed. Chairman— Mr. K. R. Valveker. Vice-Chairman-Mr. S. I. Kambli, B.A., LL. B. Secretaries and Treasurers — Messrs. V. P. Wagle and T. T. Mudraddi. Members — Dr. S. I. Gore, L. M. & S., Dr. C. H. Deshapande and Mr. R. G. Barpute, B. A.
(2) In Hubli there are 5 classes, which may be included in the term "Depressed Classes” (1) Dhors, (2) Mochis, (3) Holairs or Mahars, (4) Madars and (5) Bhangis. Their condition in life is of course from every point of view the lowest.(3) There are two Municipal Schools meant exclusively for the depressed classes. In one school, there are 40 boys and 34 girls and in the other 37 boys and 10 girls. There are 3 students studying in the Lamington High School, Hubli. The abovesaid 2 schools teach Kanarese upto the 4th standard. There are two scholarships awarded by the Municipality of Rs. 2 each per month to the first boy in the 4th Standard. There are 3 male teachers in the abovementioned schools belonging to the Depressed Classes and one female teacher. The schools are working well; each of the office bearers visits the schools every fortnight. Our Chairman and Vice- Chairman who hold similar posts in the Board of Education in the Municipality are doing all in their power to elevate the Depressed Classes.
(4) Two public meetings of the Depressed Classes were held in their centres. There was a large attendance at each meeting. Different speakers addressed them on religion, abstinence from drink, education, cleanliness etc.
(5) The chief drawbacks, against which the Society has to fight are drink and complete apathy, if not antipathy, towards education. As regards drink we have appointed a committee in each locality to dissuade these people from drinking. We have also selected from among them certain persons, who have received some education to preach to them against drink and on the importance of education.
(6) In September 1911, Mr. Shinde collected here about
Rs. 500 for the Parent Society, and therefore, it was thought inadvisable to approach the people for the collection of further sums for the Hubli Centre just now. Yet we have collected sufficient amount to defray the initial expenditure.
The Centre being only 4 months old, the work done is not of course much but the Committee is trying its best to improve the depressed classes.
VINAYEK P. WAGLE.
Secretary, D. C. M.
8. MADRAS Opened Jan. 1909
Last year the Society maintained two day schools and two night schools in Vyasarpady Parachery and Perambur Chaklypoly with a total strength of 130 pupils. These schools, especially those at Vyasarpady had done good work during the year and as the number of pupils increased, it became necessary to strengthen the staff by the appointment of two additional assistant teachers. The day schools were examined by the Sub-Asst. Inspector of schools who has reported favourably on them and sanctioned a grant of Rs. 127 for the year. All the schools are managed by experienced and trained staff of teachers and had a total strength of 156 pupils on their rolls at the end of the year. Seeing the facilities afforded by the society for imparting free elementary education to the so called depressed classes, the barbers living in Choolai requested the committee to open a night school in their neighbourhood and a trial school was accordingly opened in that locality which has 20 grown up pupils on the rolls. Applications have also been received, from several depressed classes people living in various localities in and about Madras, for opening schools in their neighbourhood but for want of funds the committee have not been able to comply with their request except by deputing the workers of the Mission to visit their quarters and to speak to them on temperance, sanitation and other subjects.
The committee have two workers who in addition to the staff of teachers paid visits to different localities inhabited by the depressed classes and spoke to them on topics of temperance, cleanliness etc. for their improvement. On Sundays and other holidays moral classes and Bhajans were held at which the workers and sympathisers of the cause spoke to the elderly people on the evils of drink, importance of cleanliness, value of co-operation, education of their children and their moral improvement. This important work which was started from the very commencement of the operations of the society is being carried on successfully and has been the means for securing the help and sympathy of the elders without which it would not have been possible to make any progress in our work. The committee however regret that properly qualified men with real interest in this kind of work which necessarily takes them to dirty insanitary paracheries are not available and till such men are trained, this very desirable item of work will suffer. One of our workers also visited Trichinapoly, Tanjore, Madura and other places with a view to enlist the sympathy of the educated and well-to-do classes in the work of the society.
Among those who visited our schools during the year are Mesdames Marguerite Glotz and Allard from France, Sister Omma and brother Ramananda of the Vaidika Mission and Mr. C. Manikka Moodr of Bangalore. Besides these a number of students of local colleges and other sympathisers of the Mission also visited the schools from time to time in company of our workers and encouraged the pupils by their gifts and advice. On the occasion of the Shraddha of the lateMr. L. Rangiah Chetty, his son Mr. S. Ramanujam Chetty, M. A., B. L. kindly distributed clothes to a number of pupils of the schools and also provided them with a hearty meal. On the last Dasara Holiday a treat was got up for the pupils of Vyasarpady which was honoured by the presence of several respectable Hindu gentlemen. In addition to sports, the pupils acted scenes from the Tamil drama Gajendra Mokhsham which was much appreciated by the audience.
FINANCE AND CONSTITUTION
The Society started the work three years ago depending on the casual donations of the public but as this was not a steady source of income it was proposed to give an organisation to the Society with membership in order to secure regular subscription. With this view draft rules were drawn up and endeavours were made to enroll members but the Comrrtittee regret that they have not yet secured a decent number of members. The Society has now to meet an expence of Rs. 75 per mensem for the pay of the school teachers and allowance paid to whole time workers, rent and other charges and unless this amount could be raised by regular subscriptions it will be difficult to carry on the work already undertaken not to speak of extending the work by opening more schools in response to applications made from other localities. Moreover with the exception of the Vyasarpady School which is held in a tiled shed built by the Committee, all the other schools are accommodated in rented buildings which is not at all a satisfactory arrangement and the Committee will be happy to construct decent school houses for them which in themselves would be attractive to these dirty people. These and other demands on the Committee's resources could be met only by the hearty co-operation of the public and it is earnestly hoped that such co-operation will be forthcoming.
Excluding the last year's balance, the receipts during the year amounted to Rs. 890-11-4 and the disbursements to Rs. 899-8-11 which shows the income was not sufficient to meet the expenditure.
97, Anna Pillai Street,
G. T. Madras,
25th Jan. 1912.
9. MAHABLESHWAR Opened Nov. 1910
The Mahableshwar Industrial School
The Industrial School progresses and supplies a want in providing a decent means of support for old and infirm persons and orphan children, who would otherwise be begging in the roads.
(1) It was started in 1908, by Mrs. Jameson for this purpose, but is still very far from self-supporting, the upkeep expenses being very heavy.
Mrs. H. A. Wadya having donated Rs. 4,000 for the purchase ol Florida Lodge, the rent Rs. 200 p. a. will now be saved. This building will now be known, as the Lady Muir Mackenzie Ashram in accordance with the agreement entered into with Mrs. Wadya, at a committee meeting held on June 2nd 1911. It is hoped that some necessary alterations, and repairs will soon be undertaken, making the building more suitable for its purpose.
(2) The School contains as last year 34 pupils, men and women, and about 8 children.
Age - ages of adults range from 30 to 70 Approximately.
Age - ages of children range from 7 to 10 Approximately.
The greater number of adults are old; a few though young are so crippled that they cannot work as coolies.
Caste: — Hindus — 12, Mahomedans — 22.
(3) Committee meetings are held at Mahableshwar during hot weather season to decide questions relating to the school. Thus it was decided in May 1911 not to build the new house spoken of in last year's report but to buy the building then in use, mentioned above, its position being central and accessible to visitors, to whom it is hoped to sell the products of the school.
(4) I am unable to give any information as to probable scope for mission work in the neighbourhood, as the Committee is only concerned in the managing of this charity. The school is not a branch of the D. C. M. but only affiliated to it, some of the earlier sums being raised by Lady Muir Mackenzie under the auspices of the D. C. M. The building and funds are held by the Committee in trust for the charity and for Mrs. H. A. Wadya, chief donor.
(5) Other donations in 1911 are :—
Rs. 1000 raised by Sir Vithaldas Thackersey toward building fund as follows :—
|Sir. V. D. thackersey and PurshotumV. Manjee||250|
|Caussum Ali. J. Seerbhai||250|
|Chief of Sangli||100|
|Mr. Cursondas Hargowandas||100|
|Messrs. dharamsey M. Goculdas, Morarji N. Goculdas||100|
|Mr. Dwarkadas Gordhandas||100|
|Hon. Sec. Muir Mackenzie fund unspent balance||100|
|Also, chequ from dubash Bros.||1000|
|Also, Balance from the jameson entertainment Fund. May 1911||3000|
|and Various other donations as follows: -|
| H. E. sir G. Clarke
| A hill
| Chief of Jamkhandi
| dharamsey M. Goculdas
| F. H. Albless
| Byramjee Pudumjee
| M. S. Weldon
|Sapoorjee Eduljee chenai||15|
|W. t. Morison||20|
|R. A. Lamb||225|
|D. N. Wadia||10|
|Dady N. Dady||10|
(These details have been sent to me and the latter sum must, I think be an error.)
(6) The aloe plantation belonging to the school is not yet ready to supply it with fibre. When this is so, the heavy expense incurred in buying the latter will be lessened.
(7) Cotton bed tapes and large and small ropes of aloe fibre, all of exceptionally good quality are made, also matting in various colours, coir ropes and strings.
Ropes can be sold locally to a small extent, the people gladly buying them, and the Public Works Office gave a large order last year. Bed-tape though exceptionally good has to be disposed off at a distance at a loss.
It is hoped the visitors to the Hill will more and more visit the school and avail themselves of the opportunity to buy good articles at moderate cost.
L. R. Prior
(Acting Hon. Sec., M. I. S.)
10. MALVAN – Dist. Ratnagiri Opened 20 October 1911
The following have become the members and subscribers of our centre. Rao Bahadur Madhaorao Somaji Moray,
Mr. Rayaji, Dattatraya Pai Inamdar, Mr. Sitaram Gundoba Keni, Mr. Govindrao Narayan Gogate, B.A., LL.B.,
Mr. Ramchandra Narayan Fanasgaokar (Pleader), Mr. Govind Vithal Vaze, Mr. Baburao Gopal Varadkar, B. A., Headmaster! Anant Shivaji Desai High School, Malvan, Mr. Krishnarao Sitaram Desai, Mr. Narayan Babaji Chavan, Mr. Rajaram Vinayak Kulkarni, Mr. A. S. Farnandez (Pensioner), Mr. Anant Govind Gadkar, Mr. Shivram Vithoji Gadkar (Pensioner Nazar), Mr. Keshao Krishna Kulkarni, Mr. Bhagvan Tatoji Gaokar,
Dr. Ghanashyam Sabaji Kasle, Mr. Vinayak Vasudeo Ajgaokar, B.A., Dr. Narayanrao Sadashio Desai, Mr. Narayanrao Pandurang Bhandarkar(Retired Engineer), Mr. Atmaram Sadashiv Kelkar, Mr. Sitaram Vishnu Apte, Mr. Vishnu Pandurang Chipkar (Pensioner), Mr. Raghunath Balkrishna Dangi (Pleader), Mr. Vaman Vasudev Patade, Mr. Anantrao Vasudeo Bhandarkar, Mr. Tukaram Narayan Gaokar, Mr. Suleman Wald Abdul Golandaj, Mr. Bapuji Narayan Samant, Mr. Krishnaji Vithoji Malvankar, Mr. Arjun Shivaji Bhagat (Pensioner), Military Subhedar, Mr. Keshav Abaji Gaokar, Atmaram Vyankaji Adarkar, Dr. Rajaram Vasudeo Ajgaokar (L. M. & S.), Mr. Shivram Balkrishna Kalsekar. Mr. Hari Bhikaji Apte (B. A.), Mr. Sakharam Pandu Khot.
On 12 Dec. 1911 suits of clothes were distributed to about 150 Low caste students — boys and girls — and about 400 Mahars and Chambhars were fed with good dishes.
The Malvan Municipal Low Caste School was twice visited by some of the members of our Committee.
The Committee hopes to make good progress in the undertaking. There is great likelihood that the Committee will gain sympathies of the general public hereof. One merchant of Malvan, a member of the Committee, has shown moral courage to engage chambhar women and children in cleaning his goods to the satisfaction of the Committee. The Committee hopes also that the pupils of the Depressed Classes will be to some extent benefitted by the Anant Shivaji Desai High School. Some Mahar and Chambhar boys are studying in the fifth and sixth standards of the Malvan Dewulwada Vernacular School who are fit for admission into the Central Boarding School at Parel; but no boy can be sent for the present as the parents are unwilling to part from their sons on account of their young age.
This centre was opened by the exertions of Mr. V. R. Shinde, B. A., the General Secretary, D. C. M. Society of India when lately on lour to Malvan. He addressed a large gathering including both classes and masses, which resulted in the formation of the local Committee of the D. C. M. Society on the 20th October 1911 which consists of the following members, with powers to add to their number.
(1) RaoBahadur Madhawrao Somaji Morey.
(2) Mr. Rayaji Dattatraya Pai, Inamdar, Secretary.
(3) Mr. Sitaram Gundoba Keni, Secretary and Treasurer.
(4) Mr. Govindrao Narayan Gogate, B. A., LL. B.
(5) Mr. Ramchandra Narayan Fanasgaokar, Pleader.
(6) Mr. Suleman wald Abdul Golandaja.
(7) Mr. Govinda Vithal Waze.
(8) Mr. Baburao Gopal Waradkar, B.A., Head Master Anant Desai's High School, Malwan.
(9) Mr. Krishnarao Sitaram Desai.
(10) Mr. Narayan Babaji Chavan, Chambhar Master Low Caste School, Malwan.
On this side of the Malbar coast, it can be safely said, that this place is mentally far advanced on having constant communication with Bombay and for some other local reasons. So the ground was prepared and was waiting for the seed to be sown, which was done by the opportune arrival of Mr. V. R. Shinde, B. A.
The Depressed Classes here maintain themselves by hard labour such as wood cutting, stone breaking; stonewall building, reclamation of lands &c. and also on wicker work. In days gone by people used even to avoid their shadows but now they are not kept at such a long distance. This was clearly experienced in the procession that started here on the 12th of December, the day of the celebration of the Coronation ceremony of our beloved King Emperor and Queen-Empress of India, when the low caste students were included therein without any sort of feeling of abhorance. Here are two geneal classes of low caste people viz. Mahars and Chambhars. Their population will come to about 500 in Malwan proper and that in the taluka is not less than two thousand strong. They are wretched in condition having no pecuniary means to raise themselves in the absence of freedom from exclusion.
Here the business of breaking cashu-nuts is carried on extensively and that labour pays very dear. The men dealing in that trade are from the upper classes of Hindus who are afraid to employ the labour of the depressed classes lest they would have to lose their brokers and Purchasers of the goods who are generally Bhatias of Bombay who are supposed to be very orthodox. If any Mahomedan or other rich merchant or any company at Bombay where the goods are sent for sale will be
ready to undertake this business, of course then, the labour of the low caste people will be accepted and that will go a far way to better their condition and that will be taking a short cut at the wisfled for object of the Mission. Though this will seem to be a silly proposal at the first sight, it will certainly work wonders in case it is brought into practice. If anybody interested in these low caste people will open the business of rope making from coir which is abundant here, he will kill two birds with one shot. This means he will get cheap labour from these people and they in turn will be able to get their daily bread easily by their personal labour.
SITARAM GUNDOBA KENI
RAYAJI D. PAI, Inamdar
13 January, 1911.
11. MANGALORE Opened 1898
1. Managing Committee —
Messrs. U. Raghunathaya, Pensioner and Landholder, President. A. Srinivas Pai, B. A., B. L., High Court Vakil; Shesa Bhat Bhide, B. A., B. L., Pleader; A. Balkrishna Shetty, F. T. S., Landholder; Dr. M. S. Rao, F. T. S., L. R. C. P. & S., L. F. P. & S. 4 L. M. M.; Narsappa, Clerk, Messrs. Pierce Leslie & Co; G. Krishna Rao, B. A., LL. B., Pleader, Treasurer; and K. Ranga Rao, Secretary.
2. The Mission maintains the following institutions;
1. A Day School for boys and girls.
2. A Boarding House for grown up students.
3. A Night School.
4. An Industrial Institute.
5. A Small colony of Panchama families.
3. The Day School - The school had 80 Panchama Pupils - 69 boys and 11 girls - divided into 5 classes viz. the infant, I, II, III & IV standards and was manned by three teachers two of whom were Panchamas. Owing to the temporary absence of two of the experienced teachers and the admission of the new and inexperienced in their place, the progress of the school children suffered to some extent and the results at the annual examination were not as satisfactory as in the previous year. The following are the remarks recorded by the Inspecting Officer at the Annual examination which was held on 4th December, 1910. "The teaching of the Geography of the town, School Mottoes, Colours and Forms, Weighing and Measuring, Postal Information, Manuscript Reading, and Mental Arithmetic, require much attention. In general knowledge the lower classes especially, are poor. It is satisfactory that clay modelling, sticklaying, seed placing, and paper folding, are taught as manual occupations. Two boys learn weaving also. Paper- cut-ting too may be done in classes II to IV. The garden is very fair. Singing is good. The general condition of the school is fair. I would propose some more grant as before."
The instruction in the school is free, and the pupils being the children of miserables, are supplied with books, slates, and stationery as well as dress and umbrellas,-and as they come from great distances a daily midday meal is also given to all in the school premises — all free of charge.
The year closed with 78 pupils on the roll — 69 boys and 9 girls.
The total cash expenditure incurred on account of the school is Rs. 500-12-9. The school received a grant of Rs. 139-0-0 from the Municipal funds during the year under report, as a result of the annual inspection held in December, 1910.
4. The Rice Fund - The total quantity of rice collected during the year from weekly donors as well as from others is 20 Mooras and 341/2 seers. In addition to this 10 Mooras and 321/2 seers of rice was purchased during the year to meet the demand as occasion arose.
5. The Boarding House - This institution was started in 1908 with the object of giving moral and spiritual instruction to grown up Panchama students and to train them to habits of cleanliness and good manners in addition to the training in some industry, in the hope that when they returned home after their discharge, they might exercise a leavening influence among their community. They are forbidden liquor and smoking and are not allowed to go home without permission. No more than eight youths are admitted at a time. During the year under report there were 12 inmates in this institution, 7 of whom were discharged. A decent and commodious building for the occupation of the boarders and for the use of the school children for their midday meal is being built.
6. The Night School - A night school was started with one Panchama teacher in charge of it, for the benefit of Panchama Coolies in the beginning of June 1911, and an application was made to the educational authorities for recognition and aid under the grant-in-aid code. The strength however which rose from 9 to 23, soon began to fall. The pupils being mostly hardworking day-labourers obliged to come to school from great distances after the day's labour, could not be Punctual in attendance and would come to school so late as 9.30 p.m. and would soon become drowsy and unfit for instruction. The application made for recognition and aid was therefore withdrawn. The Committee in their meeting as however resolved upon continuing the school for whatever benefit it might bring to the pupils. The school however came to an end. The experience gained in this connection has shown that no night school can be successfully maintained for these scattered people unless and until a centre is formed by making a good number of families live in one compact locality, which want, our colony scheme is calculated to supply. The expenditure incurred on account of the night school is Rs. 21-10-1.
7. The Industrial Institute - The Institute produced only 2,7331/2 yards of cloth and sold 30511 yards which includes some cloth of the previous year. The total cash receipts and expenditure were 966-11-7 and 998-6-1 respectively. The weaving was done with flyshuttle handlooms. Owing to the competition of the power looms, this industry does not meet with sufficient encouragement.
8. The Eri Silk Industry - The experiment made in 1909 and 1910 in rearing eri silk worms having proved successful a temporary farm was opened, attached to the school. The worms throve very well and produced good cocoons which were exhibited in the Madras Agri- Horticultural Exhibition. The climate of this district having been found to be congenial for this industry and the expert opinion obtained in this connection having been favourable, the Collector of the District was addressed on the subject for money help and at his recommendation the Government sanctioned a grant of Rs. 500 from the Local Funds. One of the weavers of our institute was at first sent to the Government Agricultural College, Coimbitore, for training in this industry. He however returned, on account of ill-health before completing the course. A more competent man who was in the employ of the Bassel German Mission was thereupon sent to the Government Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa, at the end of September last with the permission of his superiors who granted him 4 months' leave with pay for the purpose. The man has returned with the necessary qualifications and a diploma from the College authorities. Every attempt will be made in the current year to popularize this industry and make it a cottage industry in the homestead of the poor, in this District. A model farm will be maintained attached to the school and the construction of a building for the purpose has already commenced.
9. The Panchama Colony - The construction work in connection with this scheme progressed more satisfactorily during the year than in the previous year. 5 tiled buildings and 9 huts of a temporary nature and two wells were constructed during the year. The well sanctioned by the District Board at a cost of Rs. 500 could not be finished before monsoon set in and is expected to be completed in the current year. From the 100 timber trees granted to us by the Government in the previous year, we got 868 rafters and appeals were sent to sympathising gentlemen for help. Two kinds of homesteads are now being built. As the mud work is done by the occupants themselves and a portion of the timber required has been supplied by the Government the estimated minimum cost of a building is Rs. 36 for one of the smaller size and Rs. 50 for the larger. Messrs C. P. Ramaswami Iyer, S. Kasturi Ranga lyangar, and S. Shrinivasa lyangar of Madras, Mr. C. Viraraghava Chariar of Salem and the Hindu Distress Relief Fund on behalf of Lala Lajpat Rai of Lahore, and an anonymous donor of Manjeshwar gave us money help, each to build one homestead on his behalf. Revd. Mr. Shinde, General Secretary of the D.C.M. Society of India sent us Rs. 300 on behalf of some sympathising gentlemen of Hubli for erection of one block under the name of the Hubli Block. The construction work on this block has already begun. A big well constructed at a cost of nearly Rs. 500 mainly with the help of money contributed by our Indian brethren in the Andamans most of whom were members of the Temple Club in Port Blair, was completed and has been named the Andaman well. A tablet will be put up in memory of the charity of these gentlemen. Another big well not yet completed will be dedicated to Rai Saheb N. Sadasiva Pillay whose active sympathy for our depressed fellow-beings here popularized our movement in the Andamans and brought us liberal money help. We take this opportunity to gratefully acknowledge the sum of Rs. 200 also which Leut. Col. H. A. Browning sent us in December last on behalf of the members of the Temple Club as a gift in honour of the visit of Their Most Gracious Majesties King George V and Queen Empress Mary to India. We cannot adequately express our gratitude to these gentlemen for the material help so kindly given to our depressed fellow-beings here on this auspicious occasion of the epoch-making visit of our sovereign and his consort to our country.
The Committee have also resolved upon dedicating one well to the late lamented Mr. Amembal Subbarao in grateful memory of the valuable help he rendered to the Mission. It might be needless to say that it was with, his help and in a meeting held under his presidentship that our Mission was organized.
9. General - The Coronation Durbar was celebrated by our Mission with great eclat under the presidency of our District Judge Mr. V. Venugbpal Chetty, I.C.S. who has been giving us liberal support since his arrival here. The local European and Indian gentry graced the occasion with their presence. The local Durbar Celebration Committee gaveia liberal contribution of Rs. 62-12-0 and 3 muras of rice. A notable featur-of the celebration was the distribution of valuable presents and a sumptuous dinner to the school children and the elderly Panchamas and their passing in a grand procession through the principal streets of the town carrying the pictures of Their Majesties in a Mantapam singing Coronation odes and other songs, invoking divine blessings on the rule of His Majesty. The procession passed with tomtom of the kind
used by the higher classes a privilege not enjoyed by Panchama Classes hitherto. The success of this celebration is due mainly to the unstinted charity of Dr. and Mrs. L. P. Fernandes of St. Mary's Pharmacy. Dr. Fernandes has been the helper of our movement from its outset and has been moreover giving medical help to our school children and the staff ungrudgingly.
The total income from all sources during the year under report was Rs. 3,489-0-10 and the expenditure Rs. 2,696-2-11.
K. RANGA RAO
Mangalore, 30th January 1912.
Statement of Cash Account of the Depressed Classes Mission, Mangalore (for the year ending 31st Deceber 1910) To
Table (See the Statement Clik here)
12. SATARA Opened 1904
1. There are two schools for the depressed classes in Satara. The day-school which was originally started in 1902 by the Prarthana Samaj here but was subsequently taken up by the Local Municipality and the night-school which is still managed by the Local Prarthana Samaj. The number of boys in the day-school during the year 1911 was 59 and in the night-school 28. Most of these are Mangs and Mahars and a few Chambhars. The average attendance is good only about 5 p. c. being absent on an average.
2. The first meeting during the year under report was held on the 16th January 1911 the death anniversary of the late Mr. Justice Ranade, and was presided over by Mr. R. R. Kale. That the low caste community has begun to understand the value of self-reliance and self-help is clear from the fact that donations to the extent of Rs. 25 and monthly subscriptions amounting to Rs. 6-6-0 were collected on the spot from among the members of the Community for being spent on educational purposes. The meeting was addressed among others by three members of the community itself. In the Shimaga-Holidays the Liberal Association of this place had arranged for innocent sports and other healthy entertainments to divert the people from indulging in obscene songs and mud-sports and it is a matter for congratulation that a very large number of the depressed classes abstained from the usual loose and obscene practices and took part in the various engagements provided by the Liberal Association and above all a very large number abstained from drinking and swore that they would abandon it in future.
3. Another move in the direction of improving the low and frivolous tastes of these people is the resolution come to by Mahars of certain villages in this District not to perform or attend Tamashas but to perform Bhajans and Kirtans instead. This was partly due to the excellent Kirtans which Baizabai of Sasawad belonging to the Mahar Community performed at the Bangalow of Mr. R. R. Kale and the impressive sermons preached in this place. Baizabai had been staying here for some time and it was hoped to accomplish a good deal of improvement among the low caste community with her assistance but the cruel hand of death suddenly carried her away in June last. On the Ashadhi Ekadashi she breathed her last and the sad event spread a gloom over the whole town. Her dead body was carried in procession with great pomp through the town at the request of several friends and sympathisers who attended the funeral. When I had been to my country residence at Pusegaon village on the Pandharpur Road in this District I found that the Mahars had given up singing Lavanis and taken to singing Bhajan songs instead.
4. There are more than one Co-operative Credit Societies formed by members of the low castes viz. a Society of Bhangees, another of Chambhars, a third of mangs and another again of Dhors and the benefits derived therefrom are very much appreciated by them. The Bhangees have been able to wipe off their old and heavy debts of Pathan Sawkars and are now building houses for those who could have ill afforded to do so formerly. The Chambars and Dhors are prospering in their trade and the Mangs have turned out some of them very good tailors and getting the benefit of their joint capital are enabled to buy cloth and make into fine clothes ready for sale.
5. During the year under report there were no donations received and the only income derived was that from the monthly subscribers Messrs. Kale, Pathak, Devadhar, Karandikar and Nabar, and the Government grant as shown in the statement of account for 1911.
6. Mr. V. R. Shinde, General Secretary, D. C. M., visited this town in July with his sister Janabai when they visited and gave some good advice to the depressed classes. Mr. Shinde also conducted divine service on the Gokul Ashtami day which was attended by a large number of women in addition to the male members of the community. Mr. Shinde gave a lecture in the Local Arthur Hall which was well-attended and was impressive and instructive. He was able to collect some money for the Depressed Classes Funds.
R. R. KALE
13th Jany. 1912.
13. THANA Opened 17th October 1909
This centre was established on the 17th October, 1909. The Managing Committee through its Secretaries succeeded in inducing the Thana Municipality to award scholarships to the pupils attending the School regularly 15 days in a month at the following rates since July 1910 which has been still continued.
III Standard - 4 annas a month.
II Standard - 3 annas a month.
I Standard - 2 annas a month.
The Secretaries approached the parents of the boys and girls and explained to them the advantages of sending their children to the school.
The Committee has sent in an application to the Municipality to establish a night-school, as they expect a goodly number of boys during night time; since the majority of grown up children go out for work to assist their parents, a night-school is badly wanted.
A Chokha Mela Bhajan Griha is badly wanted where the people can assemble and offer their devotions to the Almighty. The Secretaries Messrs Padhye and Lad with this object in view delivered some lectures before a large number of Mahars. The result was that the people collected a sum of Rs. 36 and erected a shed on a piece of land for this purpose. A subscription list will shortly be opened and such people as are diposed to contribute will be approached. There is a general clamour on the part of the people to make this religious institution a success. The Hindu Temples are shut to them. The people must have some sort of place or temple where they can perform Bhajan.
The Committee regrets very much to lose the services pf Mr. R. B. Gupte, B. A., LL. B., on his transfer as a Subordinate Judge in the Nasik District. He took great interest in the mission work.
On the Coronation day clothes were distributed to 24 boys and 6 girls at the hands of Khan Bahadur Dr. Moos, President of the Municipality and Mrs. Wales, Mrs. Adwani the wife of the District Judge took kindly interest in the Institution by personally visiting the school and distributing sweet-meats to the children.
The Total number of Depressed Classes population in the Thana town is as follows:—
Mahars between 300 and 400
Chambhars about 50 to 100
Mangs nearly 20
Grand Total 63-00-00
Coolie hire 00-12-00
Grand Total 63-05-06
Santooji Ramji Lad
(Secretary & Treasurer)
Thana, Bombay Road.
8th Jan. 1912.
14. KOLHAPUR Opened 9th February 1908
This Society was established and a fund was started on the 9th of Feb. 1908, with the object of promoting the welfare of the untouchable classes by assisting promising students from among these classes to a liberal education with the hope that capable leaders would thus be raised up amohg them.
In accordance with the objects named, some students were selected in March 1908 and a teacher for the work of St. IV (Vernacular) was appointed. At the same time efforts were made to secure admission for a few others into the State Schools where they could be educated along with boys of the higher classes and they are by orders of His Highness so admitted.
On enquiry it was found that 119 Students in the State had passed the IVth Vernacular standard and to 25 of these prizes in the form of books were given. Small prizes for cleanliness were also given and this procedure has a marked effect upon the families from which the students come, who are learning that cleanliness and simple clothing is more seemly than dress of a more expensive but dirty kind.
In the course of 1909 the necessity of a Boarding House began to be felt and efforts were made to supply the need. H. H. the Maharajahsaheb at once gave the project a definite shape by generously supplying the Society with a building and by making an annual grant of Rs. 300. The Boarding house was named The Miss Violet Clarke Boarding House as a tribute to that Lady's interest in the welfare of the Depressed Classes. Six students were admitted free of charge.
A new Society called The Shri Shahu Patitoddharak Mandali which confines its energies to its own town of Pattankudi (पट्टणकुडी) was founded in the same year and has been doing excellent work.
In 1910 great encouragement was given by His Holiness Shri Shankarcharya of the Karawir Peeth expressing his approval of the work of the Society and becoming a subscriber to its funds. It is not unreasonable to hope that His Holiness' action will stimulate the interest of those who look to him as their guide.
In 1911 the work of the society was continued on the lines laid down; but as it expanded it necessarily entailed additional expenditure. The number of students in the hostel rose to sixteen in 1911 and the care of these has become a serious responsibility. It is imperative that a resident Superintendent should be appointed and we hope our appeal for more help will be answered in a way to make this possible. Of the students in the hostel the expenses of all but one are borne by the Society.
Of those at present in residence, one is in English St. I, 9 in St. II, 4 in St. III & 1 in St. IV and 1 in the 2nd year of the Technical School. Two of these 16 have got the prizes of the 1st number in their classes. Eleven have passed, three promoted to the higher standards and two are detained in the same.
This year the committee passed an important resolution viz. that the students in the hostel be obliged to do some sort of hard work for about two hours every day (from 5 to 7 p. m.) that they may not lose the habit of undergoing physical labour.
The Principal of the Rajaram College has been pleased to give his opinion of the students as follows:-
"The boys from the Miss Clarke Boarding House are very well-conducted and painstaking, they give no trouble and with few exceptions show that they are quite capable of doing justice to the efforts of those who believe that they can be raised from their present lowly condition. I hope the good work would go on and prosper as it deserves.”
Year Income Expenses
1909 Rs. 544 Rs. 407-2-9
1910 Rs. 719 Rs. 565-14-8
1911 About Rs. 880 About Rs. 950-0
A. B. Olkar
22nd January, 1912.
Anuual Subscriptions received in 1911
Table (To See the Report Click here)
Cash Donations received in Bombay 1911
N. B.:- The lists given below do not include the donations to the Rupee Fund which are separately accounted.
Table 1 (To See the Report Click here)