List of Donors Subscribers

Table 1 (To see the list click here)
Affiliated Centres

 3. Akola (Berar)    Opened 22nd June 1907
V. M. Mahajani, Esqr. M.A. (President)
R. B. Deorao Vinayak (Vice-President)
S. C. Hosali, Esqr. B.A., Bar-at-Law (Secretary)
V. D. Bhat, Esqr, B.A., LL.B. (Secretary)
N. W. Harkare, Esqr. (Secretary)
R. V. Mahajani, Esqr., B.A., LL.B. (Treasurer)

V. K. Rajwade, Esqr. B.A., LL.B.
S. D. Cama, Esqr. B.A., LL.B.
N. L. Samel, Esqr. B.A., LL.B.
A. V. Khare, Esqr. B.A., LL.B.
H. B. Parchure, Esqr. B.A. (Asst. Master, High School)
N. B.    Vengurlekar, Esqr. (Drawing Teacher A. V. Schools)

The following volunteers from the Depressed Classes are selected lo promote the movement :-

Mr. Nanduji Shivaji
Mr. Keruji
Mr. Sambhu Ansu
Mr. Luxman Shankar
(All of Akola)

 It was resolved by the Committee that this branch should correspond with the parent Mission as well as with other branches of the same.

The weekly prayer meetings are held at three centres in succession (1) The Maharwada Night School, (2) The Janooji Free Boarding House and (3) Mr. Hosali’s house, on every Sunday morning. At these meetings in addition to reciting hymns and prayers, sermons on religious subjects and lectures on other useful topics are given.

 Events of the Years :-

 Five meetings were held during the year. Two of these were convened by the Committee suggested by the Social Reform Association, Bombay, one in each year when short reports of the annual work were read. The meetings were largely attended by the Mahar community and members of other Hindu castes were present; the Parsi and Mahommedan communities were also represented. The meeting of the second year was kindly presided over by the Commissioner of the Province; the Deputy Commissioner of the Akola District, and the District and Sessions Judge of the West Berar Division, Mr. Kelkar had graced it by their presence. Speakers from all communities took part in the proceedings. The Committee is thankful to Mr. Bashiruddin, liquor contractor of Akola, who in this meeting made a generous donation of Rs. 300 for the work of the mission in response to the appeal made by Mr. V. M. Mahajani for help. In this meeting Mr. Hosali, Bar at-law, declared his intention to distribute clothes worth Rs. 10 to the inmates of the Janooji Free Boarding House. Prizes were distributed by the President in the form of books given by Mr. V. M. Mahajani to the boys of the Maharwada Night School. One prize announced in December 1909 by Mr. H. B. Parchure to be awarded to a family that would be found always keeping their house and surroundings clean in the Akola Maharwada was won by Bhivsen. The prize consisting of clothes worth Rs. 6-6-0 was also given at this meeting to the man and his wife. Similarly prizes in books were given to those of the inmates of the Janooji Free Boarding House who showed good work in Sunday lessons.

 The depressed classes themselves held in the two years under report, three meetings, one at Paras and two at Akola. These were of the nature of 'Bhandara,’ when all caste people joined at a dinner and Bhajan party. Taking advantage of the occasion the leaders of the caste invited their sympathisers from other castes to speak on some useful topics. At the Paras meeting, besides some ten gentlemen that specially went from Akola, there were present two ladies Mrs. Yashodabai Agarkar (widow of Principal Agarkar) and Mrs. Vaidya (widow of Ganpatrao Vaidya of the Edl. Department).

 A handloom purchased by the Committee chiefly with the help of Mrs. Bendrabai (Janooji’s widow) was set up at the time of the annual meeting in 1909 as a beginning of an industrial class for the inmates of the Janooji Boarding House. The Committee is trying to secure a teacher for want of whom the class has been closed.

 Institutions under Supervision

 Akola Maharwada Night Class : The class continues to work satisfactorily. The highest standard now reached is the third of the Primary schools. Its present strength is forty. Messrs. Mahajanis as usual defray the expenses with the help of Dr. Kolhatkar and Messrs. Rajwade and Samel, Pleaders. We beg to quote a portion of the remarks of Mr. Rustomji, Offg. Commissioner, who visited the school in September last : “Religious and moral lectures are given on Sundays. One given by Mr. V. M. Mahajani was listened to with great interest. It is to the credit of the Akola town that the gentlemen who have interested themselves in the cause of the Depressed Classes are Brahmins and judging from what I saw the results are most encouraging.”

2. Janooji Free Boarding House :— Mrs. Bendrabai maintains this institution for Mahar students who at present number about a dozen. When the Commissioner visited it in September last he observed, “The institution costs the late Janoo’s widow about Rs. 600 a year. The boarders were in excellent condition and well clothed and evidently Mrs. Janoo takes a personal interest in the boys. The institution does credit to this lady.”

3. Paras Night Class :- The class shows again at present average attendance of 25 which had gone much low during some months past. There are two standards taught. The class is recommended for a grant by the Inspector of Schools.

Other Activities
A night class is conducted by a Mahar gentleman named Poonaji Pairu with the assistance of his caste people at Wadegaon in the Balapur Taluka of the Akola District.

Mr. N. W. Harkare has been helping this centre by his visits to different towns. He has secured for this cause the sympathy of many of the people as well as that of Government officers.

It is sometimes said that the Mahars in this province are well off and that the word “depressed” is wrongly applied to them. We need only say in this matter that these people are generally depressed both socially and religiously, though some families can be found lucky enough to maintain themselves well by handicrafts and contracts. Elevation of these classes, therefore, requires strenuous efforts from all sympathisers to raise funds and find workers devoting themselves to the cause.

Table (To see the Statement click here)

 4. AMRAOTI — Berar       Opened 11th Jan. 1909

If ever the question of the Depressed Classes was discussed in this city (Amraoti) it was for the first time in May 1907 when Mr. V. R. Shinde, the General Secretary of the D. C. M. Society of India, visited this city and delivered a lecture on the elevation of the Depressed Classes, in the City Library under the presidency of Mr. Pridaux, the then District Judge of this place. The lecture had a very good effect on the audience. Mr. Shinde then sent in November 1908 Mr. Bhalekar as a Missionary of the Society to work in Berar, who for two months prepared the minds of the people of the various Depressed Classes by lectures, conversations and personal contact. The result was that the well-known leader of the Reform cause in Berar Mr. M. V. Joshi came forward with an offer of Rs. 10 per month which with the assistance of other prominent persons, Mr. Mudholkar, Dr. Bhat &c., led to the opening of the first Night School at Patipura on the 11th of January 1909.


(1) A Night School was opened in Patipura, a suburb of Amraoti on the 11th  January 1909. This locality is occupied by Mahars. On the opening day about 20 Mahar boys were present. This school continued in existence for nearly 12 months.

On account of the cotton season boys ceased to attend the school. Ultimately it was found that the boys and men of this locality did not care even to receive the rudiments of education and so the managers thought it best to close the Night School altogether. The Managing Committee was ready to carry on this school but the people did not like to avail themselves of the benefits of instructions so freely offered.

(2) The Mahajanpura School was opened on the 19th February 1910. It has been in existence now. This school had on its roll on the 31st Dec. 1910, 37 boys. In 1910 average number of learners on the roll is 37.5.

In 1909 the average number of learners was 22.5.

In this school the castes of the learners are as follows :-
Kunbi                        1
Butcher                     3
Mahars                      4
Shepherd                   1
Musalman                  2
Dhor —Tanners of Leather   25
Chambhar — Shoe-maker    1
            Total            37

People in the locality are mostly leather tanners. Some of them own fields also. Most of them are day labourers and live by earning daily wages. People are poor. These people are desirous of learning. Mr. Bapuna Dhor & pretty big landholder has given part of his house for the use of school which is held at night from 7 p.m. to 9 p.m. He has also given a clock for the use of the school and a chair.

Mr. Balappa Wani has given a table and a chair for the use of the school. The rest of the materials required for school are purchased with the subscriptions collected.

(3) A night class was opened on 1-10-1909 at Rajapeth. The class is held in the Municipal school. 15 boys on the roll. Daily average attendance 8.4. On the 31st Dec. 1909 there was a daily average attendance 8.4.

On the 31st December 1910 there were 18 boys on roll.

Castes of the learners are as follows :
Marathi Teli            2
Gujar                    7    
Mali                      1
Kunbi                   4    
Gondhali               1            
Kangar                 1
Kumbhar(Potter)   1
Rajput                  1
        Total            18

The classes are held from 7 p.m. to 9 p.m.

All the 18 learners in this school are day labourers and earn their living by wages. The people are poor. There is no scope for other class or school in this locality.

The following extract is taken from the Government Education Report published in the C.P. Gazette :-

The education of the Mahars, Mangs, Chamars and others of the lowest castes advances slowly. There is considerable difference of opinion as to how far this is to be ascribed to opposition of the higher castes and how far to the apathy of the lower castes themselves. No doubt the backwardness of these classes is to be referred to both causes; but there are unmistakeable signs of a change especially in the South of the provinces. The more sophisticated of the Mahars and other low castes have acquired new ambitions and a wider outlook; in one town there are Mahar Municipal members, in another a Mahar newspaper has been established. This activity on the side of the low castes finds its compliment on the other side in the schools for low castes which were established by Brahman gentlemen in Berar. (The Italics are ours.) In spite of these evidences of progress, it is still reported from Berar that although wherever there are Government or Board School buildings, Mahars are allowed to study inside the buildings, the Masters frequently neglect them in favour of boys of better castes : while in schools held in private buildings, members of the untouchable castes are relegated to the verandahs.

The following are the names of gentlemen who subscribe towards the expenditure of these two schools.
Table  (To see the name chart clik here)

Monthly income from subcriptions from the above named gentlemen is Rs. 19. Monthly expenses on these schools amount to Rs. 19.

(Hon. Secretaries)
Amraoti, 15-1-11

5. DAPOLI    Opened

Second Annual Report of
(For the two years ending 31st December 1910)

Mr. Sayad Abdul Rahman Kadri (Pensioner) [President]
Mr. Sadashiv Laxman Salvi.
„ Sakharam Laxman (Pensioner) [Subhedar]
„ Sadoba Sakharam.    ,,        ,,
„ Nagoo Balooji (Pensioner)
„ Mahadev Raghoji Chinchwadkar.
„ Shivram Ramji Talsurkar.
„ Laxman Pamji Khopkar [Assistant Secretary]

(Dr. Waman Ambaji Warti, Secretary and Treasurer, having been transferred from Dapoli, the President has the additional charge of these offices from the year 1911.)

Dapoli Taluka includes a considerable number of people belonging to the so-called low castes. Amongst them are some Mahars and Chamars who have served as Commissioned Officers in the Army and have followed other occupations in different parts of India and now live in Dapoli on the pensions and other means earned by them; but age is helping the cruel hand of death in snatching away some of them every year, and as the doors of the Military Department have lately been closed against these communities, as being the undesirable castes, it has become impossible to see amongst them new pensioners and others earning a decent living. Some of them have a record of meritorious services in the army, and if some public-spirited gentleman could come forward to take up their cause and induce the benign Government to re-open the doors of the Military Dept, to them, he would certainly earn for himself the ever-lasting gratitude of these humble people.

On their own part, some of the members of these communities have in the past tried the means at their disposal, and I am glad to observe that their efforts have met with some measure of success. Their boys had no access to the local vernacular school before 1894. Unable to put up with this degrading position, they moved the Government authorities concerned in the matter and the authorities were gracious enough to order that their boys should be admitted to that school just as boys belonging to other castes.

The authorities have lately gone a step further by directing that these boys should be admitted to the said school without any charge for tuition. The Government have also reserved as many as 10 Scholarships for the boys of these classes exclusively, by way of direct encouragement to them.

I am sorry, however, that a considerable portion of these communities have not realised the importance of these concessions and have not yet availed themselves of these facilities of providing education to their children. I have already stated above that the social status of these people living in this town is becoming worse every day. Under such circumstances, some of the leading members of these communities and a few sympathisers, on hearing of the work of the Depressed Classes Mission Society of India acquainted themselves with it. Being advised and encouraged by the general Secretary of that Society, they convened a meeting of the residents of this place and the adjoining villages, in the maidan on the 16th November 1908 under the Presidency of Mr. Sayad Abdul Rahman Kadri, a leading Mahomedan pensioner residing in the town. The meeting was attended by several prominent members of the untouchable classes and their sympathisers from other castes. It was resolved that organised efforts should be made to rescue the depressed classes from their present undesirable condition and to induce the younger members of these communities to take advantage of the educational facilities which exist in Dapoli. His Excellency Sir George Clarke, Governor of Bombay, and his late lamented daughter, Miss Clarke, were warmly eulogised for the interest taken by them in the depressed classes. A committee was formed to collect donations and subscriptions and to arrange the necessary details in connection with that work.

Attempts were made to enlist the sympathy and co-operation of the prominent residents of the Taluka and appeals for help have been responded to not only by the more intelligent and well-to-do members of the depressed classes but also by leading members of other communities. Some members of the committee personally waited on.

Mr. Gibb, Commissioner, Southern Dn.
„ Maconochie, the then Collector of Ratnagiri.
„ Khareghat,    District Judge                „
„ Phadnis,        „    „            „
„ Dixit,            Asst. Collector                „
„ Divatia,        „    „            „
„ Garrett        „    „            „
Captain Irani, Civil Surgeon                  „

and explained to them the aims and objects of the Society and succeeded in securing their aid in a tangible form. Mr. G. C. Whitworth, I. C. S., formerly a Judge of this District, was pleased to send us a cheque for Rs. 30 from England, unsolicited. Miss F. Chistell gave some donation to this Society. Further, I am very happy to note that Rao Saheb V. H. Barve, the leading Banker and Inamdar of this place has promised this Society Rs. 150 in 5 annual instalments of Rs. 30 each. Our best thanks are due to such kind-hearted gentlemen for their sympathy and support.

Students — This year two boys were sent to the High School. They have passed their first standard examination and have been transferred to the 2nd standard.

The Society looks to the wants of these and other students and provides them with scholarships, clothing, books, stationery, soap, and in fact, everything that is necessary for a student.

Particular attention is paid to their cleanliness and the pupils are provided with soap every Saturday. They wash their clothes on Sunday and present themselves in a neat, tidy dress on Monday. The necessity of a daily bath is also pointed out to them with success.

The number of students is as below :—

English 5th      Standard    1
    „      2nd             "        3
Marathi 5th             "        2
   „       4th             "        3

Marathi 3rd              Standard    1
   „       2nd                      ”        8
   „       1st                       „        6
   „       Infant Class                    6

30 boys and 5 girls. Total 35.*  One boy is in the Technical School.


* (Including 2 at Vakavli)


I am glad to say that one boy has passed in the 3rd grade and 4 boys in the 1st grade Drawing Examination.

By way of encouragement to the School-going children of these classes, it has been decided to award prizes to them on the day on which the annual meeting is held.

Local Facilities

With regard to the education of these classes this place enjoys some special advantages that are denied to other localities. The first and foremost of them is that this place possesses a Mission High School of a long standing under European Management. The Principal of the Institution, the Rev. Mr. Gadney, admits these boys without any charge and shows a keen interest in their education and welfare. As already mentioned above, these boys are also admitted into the Marathi Schools free of tution fees. There are two Technical Schools in the Taluka, one at this place and the other at Vakavli — a village some 5 miles off.  They owe their existence to the late Dr. Vishram Ramji Ghole’s splendid beneficence and provide instruction in Drawing and Carpentry free of charge. The Committee has decided to help 4 boys studying in the School at Vakavli. The Rev. Mr. Gadney has also made similar provision for girls of these classes in his Girls' School. A few scholarships have, as mentioned above, also been reserved at the Vernacular and Technical Schools solely for the boys of these classes. In short, unlike other places, which have to maintain a separate school for low castes, with a separate building and staff of teachers, this place provides every facility for the education of these low caste boys. But the resources of the society at present are limited and unless the public make sympathetic response to our appeals, we can never hope to make provision for a considerable number of boys who are anxious to join the schools.


I am glad to note that Dr. Nair of Messrs. N. Powell & Co. has been giving a monthly scholarship to a boy studying in the English 5th Standard, and Mr. S. P. Khopkar, in memory of his grand-father, the late Pensioner, S. M. Khopkar, gives 2 Scholarships to the first two boys studying in the English school. Our sincere thanks are due to all these gentlemen for their sympathetic assistance.

The Bombay Depressed Classes Mission sent a number of clothes to our girls with Mr. Sayad Abdul Kadir, as part of the gift from Miss. Krishnabai Thakur of the Swadeshi Vastu Bhandar of Bandra and she deserves our hearty thanks. I must also acknowledge the kindness of the “Rohidas Hitavardhak Mandali” of Bombay in sending a compass box as a reward to one of our students.
Table (To see the statement of Income and Expenditure click here)

6. INDORE                            Opened 24th April 1910

One day-school has been conducted for 15 months and a night class for about 4 months since the submission of the last report. The average attendance of pupils during that period was 6.

Meetings of the Managing Committee were twice called but the members could not meet. Out of six members only three are present in Indore and even they could not meet together. Once, when I wanted the opinions of the members on a proposal, I had to circulate it and could obtain the opinions of only two members.

Some of the donors and subscribers have not paid up till now though they were reminded many times.

Those Chamar boys who attended the Day School for a time were, on reaching the age of about 10 years, withdrawn from school by their parents who got them employed for 3 or 4 Rs. a month. This way the number of boys decreased gradually.

Then we tried to secure an increased attendance by paying something monthly to the boys who studied well and also to those who induced other boys to join the school. But this did not continue long, as the boys not being satisfied with what we paid, left in search of other employment. This is all due to the parents not caring for the education of their children.

Anyhow the school was conducted as long as money could get collected, enough to pay the teachers and other expenses. When funds ran short, Mr. K. S. Kelkar left teaching in the school. Only two boys who liked to study (one studied the 4th Marathi Standard and 1 st English Reader and the other 3rd Marathi Standard and English Primer) continued their studies privately under Mr. K. S. Kelkar for sometime and then under Mr. R. K. Nagarkar and now there being plague in the city, they have gone out.

One of these Chamar boys is desirous of going to Bombay to learn but his brother is not willing to send him and wants to engage him in the Chamar work.

Following is the list of Donors and Subscribers with their donations and  subscriptions noted against them from the beginning, i.e., May 1907.
Table 1 (To see the list of Donors and Subscribers click Table 1)

(To see the Statement of Accounts click Table 1)

7. MADRAS                            Opened January 1909

Hon'ble Mr. Justice C. Sankaran Nair, C.I.E. - President
Mr. S. Kasturiranga Aiyengar, B.A., B.L. - Vice-President
Mr. V. Govindan, B.A., F.Z.S. (Lond.) - Secretary
Mr. H. Balkrishna Rao, B.A., B.L. - Treasurer

Mr. V. Radhakrishniah, B.A., B.L.
Mr. S. Somasudaram Pillai, B.A., B.L.
Mr. Ratnavelu Mudaliar, B.A.
Mr. M. A. Jayaram Pillai
Swami Brahmananda
Mr. E. Subbukrishnaiya (Asst. Secretary)

The Bank of Madras

97, Anna Pillai Street, G. T. Madras

Early in January 1909, Mr. V. R. Shinde, B.A., General Secretary of the Depressed Classes Mission Society of India, convened a meeting of gentlemen interested in the work to consider measures to be taken for starting work in this Presidency for elevating the condition of the depressed classes in these parts. As a result a temporary committee with power to add to their number, was formed to establish and manage a centre for work in Madras, on the lines of the Depressed Classes Mission Society of India, which has for its objects the elevation of the Depressed Classes by means of (1) promoting education, (2) providing work, (3) remedying their social disabilities (4) preaching to them the ideals of Religion, Morality, personal character and good citizenship.

Our Work
As a humble beginning a day school was opened in the Vyaserpaudy Paracheri with a qualified teacher but as there was no accommodation available, the school had to be held under the shade of a tamarind tree for several months till a piece of land was leased and a tiled shed constructed thereon, for the purpose at a cost of about Rs. 160. This school has grown beyond all expectations, and has at present on its rolls 55 pupils with two qualified teachers. This school has been recognised by the Education Department as a Grant-in-aid Institution and at the examination held a few months ago the Sub-Assistant Inspector of Schools has expressed his satisfaction with the work done during the period under review. As work was progressing in this locality application was received from the Chucklers of Perambore to open a school in their neighbourhood for the benefit of their children and a day school was accordingly started with a teacher in the Bhajan Covil (temple) belonging to these people at Perambore. This school has also been recognised for Grant-in-aid and has a strength of 25 pupils. Later on, as it was found that there was a large number of youths in these two localities, who being day labourers were not able to attend the day schools and as they were very desirous of learning to read and write English and Vernacular, two Night Schools were also opened for their benefit which have a strength of about 50 pupils at present.

In addition to the paid staff of teachers attached to the four schools, the Committee have secured the services of two special workers who visit the different localities inhabited by the Depressed Classes in and about the city and speak to them on various topics connected with their improvement, foremost of which being the subject of temperance and cleanliness. The Committee think that a good deal of their depressed condition is due to their intemperate habits and all outside efforts will prove futile unless the drink habit is eradicated from them. A large number of these people in these two localities earn decent wages but owing to their intemperate habits they are hopelessly indebted to the money-lenders, who advance them money at exhorbitant rates of interest. The committee however hope that with persistent preaching it is possible to create, gradually a little sense of self-respect in them, and with this view meetings for the elders are held on Sundays and other holidays at which the workers and sympathisers interested in these people speak to them on subjects such as the evils of drink, the importance of cleanliness, the value of co-operation, the education of their children and allied subjects.

Our schools were visited during the period under review by several leading Hindu gentlemen amongst them being, Babus Hem Chandra Sircar, M.A., and Sudhir Chandra Banerji of Calcutta, and Mr. K. N. Dewal of Rangoon, who very kindly collected a decent sum of money for our work from Burma. A number of students of the local colleges also visited these localities in company of the workers and from time to time gave treats to these school children.

Moffussil Visits
In addition to the work carried on in Madras our Workers visited Trichinopoly, Madura, Tinnevelly, Salem, Kurnul, Guntur, Masulipatam and Cowtharam for enlisting the sympathy of the public in those places.

Other Means Adopted
The Committee have also published several tracts, popularising the movement and opened a Reading Room at Perambore which has been supplied with newspapers and other publications by several gentlemen and publishers of the vernacular literature, to all of whom the Committee would express their thanks. A few public meetings were also held under the auspices of the Society in connection with their work.

The Committee started work without any funds in their hands but they are glad to state that their appeal was readily responded to by the generous public in and out of Madras, donations having been sent even from distant places like Rangoon and Insein. They are greatly indebted to all who have thus readily helped them and among others the Committee cannot but mention the names of Mr. S. Ratnavelu Chetty, Dubash, Messrs. Best and Co., who had promised Rs. 1,000, out of which he had already paid Rs. 500 towards the formation of a permanent fund, and Messrs. V. Radhakrishnaiya and M. Venkatasubba Rao who have been contributing a monthly subscription of Rs. 10, since the very beginning of our work, which liberal support went a good deal to overcome the initial difficulties which are incidental to such new efforts. The total receipts during the period amounted to Rs. 1860-1-4, and the disbursements to Rs. 1,194-1-5, leaving a balance of Rs. 665-15-11, out of which Rs. 600 has been placed in fixed deposit with the Bankers.

After carrying on the work for over one year the Committee have come to the conclusion that nothing but a thoroughly organised society could cope with the magnitude of the work for which there is such a vast field in this Province, where the condition of the Depressed Classes is much worse than elsewhere in India. With this view the Committee have framed rules for giving a constitution to the Society and have thrown open the Membership to all who are interested in the well-being of these poor classes of our fellow-beings who form nearly a fifth of the total population of India.

Considering the vastness of the work to be done in this direction and the limited resources at their disposal the Committee cannot hope to attain any appreciable degree of success without the hearty co­operation of the public, who, they have no doubt, will fully sympathise with their efforts and that their appeal will not be in vain for pecuniary and other help which will be extended to them by those who have any idea of the work they are doing, and who are in a position to render the same.

Statement of Accounts of the Depressed Classes Mission Society, Madras, from the 19th February 1909 to the end of 30th November 1910
Table (To see the Statement click here)

Table (To See the  List of Donors and Subscribers click here)
8. MAHABLESHWAR                 Opened November 1910

Mr. V. R. Shinde during his visit to this station in May 1909 organized a Drawing Room Meeting at the Government House under the auspices of Lady Muir Mackenzie. Among those present were the Lord Bishop of Bombay, the Chiefs of Miraj and Aundh, Dr. Mackichan, Dr. Abbot, Mr. Damodardas Gowardhandas, Mr. H. A. Wadia, Major Jameson, the Superintendent of the Station, presided over the meeting. A branch of the Depressed Classes Mission was started with Mrs. C. E. Jameson as the Hon. Secretary and Treasurer. A fund which had been previously collected, about Rs. 900, for a similar purpose, was handed over to the Local Committee. About the end of the year, Mrs. Jameson published in the Times of India of December 22, 1909, a report of the work. It was as under :—

"Sir, — I should like, through the medium of your paper, to bring to the notice of the subscribers of the above Branch, the work that has been successfully started here at Mahableshwar. An Industrial School for the very poor men, women and children living on the hill was opened in the middle of November. There are altogether forty seven workers, a far greater number than was anticipated. Three teachers have been kindly sent to us from the American Mission at Sirur, and they are teaching tape weaving and rope making, both very simple industries, but this is necessary owing to the age of the people, the majority of them being too old and maimed for other work. These people seem very grateful to be able to earn a small livelihood, and I wish to thank again all those who have subscribed to the fund. I am sorry to have to say that the amount collected is in no way sufficient to carry on the work of such a large school. There are a great many expenses connected with the starting of a work of this kind, and I had hoped some of those who are so interested in it would have presented the school with the looms and other necessaries."

"Mr. Damodar Gowardhandas gave a handsome present of cotton yarn and hemp. Being so far from the railway, the cartage of material alone is expensive. Visitors to this hill complain greatly of the beggars and are desirous for work to be provided for them. I am very sanguine that the work which has been so successfully begun will eventually succeed in not only removing the begging nuisance, but establish a useful industry for the old and decrepit of these hills. For the first year at least it must necessarily be an expense with very little profit financially, and I trust that many of those who visit Mahableshwar will help to carry on the work by subscribing to it. Any subscriptions will be gratefully received and acknowledged by the Hon. Secretary and Treasurer (Mrs. Jameson).

The following is a list of subscriptions received this year up to date :- The Hon. Mr. Nowrojee Vakil Rs. 200; Mr. H. A. Wadia Rs. 100; Messrs. D. M. and N. M. Goculdas, Rs. 100; Mr. Cassamally J. Peerbhoy, Rs. 51; Mr. Sorabji Dadabhoy Dubash and Mr. Kawasji Dadabhoy Dubash, Rs. 51; The Lady Ali Shah, Rs. 50; Sir Vithaldas Thackersey, Rs. 50; Mr. Dhanjibhoy (Rawal Pindi), Rs. 50; Dr. J. Batliwalla, Rs. 50; Mr. and Mrs. J. Modi, Rs. 30; previously collected in 1905, Rs. 845.

The monthly expenditure at present is Rs. 200 roughly which will soon eat up the small existing capital. Of course the present large expenditure is only temporary until the work has been learnt by some of the local people, and then it is expected that the industry, after say a year, will be nearly self-supporting. Until then, I hope, I shall not appeal in vain to those who are possessed of this world’s riches, to help their fellow creatures to be of some use instead of an annoyance in the world."

Mrs. Jameson further reported in February 1910 :-

“I take in only deserving cases—very old and decrepit men, women, and a few widows and orphans. They all seem happy and grateful. The grown people receive 2 as a day and the girls and boys 1 anna 6 pies. They work from 8 to 11 and 2 to 5.”

Mrs. Jameson reported to the General Secretary in February, 1911, as follows :—

“I am glad to be able to report that the work at the above school is progressing favourably. There are now 34 regular attendants, and except for 8 orphan children, they are all old men and women, for whom the school was originally started. The chief industry is the making of ropes, for which there is a fair sale, and in a short time, I hope to monopolise the local rope trade. Before last rains an aloe plantation was started near Mahableshwar, but it will be another two years before we can use these plants for retracting fibre, and until then the expenses must be heavy.

Mrs. H. A. Wadia has very kindly promised a new building for the school, in memory of Lady Muir Mackenzie. It is hoped that it will be finished before the rains, as the rent of the present house occupied by the school, being Rs. 200 per annum, is too heavy for our small Industrial School."
C. E. Jameson, (Honorary Secretary)

9. MANGALORE                            Opened 1898
The Mission maintains the following Institutions :—
1. The Day School.
2. The Boarding House.
3. The Industrial Institute.
4. A Colony of Panchama Families.

The Day School — The school is one of the Primary Grade teaching up to the Fourth Standard which completes primary education, and is manned by three teachers two of whom are Panchamas. The pupils were divided into 5 classes viz. the Infant, I, II, III and IV. There were 50 boys and 12 girls on the roll in 1909 and 57 boys and 12 girls in 1910. The Sub-Assistant Inspector of Schools who examined the school, recorded the following remarks about the general condition of the school and The progress made by the pupils.

Annual Inspection 4-12-09

"The school is provided with a good building and is well equipped. The staff consists of two teachers one of whom is trained and the other has passed the 4th standard examination. The progress is satisfactory on the whole. More attention may be paid to writing. Kolattum and drill are taught well. In the lower classes seed placing, stick laying and paper folding and clay modelling are taught and some of the pupils of the higher classes take part in weaving. The singing and drawing of the boys are particularly satisfactory, all the pupils without any exception being Panchamas. The geography of the locality may be introduced in the 3rd and 4th classes under general knowledge and some games also in lower classes. Story telling and dramatising may be done in all the classes in future as explained now. The general condition of the school is very satisfactory and reflects much credit upon the management. I would recommend 25 p. c. more in the grant.”
(Sub-Assistant Inspector of Schools)

Annual Inspection 3-12-10

“The accommodation and equipment of the school are sufficient. The teaching is on the whole satisfactory. Singing, occupations viz. clay modelling, paper cutting, seed placing and weaving and physical exercises such as native gymnastics may be pronounced to be good - Arithmetic, however, requires more attention in the 3rd and 4th classes. Considering that the school is attended by Panchamas only, I may say that very useful work is done here to elevate this backward and down­trodden class. The grant according to the scale comes to Rs. 110-10; but the manager who spends a lot of money upon the school and some of his energy in improving this community deserves something more.”
(Sd.) N. KRISHNA RAO (Sub-Assistant Inspector of Schools)

All pupils receive free education and are supplied also with books, stationery, dress and umbrellas. As the parents are extremely poor and the children come from different directions and from distant places, a mid-day meal is provided to the children in the school. Training in weaving, gardening and other manual labour is also given to the pupils. Moral and religious instruction of an undenominational character is given to the pupils by three gentlemen who do the work out of love for it. Exercises in singing and drill and lessons in hygiene are given by the class teachers themselves.

The Panchamas of this district who are a most degraded people bear very ugly names such as Pig, Cat, Rat, Thorny Fish, Flat Fish, Wild Dog, Barking Dog, Earth Worm, Centipode, &c. About 13 years ago, some time after our school was started in a Village near Mangalore, a change was introduced in the names of the Panchama children by giving them better names when they were admitted into our school. This reform seems to have had good effect on the community.

Our Daily Rice Fund — This fund was started by Mr. V. R. Shinde, B. A., General Secretary of the Depressed Classes Mission Society of India, at the time of his first visit to this station in 1907. 70 families — Hindu, Mahomedan and Christian were supplied with bags in which doles of rice were put by the ladies of the house twice a day. 19 young men undertook to visit these families once a week on Sundays to collect the rice and take it to the depot of the Mission. The number of bag-holding families as well as that of the rice collecting friends has since decreased. Four young men continue to do the work of collection as a pious duty. The total rice collected was 77 mooras and 13 seers. Over and above this quantity of rice, a cash expenditure of Rs. 367-2-5 was incurred for giving meals to the school children and the boarders.

The total cash expenditure incurred on account of the school and the boarders was Rs. 862-6-9 out of which Rs. 90 only was a grant from the Municipal Funds for the year 1909. The Grant for the year 1910 is expected to be paid to us in the course of the next month.  The aforesaid expenditure does not include the value of the rice collected from bag-holding families and other presents in kind as well as occasional dinners given by donors.

The Boarding House — This is an institution intended for grown up Panchama youths. The boarders live permanently in the school premises and are not allowed to go home without permission. They are forbidden liquor and smoking. Special attention is paid to give them training in habits of cleanliness and good manners. Moral and spiritual instruction is also given to them. This institution is maintained in the hope that these youths when discharged from it and permitted to return home might exercise a leavening influence amidst their community. We are glad to state that our experiment has been a success. The maximum number of youths admitted at one time is 8. Seventeen youths were admitted in the course of last two years of whom 9 were discharged. These youths work in the Industrial Department during their spare hours and serve as watchmen at night, in the premises.

The Industrial Institute — Weaving formed the main industry in the institute during the last two years. It is under the supervision of an expert Christian weaver. Out of 6 looms (fly shuttle), five are worked by Panchama youths who do gardening and other manual labour also. The Mysore Exhibition granted us Merit Certificates for our checks and bedsheets and the Secretary of the Lahore Exhibition informed us that a Merit Certificate for our stripped cloth has been granted to us. The total income was Rs. 3141-11-7 and expenditure Rs. 3579-4-6 respectively. At the end of the year 1909 there was cloth of the value of Rs. 1495-6-5 in stock. The cloth in stock at the end of 1910 has yet to be examined by the auditor.

Owing to the competition of the power looms of Manchester and Italy, there is not enough of encouragement to this industry. We could not therefore increase the number of looms. The six looms are maintained for the benefit of the Panchamas specially and the cloth is sold to them for cost price. Other industries will be started in due course as funds become available.

Eri Silk Culture—An Experiment was made in December last in Eri silk culture. A friend supplied us with some Eri silk worms got from the Government Agricultural Research Institute of Pusa. The experiment has been successful. The climate of this district seems to be suited for rearing the silk worms of this species and the castor plants the leaves of which are food for these insects which grow abundantly here. An advertisement has been set up in the local vernacular papers to popularise this industry and make it a cottage industry in this district if possible. The worms and the cocoons are kept in the premises of the institute for exhibition.

The Panchama Colony—The Panchamas of this district are, as class, day labourers living on other people's land in scattered miserable squat huts called Kels. They do not live as a compact body as their brethren do in Paracheries on the East Coast. Our Panchamas are an extremely miserable people who have become slaves to the passion of toddy drinking. Any slight attempt on their part to improve such as the wearing of a clean cloth or the holding of a cloth umbrella is construed by the other classes as impudence and invites bodily injury. The work of amelioration of these classes in our district has thus become very hard. Our fourteen years' experience has brought home to our minds that mere elementary education and even training in industries cannot go a great way to improve the condition of these people. We therefore divised the Colony scheme as the best means of improving their condition.

We have come to possess 26 acres of land which we are going to parcel out among the Panchama families on Mulageni  which is a kind of permanent tenure obtaining in this district whereby the tenant acquires a perpetual and hereditary right in the land that cannot be defeated by the land-lord at his will and pleasure. This scheme is calculated to bring together a large number of houseless Panchamas and to give them the strength of union and a consciousness that they have property of their own to love. It might also render easier our work of giving them education and training them in habits of economy, temperance and cleanliness or otherwise ameliorating their condition. The rent payable by these occupants will be a source of income to the Mission and will therefore go to benefit themselves. We have to build 60 homesteads and 15 wells, a school and a hospital, and a Home for the blind, the crippled and the infirm, who on account of their untouchability and extreme poverty are quite helpless and cannot freely resort to the philanthropic institutions started by the higher classes or by the Government.

 A generous hearted gentleman of the Bombay Presidency, on coming to know of our scheme made an anonimous grant of Rs.600, which gift came to us as a godsend. We purchased 7 1/2 acres of waste ground for Rs. 1,000 and the Government at the recommendation of our Collector, was pleased to give us about 18 acreas of land for the Purpose. The Collector also assigned 100 palmayra trees as charity on behalf of the Government. The District Board sanctioned a pucca well to be built at their cost for the use of the occupants. 26 houseless families have already come forward to occupy the land and 18 of them executed leases, 4 wells have been already completed. The scheme would have made progress had not the storm of May 1909 which was a general calamity on this coast, demolished three houses, blocked up one well and damaged the building of the school and the Industrial Institute.

The land has been at present divided into 6 blocks. It is proposed to dedicate one of them to Mrs. Annie Besant whose remarkable public utterances here on the importance of our humble work, during her visit to our institution importance early in 1909 and the testimony she bore our it in the Theosophist of February 1909 gave an impetus to the cause of the depressed. Another block will be dedicated to Khan Bahadur M. Azizuddin Saheb, our former Collector whose sympathy for our work brought us amongst other benefits, a benevolent gift of land by the Government. One of the biggest wells will be dedicated to Rao Saheb N. Sadashiva Pillay of Port Blair whose active sympathy with our depressed fellow beings popularised our movement in the Andamans and brought us large money help. Enormous money is required to push on the colony work and we confidently hope that it will come to us.

The total expenditure incurred on account of this scheme in the course of the last two years is Rs. 898-10-0.

The total income of the Mission during the said period from all sources is Rs. 5,314-15-6 and the expenditure Rs. 5,280-5-3.

Our accounts are being audited now. Fuller particulars of the working of the Mission as well as the list of donation received by us, will appear in our report which we hope to be able to issue shortly.

Dr. L. P. Fernandes of St. Mary's Pharmacy, Mangalore, not only gave us pecuniary help but also medicine to our children and staff, and paid them visits free of charge. The Committee is deeply grateful to him and other friends of the Mission.
Court Hill, Mangalore,    
6th February 1911

10. MANMAD                        Opened 11th May 1907

Pupils — There is now at this centre a Day School with about 30 pupils — the daily average attendance being 20, and a Night School with 12 working youths, the daily average attendance being 5. There are two teachers for the Day School and one for the Night School. On every Sunday morning the boys meet for Bhajan and the Sunday Class.

The School Hut — A plot of ground 130 ft. by 100 ft. on the bank of the river was rented from Sardar Balasaheb Vinchurkar, who is the President of this centre, and a karvi  hut was erected in 1909, sufficiently large to accommodate 30 pupils, with a tiled roof. A well has been sunk in the north-eastern corner of this plot which has now fresh water. All this was done with the help of the school children out of their school hours.

Temperance and Cleanliness — The work of the Temperance League is going on well and the teachers continue as before to take all their pupils on every Wednesday and Sunday to the local river where the latter bathe, wash and swim.

Visits and Inspection — The Deputy Edl. Inspector of the District and also the Deputy Collector, R. S. Khopkar, visited this school last year and have recorded their satisfaction. Mr. V. R. Shinde, the General Secretary, visited this centre twice and sent Mr. L. Aidale who worked at this centre for more than a month, and Mr. G. A. Gawai who worked in this District of Nasik for about 6 months. I had to be absent in Belgaum nearly the whole of the last year and could leave behind no one to look after the work. But for the above help from the Head Quarters in Bombay, this centre would have been closed. I am very thankful for this help.

The Anniversary — The Third Anniversary of this centre was celebrated in May 1910, for three days, with great enthusiasm. A Pendal was erected for the purpose and was decorated with pictures and foliage. Every day Bhajan in the morning was followed by refreshments, games and amusements. Mr. Gawai, agent of the D. C. M. took part in these celebrations.

Table 1 (To see the statement click here)

11. SATARA                           Opened 1904
I have the honour to submit the following report giving a short history of the movement in Satara for the elevation of the depressed classes during the last decade and a brief account of the work done during the last two years. In the year 1898 certain Mahar military pensioners used to attend the weekly meetings held for divine service by the Satara Prarthana Samaj and their number was about 20. Gradually other Mahar brethren joined the Samaj. These latter were quite illiterate and it was therefore thought desirable to start a small institution and provide for the spread of primary education among them. This was accordingly done in 1902 and a small school was started and maintained by private subscriptions. Sometime after, through the efforts of Mr. R. R. Kale, Vice- President and Chairman of the School Committee of the Satara Municipality that body was induced to take charge of the school in the year 1904. From that year the municipality has maintained a Day School for the Depressed Classes. Most of the boys are Mahars and Mangs and the following figures will show the progress made by that school:—
Year     No. of boys   Year    No. of boys
1904       28                1908      41
1905       41                1909      51
1906       35                1910      57
1907       42
After the Day School was taken over by the Municipality a Night School was started for the grown up working class members of the Depressed Classes who could not attend the day-school owing to their being engaged in their daily occupations. The school was managed by the Satara Prarthana Samaj and Mr. S. Y. Javere, the Secretary of the Samaj succeeded in securing for it a Grant-in-aid four years ago. This school is maintained by private subscriptions and a Government grant. It must be noted here that the subscribers are very few including one or two Europeans. The progress of this night-school can be gathered from the following figures. Most of the boys are Mahars and Mangs.
Year    No. of boys    Year    No. of boys
1905        09              1908            18
1906        13              1909            21
1907        15              1910            27
This night-school was started under the auspices of the Local Prarthana Samaj and is called the Satara Prarthana Samaj Night-School. After the retirement of Mr. Javere who was the life and soul of this institution the school is managed by Mr. R. R. Kale who has all along taken an active and sympathetic interest in the institution and in the cause of the reform of the depressed classes generally. Last year and this year meetings were held in the Local Arthur Hall simultaneously with the meetings in Bombay, posters being published all over the town. They were fairly well attended all sitting together without any distinction of the untouchables, the last meeting being addressed in particular by Mr. G. K. Devadhar of the Servants of the India Society. In April 1910 a large gathering of the boys was assembled in the Arthur Hall when Mr. C. E. Palmer gave away books and clothes to the boys in the presence of a respectable audience. In November 1909 His Excellency the Governor was kind enough to visit the school when he expressed himself satisfied with the progress of the institution and was graciously pleased to give a handsome donation of Rs. 200 to be applied towards the distribution of clothes and books to the boys. In April 1910 the Hon. Mr. Morrison who was then Commissioner of the Central Division was kind enough to pay a visit to the school and he gave a liberal donation of Rs. 30. Mr. G. C. Whitworth, formerly Sessions Judge, Satara, who is now in England has also sent a cheque for Rs. 50.

In May last Mr. Naik of Bombay came here with a view to have these schools affiliated to the D.C.M. Society of India when he gave a discourse to the boys of the two schools and Mr. R. R. Kale distributed sweetmeats to the boys in connection with the Thread Ceremony of his son.

The most noteworthy event during the past year was an educational conference planned and arranged by members of the low caste community themselves. This meeting was held on the 16th January 1911, the death anniversary of
Mr. Justice Ranade and was presided over by Mr. R. R. Kale, Government Pleader. That the low caste community has begun to understand the value of self-reliance and self- help is clear from the fact that donations to the extent of Rs. 25 and monthly subscriptions of Rs. 6-6 were subscribed by the members of the community, on the spot. This meeting was addressed by Rao Bahadur Pathak, Mr. Ghanekar, pleader and Mr. Devadhar of the local N. E. School and three representatives of the low caste community viz. Mr. Shripati Chandati, Mr. Dhor Master and Mr. Krishnaji Hari of Karhad. The business of the conference came to a close by the appointment of a committee of ten representatives of the low caste community with a helpers committee from the high caste community to discuss and arrange the programme of the work of the conference and by the closing speech of the Chairman.

Another move in the direction of improving the condition of the depressed classes is the formation of a Co-operative Bank of the local sweepers on the 28th of September 1909 mainly by the praise worthy efforts of Mr. V. G. Chirmule, Pleader, the Chairman of the Local Municipality assisted by Mr. Kale, Dossabhoy Manekji and others. The Bhangees were in debt over head and shoulder so much so that every month ¾ of their pay nearly went to satisfy their creditors. These were no other than the Pathan Sowkars who charge very exorbitant interest
and who used to be present at pay time in the Municipal Office and seize the money as soon as it fell, into the hands of the Bhangees. This had reduced the Bhangees to beggary and hence it was that a few individuals came forward to advance money to settle their debts with the Pathan creditors and after the Society was formed they were able to pay off the debts of about 20 members of the Society amounting to more than Rs. 500 and they have today a balance of upwards of Rs. 200 in their Bank. The bank is managed by a Committee of sweepers themselves with an advisary board and their condition is gradually being improved, one notable feature of the improvement being the abstinence Irom intoxicating liquors among a large majority of the sweeper community of Satara.
Such in brief is the nature of the work that is being done in Satara and it is hoped that the work will spread in course of times when funds are collected.
(Hon. Secretary)

12. THANA    Opened 17th October 1909

Report of the Branch of the Depressed Classes Mission Society at Thana, from its establishment up to the end of December 1910

The Branch of the Depressed Classes Mission Society was opened with the object of improving the Moral and Social status of the low-castes living in the town of Thana.

An inaugural meeting was held on the 17th Oct. 1909 in the Maidan opposite to the District Court, Thana.

The meeting was graced by some of the leading Prabhu gentlemen, when all the classes mingled freely with each other. About 200 men from the low caste community were present on the occasion. The object of the Mission was explained to the low caste community by Mr. Padhye, B.A., LL. B., as to the advantage of education placed at their disposal by the local Municipality.

Among other speakers were Messrs. B. H. Shringarpure, Sule, Sindhkar, R. B. Gupte and Deshmukh.

To carry out the work of improving the condition of the Depressed Masses, the following Committee was appointed

Mr. P. V. Gupte, Retired Judge of the Small Causes Court, Poona.

Secretaries and Treasurer
Mr. R. B. Gupte, B.A., LLB.
Mr. K. A. Padhye, B.A., LL.B.
Mr. Suntoji Ramji Lad, Secretary and Teasurer

Mr. B. H. Shringarpure, B.A., LL.B.
Mr. R. A. Sule
Mr. Munshi Fazal Ali
Subhedar Janojee Bhagoji Dewalker Subhedar
Mr. Luxumanjee Havildar Balaram Dewalker

As there is a separate Low Caste School established by the Municipality in the town, the Working Committee decided in the first instance to visit the School. In 1909 the School was visited by the Mission Committee members 4 times. On the 1st visit to the School they found 8 boys on the Muster Roll, while only 3 were present in the School. The Committee on its first visit to the School found the teacher greatly unwilling to mix with his pupils on account of religious scruples. This matter was represented to the Municipal School Board Committee, who had to change two teachers. The last teacher was found to be willing, who took interest in his pupils’ education. The School teaches 3 Vernacular Standards in 1909 twice sweetmeats were distributed to the pupils and once clothing. Several times at leisure the members of the Committee visited the low caste locality and pursuaded the parents to send their children to School. Since then the attendance and number of pupils have been improving.

In December 1909, a letter was addressed to the Government for improving the condition of the low castes. Copy of the letter with its reply from the Government is hereto appended.
Statement of Income and Expenditure for 1909
Table  (For see the PDF click here)

The School was visited 8 times by the Committee members during the year.

The number of pupils has increased from 8 to 32 during this year; in this number there are six girls attending the school.

The Municipality has been awarding scholarships from the month of July 1910 to the pupils attending the School regularly 15 days in a month at the following rates

3rd Standard pupils 4 annas a month.
2nd    do    3    do
1st     do    2    do

The Working Committee has sent in proposals to the Municipality for opening a Night School for labourers who cannot avail themselves to attend the School during the day; also permission has been asked by the Working Committee to impart moral instruction to the pupils in the School
building during recess hours.

During the year under report clothing was distributed to the pupils and also sweets were distributed.

The Working Committee has sent in through the Collector of Thana a letter of condolence to be forwarded to Mrs. Jackson in her sad bereavement, as the late Mr. Jackson was the President of the Depressed Classes Mission Society at Nasik.

The sudden death of the late King Emperor Edward VII the Peace Maker was a blow to the whole civilized world and the Committee of the Mission paid their humble tribute to the memory of His Majesty in another letter to Government

Statement of Receipts and Expenditure for 1910
Table  (To see the Statement of Receipts and Expenditure click here)
A meeting was convened by the Working Committee of the Mission on the 27th November 1910, in the Kreedabhuwan under the Presidentship of Mr. C. E. Palmer, I C. S., District Judge, who distributed prizes to the students in the shape of clothes, books and sweetmeats. In his presidential address, Mr. Palmer exhorted the Mission to see that even physical education of the students was not being neglected, and instanced the case of Satara, where the Mission Centre was doing useful work.

(Secretary and Treasure)
Bombay Road, Thana,
7th February 1911.
The Associated Body
13. KOLHAPUR         Open 14th February 1908

The Society for the Promotion of Education among the Depressed Classes, Kolhapur

Rao Bahadur Raghunath Venkaji Subnis (President)
Rao Saheb Bhaskarrao Jadhav (Chairman)
Prof. Mahadeo G. Dongre, B. Sc., L. C. E.
Prof. Annappa B. Latthe, M. A.
Mr. Yusuff Abdul Shekh. B. A.
Mr. Datto Damodar Sontakke, B. A., LL.B.
Mr. Yeshawant K. Dilwar.
Mr. Virbasav S. Shresti, B. A.
Mr. Anant Balkrishna Oalkar, B. A. (Secretary)
Mr. Ganpat Krishanji Kadam, Vakil (Secretary)
Mr. Vinayak Sadashiv Tengshe, M. D. (Auditor)

A meeting of the sympathisers of the Depressed Classes was held in the Jain Boarding House at Kolhapur on the 9th February 1908 in which it was resolved to start a Society of the above name. The 1st General Meeting of this Society met on the 14th of February 1908 in which the constitution of the Society was laid down. The number of members which was 57 in 1908 is now more than 75.

Miss Violet Clarke Hostel
In this city there are Hostels for the Maratha, Jain, Lingayat and Mahomedan students; and the Society thought it desirable to open one for the Depressed Classes students, which was badly needed. H. H. Shahu Chhatrapati most graciously granted the free use of a commodious building and a permanent grant of Rs. 25 per month, towards the Maintenance of this hostel which was named after the late Miss Violet Clarke, daughter of His Excellency Sir George Clarke, Governor of Bombay and a great sympathiser of the Depressed Classes. There are at present 15 boarders in this Hostel maintained at the cost of the Society and are all learning English. They attend the local English School and are looked after by a special teacher who coaches them up in a class held in the Hostel.

The Society was represented by. R. S. Bhaskarrao Jadhav, Prof. Dongre, Prof. Latthe and Mr. G. K. Kadam, in the conference held in Bombay in 1909 under the auspices of the D. C. M. Society of India in behalf of the Depressed Classes.

Public Meetings
A public meeting was held in honour of Sir John Muir Mackenzie and Dr. Harold H. Mann on 25th November 1909 and a Prize Distribution was held on the 7th of March 1910 when Major Wodehouse, the Political Agent, presided and gave away prizes to the students of the Society.

Work in the Moffussil
The Committee is glad to note that a new Society called “The Shahu Society for the Elevation of the Depressed Classes” has been started at Pattankudi in the Petta of Gadinglaza mainly by the efforts of Mr. Tatya Narangouda and Mr. Malhar Narayen Moozumdar. About 20 boys and girls are now attending the local school, with the encouragement afforded by this Society. Prizes were distributed to them by R. B. R. V. Khedkar, F. R. C. S., at a ceremony held on 21st December 1909.

(Hon. Secretary)
Rankal Ves, Kolhapur,cFeb. 1911.